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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 107: 110269, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761213

RESUMO

It is a dilemma that both strength and biocompatibility are requirements for an ideal scaffold in tissue engineering. The normal strategy is mixing or coating another material to improve the biocompatibility. Could we solve this dilemma by simply adjusting the scaffold structure? Here, a novel multi-scale scaffold was designed, in which thick fibers provide sufficient strength for mechanical support while the thin fibers provide a cell-favorable microenvironment to facilitate cell adhesion. Moreover, we developed a promising multi-scale direct writing system (MSDWS) for printing the multi-scale scaffolds. By switching the electrostatic field, scaffolds with fiber diameters from 3 µm to 600 µm were fabricated using one nozzle. Using this method, we proved that PCL scaffolds could also have excellent biocompatibility. BMSCs seeded on the scaffolds readily adhered to the thin fibers and maintained a high proliferation rate. Moreover, the cells bridged across the pores to form a cell sheet and gradually migrated to the thick fibers to cover the entire scaffold. We further combined the scaffolds with hydrogel for 3D cell culture and found that the fibers enhanced the strength and induced cell migration. We believe that the multi-scale scaffolds fabricated by an innovative 3D printing system have great potential for tissue engineering.

2.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(1): 52-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693619

RESUMO

Primary leiomyosarcoma of the bronchus is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm. A 29-year-old man presented with persisting cough and sputum over 1 month. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced chest CT showed a nodular lesion in the main bronchus of the left lower lobe and multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum. Preoperative staging F-FDG PET/CT scan displayed a hypermetabolic lesion of the known nodule and mild FDG uptake of mediastinal lymph nodes. The histological examination confirmed bronchial leiomyosarcoma and reactive hyperplasia in lymph nodes.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(5): 3047-3052, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635647

RESUMO

The g-C3N4/BiPO4 composites have been successfully synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal process, which can be used to degrade the organic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) under simulated sunlight irradiation. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the samples. The g-C3N4/BiPO4 composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiPO4. And the optimum photocatalyst shows the outstanding photocatalytic activity, which exhibited 99.0% and 86.6% decolorization rate of RhB and MB, respectively.

4.
J Hepatol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a clinical syndrome defined by liver failure on preexisting chronic liver disease and is often associated with bacterial infection with high short-term mortality. Experimental models that fully reproduce ACLF and effective pharmacological therapies are lacking. METHODS: To mimic ACLF conditions, we developed a severe liver injury model by combining chronic injury (chronic carbon tetrachloride [CCl4] injection), acute hepatic insult (injection of a double dose CCl4), and bacterial infection (intraperitoneal injection of bacteria). Serum and liver samples from patients with ACLF or acute drug-induced liver injury (DILI) were used. Liver injury and regeneration were assessed to ascertain for potential benefits of interleukin-22 (IL-22Fc) administration. RESULTS: This severe liver injury model developed acute-on-chronic liver injury, bacterial infection, multi-organ injury, and high mortality, recapitulating some features of clinical ACLF. Liver regeneration in this model was severely impaired due to the shift from the activation of pro-regenerative IL-6/STAT3 to anti-regenerative IFN-γ/STAT1 pathway. The impaired IL-6/STAT3 activation was due to Kupffer cell inability to produce IL-6; whereas the enhanced STAT1 activation was due to strong innate immune response and subsequent production of IFN-γ. Compared to DILI patients, ACLF patients had higher levels of IFN-γ but lower liver regeneration. IL-22Fc treatment improved survival of the ACLF mice by reversing the STAT1/STAT3 pathway imbalance and enhancing expression of many anti-bacterial genes in a manner involving the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-on-chronic liver injury or bacterial infection is associated with impaired liver regeneration due to a shift from the pro-regenerative to anti-regenerative pathways, IL-22Fc therapy reverses this shift and attenuates bacterial infection, thus IL-22Fc may have therapeutic potential for ACLF treatment.

