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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(6): 513-522, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is closely associated with the intestinal bacteria composition and their metabolites. AIM: To investigate whether washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) improves symptoms of nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) dependency. METHODS: Patients with recurrent NERD and PPI dependency at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University from 2017 to 2018 were included and divided into a WMT or PPI group treated with PPI with/without WMT. The endpoint was NERD symptom frequency evaluated 1 mo after WMT using reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) and GERD questionnaire (GERDQ) scores, remission time, PPI dose, and the examination of intestinal mucosal barrier function. RESULTS: In the WMT (n = 15) and PPI (n = 12) groups, the total remission rate at 1 mo after treatment was 93.3% vs 41.7%. Compared with the PPI group, the WMT group showed better results in GERDQ (P = 0.004) and RDQ (P = 0.003) and in remission months (8 vs 2, P = 0.002). The PPI dose was reduced to some extent for 80% of patients in the WMT group and 33.3% in the PPI group. In 24 patients, intestinal mucosal barrier function was examined before treatment, and changes in the degree of damage were observed in 13 of these patients after treatment. Only one of the 15 patients had minor side effects, including a mushy stool two or three times a day, which resolved on their own after 1 wk. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that WMT may be safe and effective for relieving NERD symptoms and reducing PPI dependency and recurrence.

2.
Neural Netw ; 138: 1-9, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610091

RESUMO

This paper proposes a proximal neurodynamic model (PNDM) for solving inverse mixed variational inequalities (IMVIs) based on the proximal operator. It is shown that the PNDM has a unique continuous solution under the condition of Lipschitz continuity (L-continuity). It is also shown that the equilibrium point of the proposed PNDM is asymptotically stable or exponentially stable under some mild conditions. Finally, three numerical examples are presented to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed PNDM.

3.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476520

RESUMO

Energy transport dynamics in different nanostructures are crucial to both a fundamental understanding of and practical applications for heat management at the nanoscale. It has been reported that thermal conductivity may be severely impacted by stacking disorder in layered materials. Here, using ultrafast electron diffraction in the reflection geometry for direct probing of structural dynamics, we report a fundamental behavioral difference due to stacking order in an entirely different system-solid-supported methanol assemblies whose layered structures may resemble those of two-dimensional (2D) and van der Waals (vdW) solids but with much weaker in-plane hydrogen bonds. Thermal diffusion is found to be the transport mechanism across 2D-layered films without a cross-plane stacking order. In stark contrast, much faster ballistic energy transport is observed in 3D-ordered crystalline solids. The major change in such dynamical behavior may be associated with the efficiency of vibrational coupling between vdW-interacted methanol layers, which demonstrates a strong structure-property relation.

4.
Virology ; 555: 1-9, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418337

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed ten CVA10 strains were genotyped and cultured for 10 generations to detect plaque morphology, pathogenicity, growth and other characteristics. Mice were injected with live and inactivated virus to detect neutralizing antibody titers. The results suggested that all CVA10 strains fell into Genotype C. Each strain cultured on KMB17 and Vero cells, increased from 1st generation onwards to peak in the 3rd and 4th, and the titer at which each became infectious ranged from 5.0 to 6.5 and 6.0 to 7.0 lgCCID50/ml, respectively. Two-day-old BALB/c mice were selected and inoculated intracerebral with the CVA10 strains, Limb paralysis was significant as early as 3 d; paralysis of all limbs for 50% of affected mice. LT50 was approximately 6 d, all died within 8 d. Ten strains induced good immune response, the GMT value of booster immunizations was higher than that of initial immunization. This provide reference points for selecting CVA10 vaccine candidates.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111023, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378941

