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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 47-53, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914569

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the health literacy and relevant factors of cancer prevention consciousness in Chinese urban residents from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the information of demographic characteristics and cancer prevention consciousness focusing on nine common risk factors, including smoking, alcohol, fiber food, food in hot temperature or pickled food, chewing betel nut, helicobacter pylori, moldy food, hepatitis B infection, estrogen, and exercise. The logistic regression model was adopted to identify the influencing factors. Results: The overall health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness was 77.4% (24 980 participants), with 77.4% (12 018 participants), 79.9% (6 406 participants), 77.2% (1 766 participants) and 74.5% (4 709 participants) in each group (P<0.001). The correct response rates for nine risk factors ranged from 55.2% to 93.0%. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with community residents, people with primary school level education or below, and the number of people living together in the family <3, the cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, cancer patients, those with junior high school level educationor above and the number of people living in the family ≥3 had better health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness (all P values <0.05). Compared with females, 39 years old and below, government-affiliated institutions or civil servants, from the eastern region, males, older than 40 years, company or enterprise employees, and from the middle or western region had worse health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: The health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness in Chinese urban residents should be improved. The cancer screening intervention, gender, age, education, occupation, the number of people co-living in the family, and residential region were associated with the health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 54-61, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914570

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the consciousness of the cancer early detection among urban residents and identify the influencing factors from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. Self-designed questionnaires were used to collect population, socioeconomic indicators, self-cancer risk assessment, regular participation in physical examination and other information. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the factors of people who had not regularly participated in the regular physical examination in the past five years. Results: The self-assessment results of 32 357 residents showed that there were 27.54% (8 882) of total study population with self-reported cancer risk, 45.48% (14 671) without cancer risk and 26.98% (8 704) with unclear judgement on their own cancer risk. Among population with cancer risk, 79.84% (7 091) considered physical examination accounted. In the past five years, there were 21 105 (65.43%) residents participated in regular physical examination and 11 148 (34.56%) participated in non-scheduled one, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with unmarried and western region residents, divorced, middle and eastern region residents had a stronger consciousness to participate in the regular physical examination (P<0.05). Compare with residents with annual household income less than 20 000 CNY in 2014, cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, and self-assessment with cancer risk, residents with annual household income between 20 000 CNY and 59 000 CNY in 2014, occupational population, community residents, cancer patients, self-reported cancer-free risk, and self-assessment with unclear judgement of cancer risk were less likely to participate in the regular physical examination (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: From 2015 to 2017, the Chinese urban residents had a acceptable consciousness of the cancer early detection. The marital status, annual household income, population group and self-assessment of cancer risk were related to the consciousness of the cancer early detection of people who had not participated in the regular physical examination in the past five years.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 62-68, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914571

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis among urban residents and identify the related factors from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The general demographic characteristics, the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis (whether people would have a willingness or encourage their relatives/friends to confirm the abnormal results once which were detected from the physical examination) and other information were collected by using the self-designed questionnaire. The non-conditional logistic regression model was used to identify the relateol factors related to the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis. Results: As for residents with abnormal result from the physical examination, 89.29% (28 802) of residents would choose to seek medical treatment for further diagnosis. If their relatives/friends had abnormal results from the physical examination, 89.55% (28 886) of residents would encourage their relatives/friends to confirm the diagnosis in time. The non-conditional logistic regression model analysis showed that compared with the public institution staff/civil servants, annual household income less than 20 000 CNY, the western region and the cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, the company staff, annual household income about 40 000 CNY and more, and the residents from the middle and eastern region had a stronger consciousness to seek further diagnosis; while the unemployed residents and community residents were less likely to seek further diagnosis (P<0.05). Conclusions: From 2015 to 2017, the Chinese urban residents had a good consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis. Occupation, annual household income, residential region and population group were related to the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 69-75, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914572