5.
Plant J ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680357

RESUMO

The rapid selection of salinity tolerant crops to increase food production in salinized lands is important for sustainable agriculture. Recently, high-throughput plant phenotyping technologies have been adopted that use plant morphological and physiological measurements in a non-destructive manner to accelerate plant breeding processes. Here, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was implemented to monitor the plant phenotypes of 13 okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) genotypes after 2 and 7 days of salt treatment. Physiological and biochemical traits, such as fresh weight, SPAD, elemental contents and photosynthesis-related parameters, which require laborious, time-consuming measurements, were also investigated. Traditional laboratory-based methods indicated the diverse performance levels of different okra genotypes in response to salinity stress. We introduced improved plant and leaf segmentation approaches to RGB images extracted from HSI imaging based on deep learning. The state-of-the-art performance of the deep-learning approach for segmentation resulted in an intersection over union score of 0.94 for plant segmentation and a symmetric best dice score of 85.4 for leaf segmentation. Moreover, deleterious effects of salinity affected the physiological and biochemical processes of okra, which resulted in substantial changes in the spectral information. Four sample predictions were constructed based on the spectral data, with correlation coefficients of 0.835, 0.704, 0.609 and 0.588 for SPAD, sodium concentration, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate, respectively. The results confirmed the usefulness of high-throughput phenotyping for studying plant salinity stress using a combination of HSI and deep-learning approaches.

6.
Biofabrication ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726448

RESUMO

Hydrogels are very popular in biomedical areas for their extraordinary biocompatibility. However, most bio-hydrogels are too brittle to perform micro/nanofabrication. An effective method is cast molding; yet during this process, many defects occur as the excessive demolding stress damages the brittle hydrogels. Here, we propose a brand-new damage-free demolding method and a soft ultrafine fiber mold (SUFM) to replace the traditional mold. Both mechanical and finite element analysis (FEA) reveal that SUFMs have obvious advantages especially when the contact area between hydrogel and mold gets larger. By means of a high-resolution 3D printing called electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, SUFMs with various topological structures can be achieved with the fiber diameter ranging from 500 nm to 100 µm at a low cost. Microfluidics and cell patterns are implemented as the demonstration for potential applications. Owing to the tiny scale of microstructures and the hydrophilicity of hydrogels, significant capillary effect occurs which can be utilized to deliver liquid and cells autonomously and to seed cells into those ultrafine channels evenly. The results open up a new avenue for a wider use of hydrogels in biomedical devices, tissue engineering, microfluidics and wearable electronics; the proposed fabrication method also has the potential to become a universal technique for micro/nanofabrication of brittle materials.

7.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-therapy with anti-PD1 inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab, is revolutionizing the treatment of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). However, identifying patients for the potential therapeutic response and predicting therapy resistance and early relapse remains a challenge. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2018, 60 patients were treated with pembrolizumab, among who 12 NSCLC patients had both baseline (before treatment) and serial (on treatment) periodical circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) samples. Those samples were sequenced on a 329 pan cancer-related gene panel. Analyses of tumor burden, blood tumor mutational burden (bTMB), maximum somatic allele frequency (MSAF), and tumor clonal structure were performed in association with clinical response. Candidate resistance mutations involved in relapse and metastases were further investigated. RESULTS: ctDNA was detected and mutational profiling was performed for each patient. Those with a high baseline bTMB level showed significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) after pembrolizumab treatment. Tumor burden and therapeutic response significantly correlated with the MSAF instead of the bTMB. Clone analysis detected tumor progression about 2-4 months ahead of computed tomography (CT) scan. One mutation in gene PTCH1 (Protein patched homolog 1) and two acquired anti-PD1 candidate resistance mutations of gene B2M (ß2 microglobulin) were identified in association with distant metastasis. The evolutionary tree of a representative patient was also described. CONCLUSION: This pilot study showed that MSAF could be another good indicator of therapeutic response, and clonal analysis could be clinically useful in monitoring clonal dynamics and detecting remote metastasis and early relapse.

8.
Res Microbiol ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669369

RESUMO

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) depends on its type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate type III secreted effectors (T3SEs), including transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and non-transcription activator-like effectors (non-TALEs), into host cells. T3SEs can promote the colonization of Xoc and contribute to virulence by manipulating host cell physiology. We annotated 25 genes encoding non-TALEs in Xoc strain GX01, an isolate from Guangxi in the South China's rice growing region. Through systematic mutagenesis of non-TALEs, we found that xopN, the virulence contribution of which was previously unknown for Xoc, significantly contributes to the virulence of Xoc GX01, as does avrBs2.