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to play increasingly important roles in tumorigenesis, and they may serve as novel biomarkers for cancer therapy. LncRNA NBR2 (neighbor of BRCA1 gene 2), a novel identified lncRNA, is demonstrated to decrease in several cancers. However, it is still unknown whether lncRNA NBR2 is involved in hepatocellular carcinoma and autophagy. We found that HCC cases with lower NBR2 expression had significantly worse overall survival than those with higher NBR2 expression in advanced patients. And the expression of NBR2 was negatively correlated with the degree of malignancy of HCC cell lines and differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Besides, NBR2 inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and migration of liver cancer cells. We further found that NBR2 repressed cytoprotective autophagy to restrain HCC cell proliferation. Moreover, NBR2 inhibited Beclin 1-dependent autophagy through ERK and JNK pathways. Taken together, NBR2 suppressed autophagy-induced cell proliferation at least partly through ERK and JNK pathways. These data indicated that NBR2 served as a tumor suppressor gene in hepatocellular carcinoma. The current study provides a novel insight and treatment strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais
6.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is a rare and aggressive tumor. This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of CCSK patients in one of the largest pediatric medical centers in China. METHODS: We included all patients diagnosed with CCSK between January 2008 and March 2019 at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China. The patients' demographics, clinical presentation, and management were reviewed. Follow-up was continued until December 2019. RESULTS: In total, 41 CCSK patients (66% male) with a median age of 24 months (range 3-108 months) were identified. The stage distributions of stages I, II, III and IV were 42%, 34%, 24% and 0%, respectively. Preoperative chemotherapy was administered to 7/41 patients. All patients underwent radical nephrectomy and postoperative chemotherapy. The median number of lymph nodes sampled was 4 (range 1-12). Radiotherapy was applied in 8/41 patients. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 63.9% and 78.8%, respectively. Of the 41 patients, 11 patients experienced relapse at a median time of 19 months (range 5-72 months). The most common site of recurrence was the tumor bed (9/11). Young age was a significant adverse prognostic factor for EFS. CONCLUSIONS: The overall outcome of CCSK patients in our hospital is poorer than that in developed regions. More research is needed to clarify the underlying causes of poorer outcomes in young patients and improve outcomes. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: LEVEL IV.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(23)2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297555

RESUMO

This study analyzes the optimal seasonal ambient temperature during welding and welding speed conditions for securing high tensile strength of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) waterproofing sheets bonded for roofing, installed by hot air welded joints (overlaps). Seven separate ambient temperature conditions (-10, -5, and 0 °C for winter conditions, 20 °C for the normal condition, and 25, 30, and 35 °C for summer conditions) were set for the test variable and seven speed conditions (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 m/min) for hot air welding. Based on these conditions, EVA sheet joint specimens were prepared, and the tensile strength of the joint sections was tested and measured. Tensile strength results, compared to normal temperature conditions (20 °C) showed an increase in the summer temperature condition but a decrease during winter temperature conditions. The analysis on the effects of the welding speed showed that in summer temperature conditions (25, 30, and 35 °C), the optimum hot air welding speed is 4.3~9.0 m/min at 25 °C, 4.7~8.7 m/min at 30 °C and 5.2~8.6 m/min at 35 °C, whereas in winter (-10, -5, and 0 °C), the optimum hot air welding temperature is 3~4.1 m/min at -10 °C, 3~4.6 m/min at -5 °C and 3~4.9 m/min at 0 °C. Research results demonstrate that it is imperative to consider the welding speed in accordance to the respective seasonal temperature conditions to secure construction quality of the EVA joints for roofing.

8.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 128: 103500, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278627

RESUMO

The delivery of exogenous nucleic acids to eggs or non-embryonic individuals by microinjection is a vital reverse genetics technique used to determine gene function in mosquitoes. However, DNA delivery to eggs is complex and time-consuming, and conventional, non-embryonic-injection techniques may result in unobvious phenotypes caused by insufficient absorption of nucleic acid fragments by cells at target body parts or tissues. In this study, we developed a set of electroporation-mediated non-embryonic microinjections for the delivery of exogenous nucleic acids in Anopheles sinensis. Gene silencing using this method led to down-regulation of target gene expression (AsCPR128) by 77% in targeted body parts, compared with only 10% in non-targeted body parts, thus increasing the defect-phenotype rate in the target area by 5.3-fold, compared with non-shock injected controls. Electroporation-mediated somatic transgenesis resulted in stable phenotypic characteristics of the reporter gene at the shocked body parts during the pupal-adult stages in about 69% of individuals. Furthermore, injecting plasmid DNA near the ovaries of female mosquitoes after a blood meal followed by electric shock produced three germline G1 transgenic lines, with a transformation rate of about 11.1% (calculated from ovulatory G0 females). Among the positive G1 lines, 42%, 40%, and 31% of individuals emitted red fluorescence in the larval stage. When the red fluorescent larvae developed into adults, green fluorescence was emitted from the ovaries of the females upon feeding. These results suggest that electroporation-mediated non-embryonic microinjection can be an efficient, rapid, and simple technique for analyzing gene function in non-model mosquitoes or other small insects.