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the consciousness of the cancer early treatment and its demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The questionnaire collected personal information, the consciousness of the cancer early treatment and relevant factors. The Chi square test was used to compare the difference between the consciousness of the cancer early treatment and relevant factors among the four groups. The logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors related to the consciousness of the cancer early treatment. Results: With the assumption of being diagnosed as precancer or cancer, 89.97% of community residents, 91.84% of cancer risk assessment/screening population, 93.00% of cancer patients and 91.52% of occupational population would accept active treatments (P<0.001). If the immediate family members were diagnosed as precancer or cancer, people who would encourage their family members to receive early treatment in the four groups accounted for 91.96%, 91.94%, 92.44% and 91.55%, respectively (P<0.001). The company employees, annual household income with 40 000 yuan and more and other three groups had a relatively better consciousness of the cancer early treatment (P<0.05). Male, widowed, unemployed and from the central and western regions had a relatively worse consciousness of the cancer early treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Residents in urban China participants had a good consciousness of the cancer early treatment. The marital status, occupation, annual household income and residential regions were major factors related to the consciousness of the cancer early treatment.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 76-83, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914573

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment among urban residents of China, and explore the related factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The health literacy of the cancer prevention, early discovery, early diagnosis, early treatment and the demands of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was analyzed. The level of health literacy among different groups were calculated and compared. The binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment. Results: The level of health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment was 56.97% among all study population; in each group it was 55.01% for community residents, 59.08% for cancer risk assessment/screening population, 61.99% for cancer patients and 57.31% for occupational population, respectively (P<0.001). The level of health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment of residents aged 50 to 69 years old, other occupational groups, unmarried, the central and western region residents and the group with unclear self-assessment of cancer risk was significantly lower than that of residents younger than 40 years old, personnel of public institutions/civil servants, married, the eastern region residents and the group whose self-assessment without cancer risk (P<0.05) . The level of health literacy of cancer prevention and treatment of females, people who went to high school or over, cancer risk assessment/screening population, cancer patients and occupational population was significantly higher than that of males, people who had an education level of primary school or below and community residents (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment of urban residents in China was relatively high, but there was still room for improvement. Gender, age, educational level, occupation, region, marital status, self-assessment of cancer risk, and type of respondents were the key influencing factors of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment. Male, 50-69 years old, lower educational level, central and western regions, unclear cancer risk self-assessment, and without specific environmental exposure to cancer prevention and treatment knowledge or related risk factors were the characteristics of the key intervention group of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 84-91, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914574

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the demand and access to the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge and related factors among urban residents in China from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the information of general demographic characteristics, the demand and access to cancer prevention and treatment knowledge, and the influencing factors of the attitude. The Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference of the demand of the cancer prevention knowledge among different groups and the corresponding factors of the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge were analyzed by using the logistic regression model. Results: The proportion of residents who need the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was 79.5%. The demand rate of the inducement, symptom and diagnosis methods of cancer in the occupational population was highest, about 66.8%, 71.0% and 20.8%, respectively. The demand rate of treatment methods and cost in current cancer patients was the highest, about the 45.9% and 21.9%, respectively. The top three sources to acquire the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge were "broadcast or television" (69.5%), "books, newspapers, posters or brochures" (44.7%) and "family and friends" (33.8%). The multivariate analysis showed that compared with public institution personnel/civil servants, unmarried/cohabiting/divorced/widowed and others, annual household income less than 20 000 CNY, from the eastern region, people without cancer diagnosis and people with self-assessment of cancer risk, the demand rate of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was higher in enterprise personnel/workers, married, annual household income between 60 000 CNY and 150 000 CNY, from the central region, people with cancer and people with unclear cancer risk (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: There was a high demand for the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge among urban residents in China from 2015 to 2017. The main access to the knowledge is from the radio or television. The occupation, marital status, annual household income, residential region, health status and risk of disease were the main factors of the demand of the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(7): 463-468, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288326

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate effect of the contact surface between the bridge and the adjacent teeth on the stress distribution of the implant and bone tissue and the displacement of the prosthesis in the cantilever fixed implant bridge restoring missing mandibular central incisors. Methods: Two-dimensional images of the mandible and dentition in healthy adults were obtained using CT data. A three-dimensional finite element model of cantilever fixed bridge supported by implants with mandibular central incisor was established by computer reconstruction technique.The contact surface between the bridge and the adjacent natural tooth was designed as "oval" and "trapezoid". The "trapezoid" has a slightly smaller median diameter on the labial side and a slightly larger medial diameter on the lingual side. Loading of 120 N was applied on the tangential margin of the middle line of the long axis of the bridge 41. The direction was set at 0°, which was parallel to the long axis of the tooth and downward. The buccal to lingual and downward angles were 30°, 45° and 60°, respectively, perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and 90° to the lingual side.The stress distribution of the implant and surrounding bone tissue and the displacement of the prosthesis were compared between the two models. Results: Under axial and buccolingual loading, the maximum equivalent stress peak in the implant and surrounding bone tissue in the cantilever with trapezoidal contact surface design and the maximum displacement of the prosthesis were lower. Moreover, the distribution of stress was more balanced and the concentration range of stress was smaller. With the loading angle increasing, this trend was more obvious. When loading angle increased to 90°, the maximum equivalent stress and the maximum displacement of the elliptic contact surface model implant and surrounding bone tissue were 196 and 101 MPa and 0.196 mm, respectively, while the trapezoidal contact surface model were 157 and 72 MPa and 0.164 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The trapezoidal contact surface of the bridge and the adjacent teeth in the cantilever fixed bridge supported by implants with mandibular central incisor is beneficial to reduce the impact of the leverage on the implant and surrounding bone tissue.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Prótese Parcial Fixa , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Incisivo , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Mecânico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Ultramicroscopy ; 205: 27-38, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234100