9.
Cancer ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assesses different technologies for detecting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations from circulating tumor DNA in patients with EGFR T790M-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the AURA3 study (NCT02151981), and it evaluates clinical responses to osimertinib and platinum-pemetrexed according to the plasma T790M status. METHODS: Tumor tissue biopsy samples were tested for T790M during screening with the cobas EGFR Mutation Test (cobas tissue). Plasma samples were collected at screening and at the baseline and were retrospectively analyzed for EGFR mutations with the cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2 (cobas plasma), droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR; Biodesix), and next-generation sequencing (NGS; Guardant360, Guardant Health). RESULTS: With cobas tissue test results as a reference, the plasma T790M positive percent agreement (PPA) was 51% (110 of 215 samples) by cobas plasma, 58% (110 of 189) by ddPCR, and 66% (136 of 207) by NGS. Plasma T790M detection was associated with a larger median baseline tumor size (56 mm for T790M-positive vs 39 mm for T790M-negative; P < .0001) and the presence of extrathoracic disease (58% for M1b-positive vs 39% for M0-1a-positive; P = .002). Progression-free survival (PFS) was prolonged in randomized patients (tissue T790M-positive) with a T790M-negative cobas plasma result in comparison with those with a T790M-positive plasma result in both osimertinib (median, 12.5 vs 8.3 months) and platinum-pemetrexed groups (median, 5.6 vs 4.2 months). CONCLUSIONS: PPA was similar between ddPCR and NGS assays; both were more sensitive than cobas plasma. All 3 test platforms are suitable for routine clinical practice. In patients with tissue T790M-positive NSCLC, an absence of detectable plasma T790M at the baseline is associated with longer PFS, which may be attributed to a lower disease burden.

10.
Hepatology ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705800

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver cancer. At present, how simple steatosis progresses to NASH remains obscure and effective pharmacological therapies are lacking. Hepatic expression of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), a key chemokine for neutrophil infiltration (a hallmark of NASH), is highly elevated in NASH patients but not in fatty livers in obese individuals or in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of Cxcl1 in the liver alone promotes steatosis-to-NASH progression in HFD-fed mice by inducing neutrophil infiltration, oxidative stress, and stress kinase (such as ASK1 and p38MAPK) activation. Myeloid cell-specific deletion of the neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (Ncf1)/p47phox gene, which encodes a component of the NADPH oxidase 2 complex that mediates neutrophil oxidative burst, markedly reduced CXCL1-induced NASH and stress kinase activation in HFD-fed mice. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine with multiple targets, ameliorated CXCL1/HFD-induced NASH or methionine-choline deficient diet-induced NASH in mice. Mechanistically, IL-22 blocked hepatic oxidative stress and its associated stress kinases via the induction of metallothionein, one of the most potent antioxidant proteins. Moreover, although it does not target immune cells, IL-22 treatment attenuated the inflammatory functions of hepatocyte-derived, mitochondrial DNA-enriched extracellular vesicles, thereby suppressing liver inflammation in NASH. CONCLUSION: Hepatic overexpression of CXCL1 is sufficient to drive steatosis-to-NASH progression in HFD-fed mice through neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species and activation of stress kinases, which can be reversed by IL-22 treatment via the induction of metallothionein.

