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1.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124424, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377594

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal in conventional bioretention systems is highly variable. Therefore, five novel experimental columns with different media configurations and constituents, and incorporating a saturated zone were developed and assessed to optimize the removal of N, P and other nutrients. Three types of media composed of the conventional mixed sand and soil media (T1), biochar-amended media (T2), and iron-coated biochar (ICB)-amended media (T3) were evaluated. Two of the experimental columns were designed with double-layer configurations, while the other three were of a single-layer structure. Removal efficiencies of nutrients in the experimental columns were evaluated and compared using simulated runoff. Also, the effect of media depth on the retention of P and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) in the bioretention columns were evaluated. The experimental column only filled with T3 showed the best performance for COD, ammonia (NH4+-N) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (94.6%, 98.3% and 93.70%, respectively), whereas columns filled with T2 performed poorly for TP removal (57.36%). For the removal of nitrate (NO3--N) and total nitrogen (TN), the columns using a single-layer and only filled with either T3 or T2 exhibited the best performance (93% and 97% TN removal, respectively). Overall, this study demonstrates that our proposed single-layered bioretention cell only filled with T3 and incorporating a saturated zone effectively improves the runoff quality, and can provide a new bioretention cell configuration for efficient stormwater treatment.

2.
Head Face Med ; 15(1): 18, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (USSRO) is not widely used given the postoperative instability caused by the inevitable rotation of the mandibular segment during surgery. However, the influence of mandibular movement on the condylar morphology and position stability has not been completely explored. The aim of the study was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of USSRO on the condylar surface morphology changes and postoperative stability in patients with mandibular lateral prognathism and compare these findings with the classic bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO). PATIENTS/METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving 134 patients with mandibular lateral prognathism who received USSRO (n = 56) and BSSRO (n = 78) surgery. Here, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed before surgery (T0), immediately after surgery (T1), and 1 year postoperatively (T2). Differences of condylar sizes, condylar surface deviation, and mandibular positioning parameters (dental midline deviation, SNB, SN-MP) were calculated from T0 to T2. Comparisons were performed at the deviated side or nondeviated side of condyles between the USSRO and BSSRO groups. The relation between the dental midline deviation and condylar surface morphology changes from T0 to T2 were investigated. RESULTS: Condylar surface morphology changes at the deviated side of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) before and 1 year after the surgery were significantly different between the USSRO and BSSRO groups. The dental midline deviation was related to the changes of condylar volume, surface size and surface deviation at the deviated side of TMJ in patients following USSRO. No significant difference was noted between the USSRO and BSSRO groups for postoperative condylar surface morphology changes at the nondeviated side. In both groups, significant differences between T0 and T1 and no significant difference between T1 and T2 were noted for all of the mandibular positioning parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Both BSSRO and USSRO exhibit favorable postoperative stability in the correction of mandibular prognathism. After USSRO surgery, condylar surface changes occurred at the deviated side of the TMJ, and the dental midline deviation was closely related to the changes of condylar surface morphology. USSRO represents a stable alternative for minor asymmetric mandibular prognathism correction with the advantages of reduced operating time and surgical trauma.

3.
Clin Chim Acta ; 497: 67-75, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic hypercholanemia of pregnancy (AHP) is a controversial hypercholanemia, which is difficult to distinguish from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Our aim is to elucidate the characteristics of urinary bile acid (BA) profiling of women with AHP and to find potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of AHP. METHODS: We developed a pseudo-targeted approach to perform metabolomics analysis of bile acids (BAs) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Urinary BAs profiles were compared among AHP women (n = 20), ICP patients (n = 33) and normal controls (n = 35). RESULTS: The profiling of urinary BAs was significantly different among the AHP, ICP and control groups. Compared to the control group, the AHP group had higher levels of four possible sulfated BAs and trihydroxy BAs, including the species of muricholic acid (MCA), cholic acid (CA) and six possible BAs, whereas, 20 possible sulfated BAs, taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), and seven possible BAs were significantly lower in the AHP group than those in the ICP group. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, glycocholic acid (GCA) combined with T-ω-MCA were found to be the potential combination biomarker for the diagnosis (area under the curve was 0.960) of AHP, and mono-S, Gtri-S-2 combined with TLCA-S were found to be the potential combination biomarker for the differential diagnosis (area under the curve was 0.990) of AHP and ICP. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolisms of urinary Bas were altered in the AHP group compared with the ICP group and the control group. Urinary BA profiling analysis can serve as an effective tool for the diagnosis of AHP and the differential diagnosis of AHP and ICP.