RESUMO

Whether or not the 3-dimensional surface morphologies of a crystal sample can be reconstructed at atomic-scale from a single 2-dimensional image becomes an interesting issue in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, after the work by Jia et al. [1]. Here we propose an improved and self-validated algorithm to enhance such an electron tomography method and to make it applicable to more general crystal surfaces even with thin amorphous layers. Our study shows that a resolution in the beam (z) direction and a confidence level have to be defined and estimated after performing tomographic reconstruction in order to evaluate the quality and the reliability of its result. Applying the proposed procedure to the Si[110] image to recover the surface morphologies of a silicon crystal with amorphous contamination, the obtained results show that an atomic-resolution of 0.384 nm in the z-direction and a high confidence level of 95% are achieved for imaging the Si-surface structures, quantitatively described by tomographic parameters, i.e., the height (defocus) and the thickness (atom number) of Si-atomic columns.

9.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 40(9): 647-652, 2018 Sep 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293387

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of bladder cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitted bladder cancer new cases and deaths occurred in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were finally accepted for analysis. According to the national population data of 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of bladder cancer were estimated by stratification in the area (urban or rural), gender, and age. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: All 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases and death certificate-only cases were 74.86% and 1.45%, respectively. The mortality to incidence ratio was 0.41. The estimates of new bladder cancer cases were 78 100 in China in 2014, with a crude incidence rate of 5.71/100 000. The age-standardized incidence rates by China standard population (ASR China) and world standard population (ASR world) of bladder cancer were 3.61/100 000 and 3.56/100 000, respectively. Cumulative incidence rate of bladder cancer in China was 0.41%. The crude and ASR China incidence rates in urban areas were 6.88/100 000 and 4.07/100 000, respectively, whereas those were 4.29/100, 000 and 2.96/100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of bladder cancer deaths caused by bladder cancer were about 32 100 in China in 2014, with a crude mortality rate of 2.35/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were both 1.30/100 000 with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) of 0.12%. The crude and ASR China mortality rates were 2.79/100 000 and 1.41/100 000 in urban areas, respectively, whereas those were 1.81/100 000 and 1.14/100 000 in rural areas. Conclusions: The incidence and mortality pattern of bladder cancer were different in urban and rural areas. The incidence and mortality were higher in urban areas than that in rural areas, and higher for male than for female. We should focus on strengthening the prevention and control of bladder cancer in key population, especially men in urban areas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ultramicroscopy ; 195: 111-120, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227297

RESUMO

Exit wavefunction reconstruction is a powerful image processing technique to enhance the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio for atomic-resolution imaging in both aberration uncorrected and corrected transmission electron microscopes. The present study aims to improve the performance of the iterative wavefunction reconstruction algorithm in comparison not only with its conventional form but also with the popular commercial Trueimage software for exit wavefunction reconstruction. It is shown that by implementing a wave propagation procedure for refining its image alignment, the iterative wavefunction reconstruction algorithm can be greatly improved in accurately retrieving the wavefunctions while keeping its original advantages, which allow the reconstruction be performed with less images and a larger defocus step in the data set of through-focus image series. In addition, calculations of this algorithm can be accelerated drastically by the graphic processing unit (GPU) hardware programming using the popular computer unified device architecture language, whose computing speed can be 25-38 times as fast as a central processing unit (CPU) program.