9.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(12): e22982, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients' family history (FH) is a critical risk factor associated with numerous diseases. However, FH information is not well captured in the structured database but often documented in clinical narratives. Natural language processing (NLP) is the key technology to extract patients' FH from clinical narratives. In 2019, the National NLP Clinical Challenge (n2c2) organized shared tasks to solicit NLP methods for FH information extraction. OBJECTIVE: This study presents our end-to-end FH extraction system developed during the 2019 n2c2 open shared task as well as the new transformer-based models that we developed after the challenge. We seek to develop a machine learning-based solution for FH information extraction without task-specific rules created by hand. METHODS: We developed deep learning-based systems for FH concept extraction and relation identification. We explored deep learning models including long short-term memory-conditional random fields and bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) as well as developed ensemble models using a majority voting strategy. To further optimize performance, we systematically compared 3 different strategies to use BERT output representations for relation identification. RESULTS: Our system was among the top-ranked systems (3 out of 21) in the challenge. Our best system achieved micro-averaged F1 scores of 0.7944 and 0.6544 for concept extraction and relation identification, respectively. After challenge, we further explored new transformer-based models and improved the performances of both subtasks to 0.8249 and 0.6775, respectively. For relation identification, our system achieved a performance comparable to the best system (0.6810) reported in the challenge. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing deep learning methods to extract FH information from clinical narratives.

10.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(11): e19735, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Semantic textual similarity (STS) is one of the fundamental tasks in natural language processing (NLP). Many shared tasks and corpora for STS have been organized and curated in the general English domain; however, such resources are limited in the biomedical domain. In 2019, the National NLP Clinical Challenges (n2c2) challenge developed a comprehensive clinical STS dataset and organized a community effort to solicit state-of-the-art solutions for clinical STS. OBJECTIVE: This study presents our transformer-based clinical STS models developed during this challenge as well as new models we explored after the challenge. This project is part of the 2019 n2c2/Open Health NLP shared task on clinical STS. METHODS: In this study, we explored 3 transformer-based models for clinical STS: Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), XLNet, and Robustly optimized BERT approach (RoBERTa). We examined transformer models pretrained using both general English text and clinical text. We also explored using a general English STS dataset as a supplementary corpus in addition to the clinical training set developed in this challenge. Furthermore, we investigated various ensemble methods to combine different transformer models. RESULTS: Our best submission based on the XLNet model achieved the third-best performance (Pearson correlation of 0.8864) in this challenge. After the challenge, we further explored other transformer models and improved the performance to 0.9065 using a RoBERTa model, which outperformed the best-performing system developed in this challenge (Pearson correlation of 0.9010). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the efficiency of utilizing transformer-based models to measure semantic similarity for clinical text. Our models can be applied to clinical applications such as clinical text deduplication and summarization.

11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 519, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genus Ligusticum consists of approximately 60 species distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. It is one of the most taxonomically difficult taxa within Apiaceae, largely due to the varied morphological characteristics. To investigate the plastome evolution and phylogenetic relationships of Ligusticum, we determined the complete plastome sequences of eight Ligusticum species using a de novo assembly approach. RESULTS: Through a comprehensive comparative analysis, we found that the eight plastomes were similar in terms of repeat sequence, SSR, codon usage, and RNA editing site. However, compared with the other seven species, L. delavayi exhibited striking differences in genome size, gene number, IR/SC borders, and sequence identity. Most of the genes remained under the purifying selection, whereas four genes showed relaxed selection, namely ccsA, rpoA, ycf1, and ycf2. Non-monophyly of Ligusticum species was inferred from the plastomes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences phylogenetic analyses. CONCLUSION: The plastome tree and ITS tree produced incongruent tree topologies, which may be attributed to the hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. Our study highlighted the advantage of plastome with mass informative sites in resolving phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, combined with the previous studies, we considered that the current taxonomy system of Ligusticum needs to be improved and revised. In summary, our study provides new insights into the plastome evolution, phylogeny, and taxonomy of Ligusticum species.

12.
PhytoKeys ; 164: 11-19, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173401

RESUMO

A new species Tongoloa arguta (Apiaceae) is described and illustrated in this article. The new species grows in alpine bushes and meadows in south-western China. It resembles T. silaifolia, but differs from the latter by the length of the stem, ultimate segments of leaf and rays of the umbel. Phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, is provided, as well as comparative morphology between related species.