11.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755957

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), share clinical and neurobiological features. Because previous investigations of functional dysconnectivity have mainly focused on single disorders, the transdiagnostic alterations in the functional connectome architecture of the brain remain poorly understood. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 512 participants, including 121 with SCZ, 100 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 183 healthy controls. Individual functional brain connectomes were constructed in a voxelwise manner, and the modular architectures were examined at different scales, including (1) global modularity, (2) module-specific segregation and intra- and intermodular connections, and (3) nodal participation coefficients. The correlation of these modular measures with clinical scores was also examined. We reliably identify common alterations in modular organization in patients compared to controls, including (1) lower global modularity; (2) lower modular segregation in the frontoparietal, subcortical, visual, and sensorimotor modules driven by more intermodular connections; and (3) higher participation coefficients in several network connectors (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus) and the thalamus. Furthermore, the alterations in the SCZ group are more widespread than those of the BD and MDD groups and involve more intermodular connections, lower modular segregation and higher connector integrity. These alterations in modular organization significantly correlate with clinical scores in patients. This study demonstrates common hyper-integrated modular architectures of functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD. These findings reveal a transdiagnostic mechanism of network dysfunction across psychiatric disorders from a connectomic perspective.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Branched stent grafts represent a viable option for left subclavian artery (LSA) revascularisation in patients treated by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for Zone 2 lesions. This study investigated the haemodynamic performance of different LSA branched stent graft configurations as potential determinants of thrombotic and stroke risks. METHODS: A three dimensional aortic arch geometry extracted from post-operative computed tomography images of a TEVAR patient using a single LSA branched aortic endograft was modified in silico to obtain ten potential LSA branched stent graft configurations: five down facing (0-5 - 10 mm aortic protrusion with 10-12 mm internal diameter), four curved (30-60° with antegrade/retrograde orientation), and one LSA orifice misalignment. The 0 mm down facing stent graft was considered base configuration. Computational fluid dynamic analyses were performed to identify differences in pressure, energy, and wall shear stress (WSS) based parameters. RESULTS: Total pressure drop and energy loss variations among configurations were not greater than 5 mmHg (6% of mean arterial pressure) and 5.7 mW (0.7% of cardiac power), respectively. Protrusions up to 5 mm created clinically insignificant flow disturbances. However, stent graft protrusions further into the aortic lumen created more complex haemodynamics, characterised by larger energy loss and more prominent flow recirculation. Protrusion greater than 5 mm into the lumen was associated with larger areas of elevated maximum WSS (>20 Pa) along the outer surface of the branched stent graft. CONCLUSION: Arterial haemodynamic characteristics are affected by LSA branched stent graft configurations, with pressure drops and energy losses likely to be clinically insignificant. The length of the stent graft protrusion into the aortic lumen generated the largest haemodynamic variations in the aortic system. Protrusions up to 5 mm have smaller risk of potential thrombus generation. Conversely, larger protrusions into the aortic lumen showed more disturbed haemodynamics, suggesting a greater risk of potential thrombus formation, which may be clinically important over time.

13.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761908

RESUMO

Hierarchical tissues composed of spheroid and fiber structures such as tumors, embryos and glomeruli widely exist in organisms. Methods have been developed to build spheroid and fiber structures, independently, as tissue models in vitro. However, it is still a challenge to print them simultaneously and integrated for effectively mimicking the complicated situations in vivo. Here, we propose a novel 3D cell co-culturing system, "microfiber-laden minispheroid", applying two fluidic phenomena, namely the "rope coiling effect" and "electrohydrodynamics", with a co-axial bioprinting nozzle and high voltage system. Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels were extruded from the outer nozzle and separated by electrical attraction to form spheroids (∼1800 µm). GelMA mixed with sodium alginate was extruded from the inner nozzle to form fibers (∼180 µm) inside spheroids, whose morphology could be controlled by the ratio of inner and outer nozzle extruding flow rates. We analyzed the fabrication process and the material system in detail, verifying the fabrication feasibility and suitable microenvironment. The encapsulated cells possessed high viabilities. Importantly, the actin of human umbilical vein endothelial cells tended to elongate towards the co-cultured tumor cells, in contrast to the HUVECs cultured alone. We believe that "microfiber-laden minispheroids" could be a potential system for 3D cell co-culturing research in the future.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18158, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770259

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Acute myocardial infarction is usually caused by coronary atherosclerotic plaque disruption (rupture or erosion), also including other uncommon etiologies. Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (PEH) is a rare low to intermediate malignant vascular tumor originating from vascular endothelial cells. Here, we report a rare case of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to extrinsic compression of left coronary artery from PEH. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 63-year-old woman with pulmonary nodules received left pulmonary nodulectomy, and the pathological examination indicated PEH. Five months after the pulmonary nodulectomy, the patient was admitted due to progressive dyspnea. DIAGNOSIS: Electrocardiography showed the obvious ST-segment elevation in the leads I, aVL, and V1-3, and laboratory tests revealed the elevated level of cardiac troponin T. Emergent coronary angiography and the contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan conformed STEMI due to extrinsic compression of left coronary artery from PEH. INTERVENTIONS: The patient did not undergo further therapy after the pulmonary nodulectomy. During the present hospitalization, she received basic life support and nutritional support treatment. OUTCOMES: The patient deteriorated rapidly into multi-organ failure and eventually died. LESSONS: Acute STEMI could be caused by extrinsic compression of the coronary artery from the mass effects of PEH, and active therapy and close follow-up should be considered for patients with PEH.