4.
Science ; 364(6443): 881-886, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147519

RESUMO

Protected areas are intended to safeguard biodiversity in perpetuity, yet evidence suggests that widespread legal changes undermine protected area durability and efficacy. We documented these legal changes-protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) events-in the United States and Amazonian countries and compiled available data globally. Governments of the United States and Amazonian countries enacted 269 and 440 PADDD events, respectively. Between 1892 and 2018, 73 countries enacted 3749 PADDD events, removing 519,857 square kilometers from protection and tempering regulations in an additional 1,659,972 square kilometers; 78% of events were enacted since 2000. Most PADDD events (62%) are associated with industrial-scale resource extraction and development, suggesting that PADDD may compromise biodiversity conservation objectives. Strategic policy responses are needed to address PADDD and sustain effective protected areas.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case control study was to investigate the sizes, shapes, and articular surface angles of condyles exhibiting idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR) with different degrees of condylar bone loss and to provide additional information for the diagnosis of ICR. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 154 condyles from patients with ICR and 42 healthy condyles were included. The ICR group was further divided into 3 subgroups (ICR I, ICR II, and ICR III) based on the morphology of the condyle. Three-dimensional (3-D) models of the condyles were measured and analyzed by using the Mimics software based on cone beam computed tomography data. RESULTS: The condylar anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, height, superficial area, volume, articular surface angles, condylar neck angle, maximal sectional area, and condylar neck sectional area were all significantly different between the ICR group and the control group (P < .05). There were also significant differences among the 3 subgroups in many of these parameters (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Morphologic changes in ICR become worse as the disease progresses, with significant differences between diseased and normal condyles. There were many significant differences among the subgroups. Posteriorly inclined condylar neck and slender condylar neck may be associated with ICR.

6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(8): 5632-5641, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211512

RESUMO

Immunity imbalance and barrier damage in the intestinal mucosa are the main pathogenic factors of Crohn's disease (CD). Bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) ethyl sulfide (BPTES) is a glutaminase 1 (Gls1) inhibitor with the dual functions of increasing glutamine levels and immune regulation. In this study, we focused on the role of BPTES in CD-like enteritis and the possible mechanisms. We found that Gls1 expression was significantly increased in CD intestinal tissue compared with control tissue. Bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) ethyl sulfide treatment significantly ameliorated chronic colitis in the IL-10-/- , as manifested by decreased disease activity index, body weight change, histological inflammatory degree and inflammatory cytokine expression. Bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) ethyl sulfide treatment exerted protective effects on CD that were associated with the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity and the Th/Treg balance. Bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) ethyl sulfide treatment may act in part through TCR-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling activation. In conclusion, inhibition of Gls1 expression attenuated chronic colitis by maintaining intestinal barrier integrity and the Th/Treg balance, thereby ameliorating CD-like colitis.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 682: 364-373, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125750

RESUMO

Most published studies on particulate matter (PM) concerning PM2.5 and PM10 have focused on PM-induced effects on the respiratory system (particularly lung) and cardiovascular system effects. However, epidemiological and mechanistic studies suggest that PM2.5 and PM10 also affects the skin, which is a key health issue. In this study, we first reviewed the current status of PM2.5 and PM10 in China, including relevant regulations, concentration levels, chemical components, and emission sources. Next, we summarized the association between PM2.5 and PM10 or its representative components, in relation to skin inflammation as well as inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, acne, eczema, and skin aging. Finally, we determined the mechanism of oxidative stress or programmed cell death induced through PM, which can provide useful information for future research on PM-induced skin inflammation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , China , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(3)2019 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717474