13.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182384

RESUMO

Hansenia Turcz., Haplosphaera Hand.-Mazz. and Sinodielsia H.Wolff are three Apiaceae genera endemic to the Hengduan Mountains and the Himalayas, which usually inhabit elevations greater than 2000 m. The phylogenetic relationships between and within the genera were uncertain, especially the placement of Hap. himalayensis and S. microloba. Therefore, we aimed to conduct comparative (simple sequence repeat (SSR) structure, codon usage bias, nucleotide diversity (Pi) and inverted repeat (IR) boundaries) and phylogenetic analyses of Hansenia, Haplosphaera and Sinodielsia (also compared with Chamaesium and Bupleurum) to reduce uncertainties in intergeneric and interspecific relationships. We newly assembled eight plastid genomes from Hansenia, Haplosphaera and Sinodielsia species, and analyzed them with two plastid genomes from GenBank of Hap. phaea,S. yunnanensis. Phylogenetic analyses used these ten genomes and another 22 plastid genome sequences of Apiaceae. We found that the newly assembled eight genomes ranged from 155,435 bp to 157,797 bp in length and all had a typical quadripartite structure. Fifty-five to 75 SSRs were found in Hansenia, Haplosphaera and Sinodielsia species, and the most abundant SSR was mononucleotide, which accounted for 58.47% of Hansenia, 60.21% of Haplosphaera and 48.01% of Sinodielsia. There was no evident divergence of codon usage frequency between the three genera, where codons ranged from 21,134 to 21,254. The Pi analysis showed that trnE(UUC)-trnT(GGU), trnH(GUG)-psbA and trnE(UUC)-trnT(GGU) spacer regions had the highest Pi values in the plastid genomes of Hansenia (0.01889), Haplosphaera (0.04333) and Sinodielsia (0.01222), respectively. The ndhG-ndhI spacer regions were found in all three genera to have higher diversity values (Pi values: 0.01028-0.2), and thus may provide potential DNA barcodes in phylogenetic analysis. IR boundary analysis showed that the length of rps19 and ycf1 genes entering IRs were usually stable in the same genus. Our phylogenetic tree demonstrated that Hap. himalayensis is sister to Han. weberbaueriana; meanwhile, Haplosphaera and Hansenia are nested together in the East Asia clade, and S. microloba is nested within individuals of S. yunnanensis in the Acronema clade. This study will enrich the complete plastid genome dataset of the Apiaceae genera and has provided a new insight into phylogeny reconstruction using complete plastid genomes of Hansenia, Haplosphaera and Sinodielsia.

14.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2020: 8825189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133183

RESUMO

Aim: The fecal microbiota transplantation by washed preparation was recently coined as washed microbiota transplantation (WMT). This pilot study is aimed at exploring the feasibility and efficacy of WMT on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Methods: Consecutive patients who had been treated with WMT for various indications and who were positive for H. pylori infection before WMT treatment but had never received eradication therapy for H. pylori infection were invited to take a follow-up 13C-urea breath test. The associations of demographic, clinical factors, and laboratory indicators for gastric function and intestinal barrier function with the therapeutic effect were determined. Results: A total of 32 eligible patients were included, and the overall H. pylori eradication rate was 40.6% (13/32). Patients with H. pylori eradication had a higher pepsinogen ratio (PGR) than those without (13.00 ± 6.97vs.8.31 ± 3.733; P = 0.02). Female patients had a higher, albeit not statistically significant, eradication rate than male patients (53.85% vs. 31.58%; P = 0.208). Compared with lower gastrointestinal tract delivery route, middle gastrointestinal tract delivery route seems to be a more suitable way for the treatment of H. pylori infection (58.33% vs 16.67%; P = 0.152). There was no significant difference in other demographic and clinical factors between patients with and without H. pylori eradication. Conclusion: H. pylori infection is eradicated in a proportion of patients who have received WMT. An increased pre-WMT PGR appears to be associated with the therapeutic effect. Further studies are required to confirm the efficacy of WMT, especially in combination with currently recommended regimens in randomized controlled trials.

15.
Microb Pathog ; : 104660, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253855

RESUMO

The remarkable ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilms renders antibiotic treatments inefficient and therefore causing a wide variety of chronic infections. The quorum sensing (QS) system in P. aeruginosa plays a role in the regulation of genes controlling virulence factors and biofilm formation, which may be an essential target for pharmacological intervention. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic activity of sub-MIC concentrations of CRAMP (a cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide) with fourteen antibiotics against P. aeroginusa biofilms. Finally, CRAMP's best synergistic activity combined with colistin at 1/4 MIC was screened by the checkerboard method and the calculation of the synergetic coefficient. It was confirmed by experiments on 6-well plates, displaying the most significant biofilm formation inhibition % (91.05%, calculated by OD value of biofilm biomass) and the best bactericidal activity of biofilms (2.77-log10 decrease). These data correlate with the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images obtained for the biofilm. The combination also down-regulated the expression of QS regulated genes, resulting in inhibitory effects on QS-regulated virulence phenotypes (pyocyanin and rhamnolipid). These results indicate that a proposed method of combination therapy of CRAMP with colistin has the potential to serve as a more effective therapy for P. aeruginosa biofilm infection.