15.
Res Microbiol ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676435

RESUMO

The type VI secretion system (T6SS), a multifunctional protein secretion device, plays very important roles in bacterial killing and/or virulence to eukaryotic cells. Although T6SS genes have been found in many Xanthomonas species, the biological function of T6SSs has not been elucidated in most xanthomonads. In this study, we identified two phylogenetically distinct T6SS clusters, T6SS1 and T6SS2, in a newly sequenced Chinese strain GX01 of Xanthomonas oryzea pv. oryzicola (Xoc) which causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mutational assays demonstrated that T6SS1 and T6SS2 are not required for the virulence of Xoc GX01 on rice. Nevertheless, we found that T6SS2, but not T6SS1, played an important role in bacterial killing. Transcription and secretion analysis revealed that hcp2 gene is actively expressed and that Hcp2 protein is secreted via T6SS. Moreover, several candidate T6SS effectors were predicted by bioinformatics analysis that might play a role in the antibacterial activity of Xoc. This is the first report to investigate the type VI secretion system in Xanthomonas oryzae. We speculate that Xoc T6SS2 might play an important role in inter-bacterial competition, allowing this plant pathogen to gain niche advantage by killing other bacteria.

16.
Med Eng Phys ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679904

RESUMO

Patients with peripheral artery disease who undergo endovascular treatment are often inflicted by in-stent restenosis. The relation between restenosis and abnormal hemodynamics may be analyzed using patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In this work, first a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction method, based on an in-house semi-automatic segmentation algorithm of a patient's computed tomography (CT) images with calcification and metallic artifacts, and thrombus removal is described. The reconstruction method was validated using 3D printed rigid phantoms of stented femoral arteries by comparing the reconstructed geometries with the reference computer-aided design (CAD) geometries employed for 3D printing. The mean reconstruction error resulting from the validation of the reconstruction method was ~6% in both stented and non-stented regions. Secondly, a patient-specific model of the stented femoral artery was created and CFD analyses were performed with emphasis on the selection of the boundary conditions. CFD results were compared in scenarios with and without common femoral artery bifurcation, employing flat or parabolic inlet velocity profiles. Similar helical flow structures were visible in all scenarios. Negligible differences in wall shear stress (<0.5%) were found in the stented region. In conclusion, a robust method, applicable to patient-specific cases of stented diseased femoral arteries, was developed and validated.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17198, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to assess the value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) to diagnose lung cancer and provide reliable scientific conclusions to guide clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature, and WANFANG databases was conducted to identify all studies examining serum HE4 in the diagnosis of lung cancer published up to June, 2017. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of each trial. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA software and Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: There were 21 studies involving 1883 cases and 1696 controls included in our meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of HE4 for diagnosing lung cancer were 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-0.78) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.91), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 5.4 (95% CI 3.8-7.5) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.26-0.37), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio was 17 (95% CI 12-26). The area under the curve of the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.86 (95% CI 0.83-0.89). Race, assay method, type of cancer, sample size, and publication date might be sources of heterogeneity in our meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses showed that the sensitivity in Caucasians was higher than that in Asians (0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.91; and 0.71, 95% CI 0.66-0.77, respectively), but the specificity in Asians was better than that in Caucasians (0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.92; and 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.97, respectively). The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay had the highest sensitivity, with 0.79 (95% CI 0.73-0.97), and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay had the highest specificity, with 0.87 (95% CI 0.79-0.94). HE4 had high diagnostic efficacy when screening for small cell lung cancer with the highest specificity (0.90, 95% CI 0.77-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: HE4 is a relatively promising and effective biomarker for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Furthermore, given the limitations of our study, additional large-scale and well-designed studies are needed in the future.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Proteínas/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14160, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578443