RESUMO

In this work, three different aqueous solutions containing imidazole-based ILs with different alkyl chain lengths ([Cnmim]Br, n = 2, 6, 12) were adopted as the medium for the synthesis of ionic liquid-polypyrrole (IL-PPy) composites. Herein, the ILs undertook the roles of the pyrrole solvent, the media for emulsion polymerization of PPy and PPy dopants, respectively. The electrochemical performances of the three IL-PPy composites on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated by electrochemical experiments, which indicated that [C12mim]Br-PPy (C12-PPy) composites displayed better electrochemical performance due to their larger surface area and firmer immobilization on the GCE. Further, C12-PPy/GCE were decorated with Au microparticles by electrodeposition that can not only increase the conductivity, but also immobilize sufficient biomolecules on the electrode. Then, the obtained C12-PPy-Au/GCE with outstanding electrochemical performance was employed as a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilization platform to fabricate a novel C12-PPy-Au-HRP/GCE biosensor for H2O2 detection. The results showed that the prepared C12-PPy-Au-HRP/GCE biosensor exhibited high sensitivity, fast response, and a wide detection range as well as low detection limit towards H2O2. This work not only provides an outstanding biomolecule immobilization matrix for the fabrication of highly sensitive biosensors, but also advances the understanding of the roles of ILs in improving the electrochemical performance of biosensors.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Ouro/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Polímeros/química , Pirróis/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Carbono/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Galvanoplastia/métodos , Emulsões/química , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/química , Imidazóis/química , Íons/química , Limite de Detecção , Polimerização , Solventes/química
9.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 34(8): 678-683, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384864

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect and possible mechanism of IL-12 monoclonal antibody (IL-12 mAb) on IL-10 knockout(IL-10-/-) mice and its possible mechanism. Methods Sixteen male IL-10-/- mice of 15 weeks old were randomly divided into control group and IL-12 mAb treatment group. The IL-12 mAb treatment group were given intraperitoneal injection of IL-12 mAb (25 mg/kg, once per week), and the control group was given intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mL of normal saline. After 4 weeks of intervention, the inflammatory bowel disease activity index (DAI) and HE staining were used to evaluate the intestinal inflammation symptoms and histological changes. The intestinal mucosal permeability test was used to evaluate the intestinal mucosal barrier function of the two groups. The expression of claudin-1 in intestinal mucosa was detected by Western blot analysis. The Th1/Th2 cell balance of intestinal mucosa was evaluated by flow cytometry. The ELISA was used to evaluate IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α) of intestinal mucosal of the two groups. The expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT6) in intestinal mucosa was detected by Western blot nanlysis. Results Three and 4 weeks after IL-12 mAb treatment, the DAI and intestinal inflammation scores of IL-12 mAb treatment group were significantly lower than the control group. At the same time, the intestinal mucosal permeability of IL-12 mAb treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group, and the expression of claudin-1 in intestinal mucosa was significantly higher than that of the control group. At the same time, IL-12 mAb treatment inhibited the proportion of Th1 cells in the intestinal mucosa and up-regulated the proportion of Th2 cells. In the signal pathway analysis, IL-12 mAb treatment increased the levels of p-STAT6 and IL-13 in the intestinal mucosa and inhibited the level of TNF-α. Conclusion IL-12 mAb effectively alleviates intestinal inflammation in the Crohn's disease animal model and protect the intestinal mucosal barrier, which may be through inhibition of Th1 cell immune response in the intestinal mucosa and up-regulation of STAT6 signaling.