11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(1): 35-39, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374892

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the data of malignant tumor mortality and change in disease burden in Hebei province from 1973 to 2013. Methods: Cancer mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate and the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) were calculated by using the data from three rounds of all death causes survey and database of cancer registry in Hebei during 1973-2013. Results: From 1973 to 2013, a linear upward of malignant tumor mortality was observed, with a 51.57% increase. The mortality rate during 1973-1975 was 98.52/100 000 and it was 149.33/100 000 during 2011-2013. During 1973-1975, the YLLs was 17.0/1 000 in males and 12.8/1 000 in females. While during 2011-2013, the YLLs was 23.2/1 000 in males and 15.9/1 000 in females. During 1973-1975, esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were top three leading causes of deaths. During 2011-2013, lung cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were main leading causes of deaths. During the past 40 years, the deaths of esophagus cancer and cervix cancer decreased dramatically, but the deaths of lung cancer and breast cancer increased sharply. Conclusions: The disease burden caused by malignant tumor is becoming more serious in Hebei. It is necessary to strengthen the primary prevention and screening of malignant tumor.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Masculino , Mortalidade/etnologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Prevenção Primária , Padrões de Referência , Neoplasias Gástricas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero
12.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 39(4): 315-320, 2017 Apr 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550676

RESUMO

Objective: The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected esophageal data of local cancer registries in 2013 to estimate the incidence and mortality in China. Methods: Data submitted from 347 registries were evaluated and 255 registries' data are qualified by NCCR. Data of incidence and mortality were stratified with areas (urban/rural), gender and age group. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality. Results: All of 255 cancer registries covered a total of 226 494 490 population (111 595 772 in urban areas and 114 898 718 in rural areas). The morphology verified cases (MV%) of esophageal cancer accounted for 75.51% and 1.64% of incident cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%) with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.75. The estimates of new esophageal cancer cases and deaths were 277 thousand and 206 thousand in China, respectively. The crude incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Chinese cancer registration areas was 20.35/10(5) (28.15/10(5) in male, 12.15/10(5) in female), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population were 13.64/10(5) and 13.82/10(5) with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 1.77%. The esophageal cancer incidence and ASIRC were 13.38/10(5) and 8.74/10(5) in urban areas whereas in rural areas, they were 28.44/10(5) and 19.56/10(5,) respectively. In rural areas, the crude incidence rate of esophageal cancer was 2.13 times higher than that in urban areas, and after age-standardized it remained 2.24 times higher. The esophageal cancer mortality in Chinese cancer registration areas was 15.17/10(5) (20.86/10(5) in male and 9.20/10(5) in female), age-standardized mortality by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population were 9.95/10(5) and 9.98/10(5,) with the cumulative mortality rate (0-74 age years old) of 1.20%. The esophageal cancer mortality and ASMRC were 10.12/10(5) and 6.46/10(5) in urban areas, whereas in rural areas, they were 21.05/10(5) and 14.16/10(5,) respectively. In rural areas, the esophageal cancer mortality and ASMRC were 2.08 and 2.19 times higher than those in urban areas. Esophageal cancer was the sixth common cancer and the fourth leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 7.52% of all cancer cases and 9.26% of all cancer deaths. Conclusions: Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. Screening and early detection are important to reduce the incidence and mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 52(11): 704-708, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972953

RESUMO

Implant-abutment microgap (IAM) exists in two-piece implant systems. Researchers have proved that IAM influences success rate of dental implants in the long term. The relationship between IAM and the biological, mechanical complication of dental implants has been proven in some studies. Implant-abutment connection type, abutment material and insertion torque may all have impact on IAM size. On the other hand, ways to reduce or seal this gap are discussed in some literature. The relationship between IAM and bacteria colonization, long-term implantation complication and its influencing factors are discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Dente Suporte , Projeto do Implante Dentário-Pivô , Implantes Dentários , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Humanos , Torque
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 868-71, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To isolate and identify the characteristics of Yersinia pestis phage YP060 from mice nests in Yunnan plague focus. METHODS: Phage YP060 was isolated from Yunnan plague focus by double-layer agar plate method with attenuated vaccine Yersinia pestis strain EV76 as the host bacterium. Phage particle was observed under the electron microscope while biological properties of phage YP060 including lytic capacity, host spectrum, optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI), one-step growth curve, sensitivity to temperature, pH, ultraviolet ray and chloroform etc. were identified. RESULTS: The particles of phage YP060 presented tadpoles-like features, with optimal multiplicity of infection as 0.1. Latent period and burst period appeared as 50 min and 80 min, respectively. The phage endured the temperature between 30-50 ℃, and it contained a stronger lysis activities in a range of pH 5 to 10. Phage YP060 was sensitive to ultraviolet rays but insensitive to chloroform while presented special lysic ability to Yersinia pestis. CONCLUSION: Yersinia pestis phage YP060 was isolated for the first time from mice nests in plague natural focus in China. Our findings related to narrow host spectrum and stronger lysis activities.