16.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(11): 837-877, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome sulfate in ducklings and goslings after IV or IM administration of a single dose. ANIMALS: 216 healthy Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata) and 216 healthy Sichuan white goslings (Anser cygnoides). PROCEDURES: Ducklings and goslings were each randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 72/group) that received a single dose (2 mg/kg) of injectable cefquinome sulfate administered IV or IM or of injectable cefquinome sulfate suspension administered IM. Blood samples were collected at various points after drug administration (n = 6 birds/time point). Plasma cefquinome concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a 2-compartment model method. RESULTS: After IV injection, mean distribution half-life of cefquinome was longer in goslings (0.446 hours) than in ducklings (0.019 hours), whereas volume of distribution at steady state was greater (0.432 vs 0.042 L/kg) and elimination half-life was slower (1.737 vs 0.972 hours). After IM administration of injectable cefquinome sulfate, bioavailability of the drug was higher in goslings (113.9%) than in ducklings (67.5%). After IM administration of injectable cefquinome sulfate suspension, bioavailability was also higher in goslings (123.1%) than in ducklings (96.8%), whereas elimination half-life was slower (6.917 vs 1.895 hours, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In goslings, IV administration of cefquinome resulted in slower distribution and metabolism of the drug than in ducklings and IM administration resulted in higher bioavailability. The delayed-release effect of the injectable cefquinome sulfate suspension when administered IM was observed only in goslings.


Assuntos
Patos , Gansos , Animais , Antibacterianos , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cefalosporinas , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Sulfatos
17.
J Adolesc Health ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during the COVID-19 quarantine periods and may be at risk for developing psychological distress symptoms that extend beyond a crisis, including depression. This study examined adolescents' postquarantine depressive symptoms associated with pandemic stressors. The primary aim was to identify potential protective factors that may buffer the association between the presence of COVID-19 cases in adolescents' communities and their postquarantine depressive symptoms. METHODS: Adolescents from public schools were recruited from Zhengzhou city, Henan, China (N = 1,487, Mage=13.14 years, 50% girls). Adolescents reported the presence of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases in their communities, their daily activities and routines during the 2-month quarantine period, and depressive symptoms after the quarantine period. RESULTS: The presence of cases in adolescents' communities during the quarantine contributed to more depressive symptoms in adolescents after the quarantine. This association was buffered by adolescents' spending more time on physical activities and better maintenance of daily living routines during the quarantine period. The presence of community infection was also more strongly associated with depressive symptoms in older adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of COVID-19 cases in communities contributed to adolescents' poorer mental health, and the association was stronger for older adolescents. Spending time on physical activities and maintaining daily living routines during the quarantine appear to be practical strategies that can be used by adolescents to mitigate the association between pandemic stressors and their diminishing mental health.