10.
Chin Med ; 13: 57, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479654

RESUMO

Modern studies have shown that adaptogens can non-specifically enhance the resistance of human body under a wide range of external stress conditions with a multi-targeted and multi-channel network-like manner, especially by affect the immune-neuro-endocrine system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This review article draws the attention to the relationships of adaptogens, tonics from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and ginseng-like herbs worldwide, which all have similar plant sources and clinical applications. To clarify the sources and pharmacological mechanisms of these plant-originated adaptogens, which will provide useful information for the utilization of adaptogens to improve the human health. Meanwhile, the TCMs and the world-wide ginseng-like herbs from each region's ethnopharmacology will be beneficial modernization and globalization.

11.
J Neurosci Res ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450738

RESUMO

Some chronic pain conditions in the orofacial region are common, the mechanisms underlying which are unresolved. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are the glial cells of the peripheral nervous system. In the sensory ganglia, each neuronal body is surrounded by SGCs forming distinct functional units. The unique structural organization enables SGCs to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped neurons via a variety of ways. There is a growing body of evidence that SGCs can influence the level of neuronal excitability and are involved in the development and/or maintenance of pain. The aim of this review was to summarize the latest advances made about the implication of SGCs in orofacial pain. It may offer new targets for the development of orofacial pain treatment.

12.
J Pain Res ; 11: 2425-2431, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425556

RESUMO

Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system which involuntarily regulates internal body functions. It appears to modulate the processing of nociceptive information. Many orofacial pain conditions involve inflammation of orofacial tissues and/or injury of nerve, some of which might be attributed to SNS. Thus, the aim of this review was to bring together the data available regarding the peripheral sympathetic mechanisms involved in orofacial pain. A clearer understanding of SNS-sensory interactions in orofacial pain may provide a basis for novel therapeutic strategies for conditions that respond poorly to conventional treatments.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 41(12): 2509-2516, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to describe the development and validation of an artificial intelligence-based, deep learning algorithm (DLA) for the detection of referable diabetic retinopathy (DR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A DLA using a convolutional neural network was developed for automated detection of vision-threatening referable DR (preproliferative DR or worse, diabetic macular edema, or both). The DLA was tested by using a set of 106,244 nonstereoscopic retinal images. A panel of ophthalmologists graded DR severity in retinal photographs included in the development and internal validation data sets (n = 71,043); a reference standard grading was assigned once three graders achieved consistent grading outcomes. For external validation, we tested our DLA using 35,201 images of 14,520 eyes (904 eyes with any DR; 401 eyes with vision-threatening referable DR) from population-based cohorts of Malays, Caucasian Australians, and Indigenous Australians. RESULTS: Among the 71,043 retinal images in the training and validation data sets, 12,329 showed vision-threatening referable DR. In the internal validation data set, the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the DLA for vision-threatening referable DR were 0.989, 97.0%, and 91.4%, respectively. Testing against the independent, multiethnic data set achieved an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.955, 92.5%, and 98.5%, respectively. Among false-positive cases, 85.6% were due to a misclassification of mild or moderate DR. Undetected intraretinal microvascular abnormalities accounted for 77.3% of all false-negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: This artificial intelligence-based DLA can be used with high accuracy in the detection of vision-threatening referable DR in retinal images. This technology offers potential to increase the efficiency and accessibility of DR screening programs.

14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 118: 31-35, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055417

RESUMO

Serum total bile acids (TBA) level is used as a sensitive and reliable index for hepatobiliary diseases in clinics. Herein, a novel electrochemical biosensor was fabricated using enzymatic reaction coupling with the double oxidation circular amplification strategy for the detection of human serum TBA. With the catalysis of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), 3α-bile acids reacted specifically with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). And then, the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was produced. After that, the NADH reacted with the electron mediator of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(Ⅲ) (Ru(bpy)33+), which was then transformed to Ru(bpy)32+. Ultimately, Ru(bpy)32+ was further oxidized to Ru(bpy)33+ under a certain voltage, which was detected by the chronoamperometry assay. The detection was performed using a disposable unmodified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) without sample preparation. The proposed biosensor showed high sensitivity and accuracy with the linear range from 5.0 to 150.0 pmol/L in 106-fold dilution serum. The established method had a good correlation with the enzymatic cycling method (r = 0.9372, P < 0.001, n = 72) commonly used in clinic. The electrochemical biosensor is simple, ultrasensitive and without sample pretreatment, showing great potential for point-of-care testing (POCT) of serum TBA in clinical samples. In addition, the biosensor is cost-effective with a small volume of samples, especially suitable for those who have difficulties in blood collection, such as infants, children and some small animals.