RESUMO

A crystal growth of hydrothermal ZnO nanowires essentially requires a concentration control within so-called "concentration window", where the anisotropic crystal growth of ZnO nanowires preferentially occurs. Although understanding what exactly determines the width of "concentration window" is important to tailor the anisotropic crystal growth process, the fundamental knowledge as to "concentration window" is still scarce. Here we report the effect of ammonia addition on the width of "concentration window" using conventional hydrothermal ZnO nanowire growth. We found that the ammonia addition substantially narrows the width of "concentration window". Within the narrow range of zinc complex concentration, we found a significant increase of growth rate (up to 2000 nm/h) of ZnO nanowires. The narrowed "concentration window" and the resultant increased growth rate by the ammonia addition can be understood in terms of synchronized effects of both (1) a reduction of zinc hydroxide complex (precursor) concentration and (2) a fast rate limiting process of ligand exchange between different zinc complexes. Thus, the present knowldege as to "concentration window" will accelerate further tailoring an anisotropic crystal growth of hydrothermal ZnO nanowires.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614889

RESUMO

Aimed at the problem of obstacle detection in farmland, the research proposed to adopt the method of farmland information acquisition based on unmanned aerial vehicle landmark image, and improved the method of extracting obstacle boundary based on standard correlation coefficient template matching and assessed the influence of different image resolutions on the precision of obstacle extraction. Analyzing the RGB image of farmland acquired by unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing technology, this research got the following results. Firstly, we applied a method automatically registering coordinates, and the average deviations on the X and Y direction were 4.6 cm and 12.0 cm respectively, while the average deviations manually by ArcGIS were 4.6 cm and 5.7 cm. Secondly, with an improvement on the step of the traditional correlation coefficient template matching, we reduced the time of template matching from 12.2 s to 4.6 s. The average deviation between edge length of obstacles calculated by corner points extracted by the algorithm and that by actual measurement was 4.0 cm. Lastly, by compressing the original image on a different ratio, when the pixel reached 735 × 2174 (the image resolution reached 6 cm), the obstacle boundary was extracted based on correlation coefficient template matching, the average deviations of boundary points I of six obstacles on the X and Y were respectively 0.87 and 0.95 cm, and the whole process of detection took about 3.1 s. To sum up, it can be concluded that the algorithm of automatically registered coordinates and of automatically extracted obstacle boundary, which were designed in this research, can be applied to the establishment of a basic information collection system for navigation in future study. The best image pixel of obstacle boundary detection proposed after integrating the detection precision and detection time can be the theoretical basis for deciding the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing image resolution.

20.
J Vasc Surg ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the regional variation and temporal change in lumen size along the entire autogenous vein bypass graft used for treating arterial occlusive disease in lower extremity and to explore the factors associated with graft expansive or constrictive remodeling. METHODS: Patients were prospectively scanned using contrast-enhanced computed tomography at 1 week and 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively to obtain lumen cross-sectional areas at 1-mm intervals along the entire grafts. Graft lumen remodeling characteristics and the associated demographic and clinical factors were examined. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients with at least two consecutive computed tomography scans were analyzed. Patients with a composite or longer graft, or with diabetes, had a larger lumen cross-sectional area variation along the graft. The mean lumen cross-sectional areas of all the grafts demonstrated no significant changes through 12 months. However, individually, graft remodeling was time dependent and there was a more dramatic change in lumen cross-sectional area within the first postoperative month. At 12 months, a near equal distribution between expansive and constrictive grafts existed. A negative relation between the initial lumen diameters and the subsequent lumen diameter changes was observed. Eleven grafts failed within 12 months; failed and patent grafts had similar mean lumen cross-sectional areas at all four time points, but failed grafts had a larger maximal local cross-sectional area reduction from 1 week to 1 month (58.0 ± 6.7% vs 38.1 ± 3.1%, mean ± standard error of the mean, failed vs patent, P = .004). Black patients had a smaller mean lumen cross-sectional area than white patients at all four time points and also had a higher early percent mean area reduction (-20.5 ± 6.3% vs -1.0 ± 3.7%, black vs white, P = .018). Cilostazol use was associated with early expansive graft remodeling. CONCLUSIONS: Vein grafts remodel heterogeneously and dynamically. Remodeling is associated with initial graft lumen size, race, and cilostazol use. It is found that remodeling that produces some critical minimum area or maximal percent reduction during the first postoperative month may predispose to vein graft failure. These findings offer insight into further investigation to examine the underlying mechanisms and opportunities to improve graft remodeling and durability.

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