Assuntos
Yersinia pestis , Animais , Bacteriófagos , Camundongos , Peste
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 532: 635-44, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26119378

RESUMO

Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P < 0.01), while TN with cfPTN, ffPTN, iPTN and MTN (R(2) = 0.45-0.79, P < 0.01), but not with MBN, respectively. Principal component analyses explained 86.9-91.2% variance of SOC, TN, MBC, MBN, SOC and TN in each fraction. Our results demonstrated that cfPOC was a sensitive SOC indicator and manure addition was the best fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands.

17.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 23(1): 10-4, 2001 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12905809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze and predict the trends of incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in areas of Taihang Mountains, and explore the strategies for facilitating the reduction of the incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer. METHODS: The data were collected from Linxian and Cixian Counties registries between 1988-1997. The trends of the incidence and mortality rates for esophageal cancer had been fitted and predicted by the model of BP (Back Propagation) Neural Networks. Then Linqi Xiang in Linxian County was taken as an example, to determine the power for reducing incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer using endoscopic technology as an early detection and treatment method. RESULTS: There were slowly declining trends for both incidence and mortality rates during past 10 years in Taihang Mountains. The predicting rates of the esophageal cancer incidence in 2,002 are 115. 70/100,000 for male and 79.88/100,000 for female; mortality rates are 94.00/100,000 and 56.29/100,000 respectively. Both incidence and mortality rates a still in high level. But when using endoscopic technology as an early detection and treatment method, the incidence rate is nearly 1/3 of a control group and the power is 88.30% at the end of eight years. The mortality rate is 1/4 of the control group and power is 89.44% after five years intervention (both powers based on 0.05 significant levels). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and mortality rates for esophageal cancer are still on high levels in Taihang Mountains. We should continue to enhance our preventive effort there. After using endoscopic technology as an early detection and treatment method, the incidence and mortality rates will be decreased markedly during 5 to 8 years. It is recommended to implement a large-scale secondary prevention strategy in these areas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi ; 16(12): 727-9, 1996 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9772589

RESUMO

Based on the test result of 14 trace elements in hair of 163 cases of rheumatoid arthritis, we used one of the methods of the computer's mathematic model, DYNAMIC to assign the patients to five groups among multidimensional space. Then, another method, M-DEC was used to diagnose it back on one plane. The result was compared with that by the usual clinical diagnosis, also five groups were obtained, the group of Deficiency of both Liver and Kidney, syndrome of intermingled Cold with Heat, Deficiency of Qi and Yin, syndrome of Dampness-Heat stagnating in collaterals and syndrome of Phlegm-Dampness stagnating in collaterals. And Kappa was 0.77, greater than 0.6. It displayed the consistency in observation of these two methods, which was shown reliable. After that, we have detected the sensitivity of the syndrome diagnosis by computer's mathematic model method, the result was 96.67% and the specificity of that was 95.15%. So we consider this method could give us an objective judgment on TCM syndromes of rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Computador , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Xenobiotica ; 24(3): 221-9, 1994 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8009885

RESUMO

1. Pyrene was administered i.p. as a single dose to trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Urine was collected continuously for 3 days and bile sampled at the end of this period. Pyrene metabolites in these biological fluids were identified by 1H-nmr spectrometry, glc-ms and hplc-ms. 2. 1-Hydroxypyrene was the major oxidation metabolite in the urine and bile. Small amounts of 1,6-dihydroxypyrene and a putative 1,8-dihydroxypyrene metabolite also were detected. Unchanged pyrene was not found in any of these biological fluids. 3. Both free and conjugated metabolites of pyrene were found in the bile and urine. The majority of the pyrene metabolites in the bile were conjugated with glucuronic acid or sulphate.


Assuntos
Bile/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Pirenos/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Ácido Glucurônico , Hidroxilação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Pirenos/química , Sulfatos/metabolismo
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