15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 483: 135-141, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), as a pregnancy-specific liver disorder, obtains increasing recognition due to a series of adverse outcomes. ICP is generally characterized by pruritus and jaundice, and closely related to abnormalities in the metabolism and disposition of bile acids composition. Because of its elusive pathogenesis, ICP has become an intractable issue to be diagnosed and managed for obstetricians. Analysis of metabolic profile could reveal the state of small-molecule metabolites systematically and provide comprehensively metabolic information for diseases. We developed a pseudo-targeted approach to perform metabolomic analysis of bile acids in serum using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple TOF-MS/MS) method. METHODS: We investigated the metabolites of bile acids in 55 healthy pregnant women, 42 women with ICP and 11 women with ICP who persisted to accept ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy. RESULTS: The metabolic profiles of serum bile acids were significantly altered in ICP group compared with the control group. A screened potential combination biomarker, with a high diagnostic efficiency (area under the curve = 0.996, Youden index = 0.940), was superior to total bile acids for the diagnosis of ICP. CONCLUSIONS: The profiles of serum bile acids in women with ICP became more clear under the UDCA therapy, and were fully recovered after the delivery.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colestase Intra-Hepática/diagnóstico , Colestase Intra-Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Gravidez , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Life Sci ; 200: 142-147, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567076

RESUMO

Melatonin is a hormone mainly synthesized by the pineal gland in vertebrates and known well as an endogenous regulator of circadian and seasonal rhythms. It has been demonstrated that melatonin is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes showing antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas in the biological system, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family. NO acts as a biological mediator and plays important roles in different systems in humans. The NO/NOS system exerts a broad spectrum of signaling functions. Accumulating evidence has clearly revealed that melatonin regulates NO/NOS system through multiple mechanisms that may influence physiological and pathophysiological processes. This article reviews the latest evidence for the effects of melatonin on NO/NOS regulation in different organs and disease conditions, the potential cellular mechanisms by which melatonin is involved in organ protection are discussed.


Assuntos
Melatonina/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Humanos
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(3)2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509666

RESUMO

Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are successful in single-image super-resolution. Traditional CNNs are limited to exploit multi-scale contextual information for image reconstruction due to the fixed convolutional kernel in their building modules. To restore various scales of image details, we enhance the multi-scale inference capability of CNNs by introducing competition among multi-scale convolutional filters, and build up a shallow network under limited computational resources. The proposed network has the following two advantages: (1) the multi-scale convolutional kernel provides the multi-context for image super-resolution, and (2) the maximum competitive strategy adaptively chooses the optimal scale of information for image reconstruction. Our experimental results on image super-resolution show that the performance of the proposed network outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

18.
Ophthalmology ; 125(8): 1199-1206, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506863

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the performance of a deep learning algorithm for detecting referable glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) based on color fundus photographs. DESIGN: A deep learning system for the classification of GON was developed for automated classification of GON on color fundus photographs. PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively included 48 116 fundus photographs for the development and validation of a deep learning algorithm. METHODS: This study recruited 21 trained ophthalmologists to classify the photographs. Referable GON was defined as vertical cup-to-disc ratio of 0.7 or more and other typical changes of GON. The reference standard was made until 3 graders achieved agreement. A separate validation dataset of 8000 fully gradable fundus photographs was used to assess the performance of this algorithm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) with sensitivity and specificity was applied to evaluate the efficacy of the deep learning algorithm detecting referable GON. RESULTS: In the validation dataset, this deep learning system achieved an AUC of 0.986 with sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 92.0%. The most common reasons for false-negative grading (n = 87) were GON with coexisting eye conditions (n = 44 [50.6%]), including pathologic or high myopia (n = 37 [42.6%]), diabetic retinopathy (n = 4 [4.6%]), and age-related macular degeneration (n = 3 [3.4%]). The leading reason for false-positive results (n = 480) was having other eye conditions (n = 458 [95.4%]), mainly including physiologic cupping (n = 267 [55.6%]). Misclassification as false-positive results amidst a normal-appearing fundus occurred in only 22 eyes (4.6%). CONCLUSIONS: A deep learning system can detect referable GON with high sensitivity and specificity. Coexistence of high or pathologic myopia is the most common cause resulting in false-negative results. Physiologic cupping and pathologic myopia were the most common reasons for false-positive results.