18.
J Biomed Inform ; 110: 103571, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One in five U.S. adults lives with some kind of mental health condition and 4.6% of all U.S. adults have a serious mental illness. The Internet has become the first place for these people to seek online mental health information for help. However, online mental health information is not well-organized and often of low quality. There have been efforts in building evidence-based mental health knowledgebases curated with information manually extracted from the high-quality scientific literature. Manual extraction is inefficient. Crowdsourcing can potentially be a low-cost mechanism to collect labeled data from non-expert laypeople. However, there is not an existing annotation tool integrated with popular crowdsourcing platforms to perform the information extraction tasks. In our previous work, we prototyped a Semantic Text Annotation Tool (STAT) to address this gap. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to refine the STAT prototype (1) to improve its usability and (2) to enhance the crowdsourcing workflow efficiency to facilitate the construction of evidence-based mental health knowledgebase, following a user-centered design (UCD) approach. METHODS: Following UCD principles, we conducted four design iterations to improve the initial STAT prototype. In the first two iterations, usability testing focus groups were conducted internally with 8 participants recruited from a convenient sample, and the usability was evaluated with a modified System Usability Scale (SUS). In the following two iterations, usability testing was conducted externally using the Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) platform. In each iteration, we summarized the usability testing results through thematic analysis, identified usability issues, and conducted a heuristic evaluation to map identified usability issues to Jakob Nielsen's usability heuristics. We collected suggested improvements in the usability testing sessions and enhanced STAT accordingly in the next UCD iteration. After four UCD iterations, we conducted a case study of the system on MTurk using mental health related scientific literature. We compared the performance of crowdsourcing workers with two expert annotators from two aspects: efficiency and quality. RESULTS: The SUS score increased from 70.3 ± 12.5 to 81.1 ± 9.8 after the two internal UCD iterations as we improved STAT's functionality based on the suggested improvements. We then evaluated STAT externally through MTurk in the following two iterations. The SUS score decreased to 55.7 ± 20.1 in the third iteration, probably because of the complexity of the tasks. After further simplification of STAT and the annotation tasks with an improved annotation guideline, the SUS score increased to 73.8 ± 13.8 in the fourth iteration of UCD. In the evaluation case study, on average, the workers spent 125.5 ± 69.2 s on the onboarding tutorial and the crowdsourcing workers spent significantly less time on the annotation tasks compared to the two experts. In terms of annotation quality, the workers' annotation results achieved average F1-scores ranged from 0.62 to 0.84 for the different sentences. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully developed a web-based semantic text annotation tool, STAT, to facilitate the curation of semantic web knowledgebases through four UCD iterations. The lessons learned from the UCD process could serve as a guide to further enhance STAT and the development and design of other crowdsourcing-based semantic text annotation tasks. Our study also showed that a well-organized, informative annotation guideline is as important as the annotation tool itself. Further, we learned that a crowdsourcing task should consist of multiple simple microtasks rather than a complicated task.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22298, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991434

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There are many treatments for chronic hemorrhagic radiation colorectal inflammation, but only a few treatments are supported by high-quality research evidence. Studies have shown that the occurrence and development of radiation proctitis are closely associated with the intestinal flora. Animal studies have indicated that faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can improve radiation enteropathy in a mouse model. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 45-year-old female patient suffered from recurrent hematochezia and diarrhea for half a year after radiotherapy and underwent recurrent transfusion treatments. Colonoscopy showed obvious congestion of the sigmoid colon and rectal mucosa, a smooth surface, and bleeding that was easily induced by touch, which are consistent with radiation proctitis. The pathological findings revealed chronic mucosal inflammation. The magnetic resonance imaging examination of the pelvic cavity with a plain scan and enhancement showed changes after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and no obvious tumor recurrence or metastasis was found. The laboratory examinations excluded pathogen infection. DIAGNOSES: Based on the history and examinations, the final diagnosis of this patient was chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctitis. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with a total of 4 individual courses of FMT. OUTCOMES: After the six-month follow-up, her hematochezia, abdominal pain and diarrhea were relieved. Furthermore, 16S rRNA sequencing of the feces showed that the intestinal bacterial composition of the patient obviously changed after FMT and became similar to that of the donors. LESSONS: This case report shows that FMT can relieve the symptoms of hematochezia and diarrhea by changing the bacterial community structure in patients with chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctitis.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Proctite/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Assistência ao Convalescente , Doença Crônica , Colonoscopia/métodos , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proctite/diagnóstico , Proctite/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões por Radiação/patologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 14: 1605-1613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943852

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the correlation between patients' medication adherence and their psychological contract with hospital pharmacists under the background of the pharmacist-patient relationship, providing a reference for improving the pharmacist-patient relationship and the patients' medication adherence based on the patients' psychological contract with the hospital pharmacists. Materials and Methods: Some of the patients who received medication dispensing service at the outpatient pharmacies at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University were included and investigated as follows: 320 patients were included through the convenient sampling method for psychological contract and medication adherence questionnaire survey with the self-designed scales for patients' psychological contract with the hospital pharmacists and their medication adherence. SPSS 17.0 was used for reliability and validity testing, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The average score of the psychological contract was 3.80±0.59. The average score of the patients' medication adherence was 2.93±0.70. The patients' psychological contract with the pharmacists and its dimensions (the responsibility of competence, the responsibility of service, and the responsibility of humanistic care) were positively correlated with medication adherence (P<0.05). The results of the multiple linear regression analysis showed that the effect of patients' psychological contract with the pharmacists on medication adherence was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Outpatients' psychological contract with the pharmacists is positively correlated with their medication adherence. Maintaining the patients' psychological contract with the pharmacists may be an effective way to improve medication adherence.

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