19.
J Mol Histol ; 49(1): 51-61, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189956

RESUMO

Dental papilla cells (DPCs) belong to precursor cells differentiating to odontoblasts and play an important role in dentin formation and reproduction. This study aimed to explore the changes and and involvement of mitochondrial respiratory function during odontogenic differentiation. Primary DPCs were obtained from first molar dental papilla of neonatal rats and cultured in odontogenic medium for 7, 14, 21 days. DPCs, which expressed mesenchymal surface markers CD29, CD44 and CD90, had the capacity for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation. Odontoblastic induction increased mineralized matrix formation in a time-dependent manner, which was accompanied by elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix protein 1 expression at mRNA and protein levels. Notably, odontogenic medium led to an increase in adenosine-5'-triphosphate content and mitochondrial membrane potential, whereas a decrease in intercellular reactive oxygen species production and NAD+/NADH ratio. Furthermore, odontogenic differentiation was significantly suppressed by treatment with rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain. These results demonstrate that enhanced mitochondrial function is crucial for odontogenic differentiation of DPCs.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Papila Dentária/citologia , Odontogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Transporte de Elétrons , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Ratos
20.
Neuromodulation ; 21(4): 390-401, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28557049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Persistent mild traumatic brain injury related headache (MTBI-HA) represents a neuropathic pain state. This study tested the hypothesis that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at the left prefrontal cortex can alleviate MTBI-HA and associated neuropsychological dysfunctions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Veterans with MTBI-HA were randomized to receive four sessions of either real (REAL group) or sham (SHAM group) high frequency rTMS delivered at 10 Hz, 80% of resting motor threshold and 2000 pulses per session at >24 and <72 hours apart. Pre-treatment, post-treatment 1-week and 4-week headache and neuropsychological assessments were conducted. RESULTS: Twenty nine out of forty-four consented subjects completed the study. A two-factor (visit × treatment) repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant (p = 0.002, F = 11.63, df = 1) interaction for the average daily persistent headache intensity with the REAL group exhibiting a significant (p < 0.0001) average reduction (±SD) of 25.3 ± 16.8% and 23.0 ± 17.7% reduction in their numerical rating scale at the one-week and four-week post-treatment assessments in comparison to <1 ± 11.7% and 2.3 ± 14.5% reduction found in the SHAM group. In addition, a significant (p < 0.01) 50% and 57% reduction was found in the prevalence of persistent headache in the REAL group at the one-week and four-week assessments in comparison to 7% and 20% reduction found in the SHAM group. Furthermore, the REAL group demonstrated a significant (p = 0.033) improvement (from 22.3 ± 6.4 at pre-treatment to 19.0 ± 5.0 at post-treatment one-week) in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score, while the SHAM group's score remained largely unchanged (from 25.33 ± 8.43 to 24.64 ± 5.03) in the same time frame. This trend of improvement, although not statistically significant, continues to the post-treatment four-week assessment. CONCLUSION: A short-course rTMS at the left DLPFC can alleviate MTBI-HA symptoms and provide a transient mood enhancing benefit. Further studies are required to establish a clinical protocol balancing both treatment efficacy and patient compliance.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/reabilitação , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Cefaleia/reabilitação , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Veteranos
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