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1.
Hepatology ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Aging exacerbates liver neutrophil infiltration and alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) in mice and humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. This study aimed to examine the effect of aging and alcohol consumption on neutrophilic Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and microRNA-223 (miR-223), and their contribution to ALD pathogeneses. DESIGN: Young and aged mice, myeloid-specific Sirt1 knockout mice were subjected to chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding. Blood samples from healthy controls and patients with chronic alcohol drinking presented with acute intoxication were analyzed. RESULTS: Neutrophilic Sirt1 and miR-223 expression were downregulated in aged mice compared to young mice. Deletion of the Sirt1 gene in myeloid cells including neutrophils exacerbated chronic-plus-binge ethanol-induced liver injury and inflammation and downregulated neutrophilic miR-223 expression. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that SIRT1 promoted C/EBPα deacetylation by directly interacting with C/EBPα, a key transcription factor that controls miR-223 biogenesis, and subsequently elevated miR-223 expression in neutrophils. Importantly, downregulation of SIRT1 and miR-223 expression was also observed in circulating neutrophils from middle-aged and elderly subjects compared to those from young individuals. Chronic alcohol users with acute intoxication had a reduction in neutrophilic SIRT1 expression in young and middle-aged patients, with a greater reduction in the latter group. The neutrophilic SIRT1 expression correlated with neutrophilic miR-223 and serum alanine transaminase levels in those patients. CONCLUSIONS: Aging increases the susceptibility of alcohol-induced liver injury in mice and humans via the downregulation of the neutrophilic SIRT1-C/EBPα-miR-223 axis, which could be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and/or treatment of ALD.

2.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132084, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500331

RESUMO

Areca nut husk fibers are easily available and they are abundant agricultural waste, whose utilization to high value products needs more attention. The present study aims at the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from areca nut husk fibers and the evaluation of its reinforcement capacity in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan (CS) film. The CNC showed rod-like structures, which were confirmed by TEM and AFM analysis. The diameter of the isolated CNC was 19 ± 3.3 nm; the length was about 195 ± 24 nm with an aspect ratio of 10.2 ± 6.8. The zeta potential of CNC was -15.3 ± 1.2 mV. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis showed that the non-cellulosic compounds were effectively eliminated, and the X-ray diffraction results showed that CNC had higher crystallinity than the raw, alkali, and the bleached fibers. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed good thermal stability for the CNC. Moreover, the effects of the incorporation of CNC on the optical and tensile behaviours of the bionanocomposite film were investigated. The bionanocomposite film retained the same transparency as the PVA/CS film, indicating that the CNC was disseminated evenly in the film. The incorporation of CNC (3 wt%) to the PVA/CS film enhanced the tensile strength of the bionanocomposite film (9.46 ± 1.6 MPa) when compared to the control films (7.81 ± 1.4 MPa). Furthermore, the prepared nanobiocomposite film exhibited good antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria and postharvest pathogenic fungi. These findings suggest that the bionanocomposite film might be suitable for food packaging applications.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126171, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492947

RESUMO

The gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sensors with high-selectivity and low-power consumption have been expected for practical applications in environmental monitoring and disease diagnosis. Herein, we demonstrate a room-temperature VOCs gas sensor with enhanced performance based on Ti3C2Tx-TiO2 nanocomposites. The Ti3C2Tx-TiO2 nanocomposites with regular morphology are successfully synthesized via a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis strategy by using Ti3C2Tx itself as titanium source. Attributed to the formation of interfacial heterojunctions and the modulation of carrier density, the Ti3C2Tx-TiO2 sensor exhibits about 1.5-12.6 times enhanced responses for the detection of various VOCs at room temperature than pure MXene sensor. Moreover, the nanocomposite sensor has better response to hexanal, both an air pollutant and a typical lung cancer biomarker. The gas response of the Ti3C2Tx-TiO2 sensor towards 10 ppm hexanal is about 3.4%. The hexanal gas sensing results display that the nanocomposite sensor maintains a high signal-to-noise ratio and the lower detection limit to hexanal gas is as low as 217 ppb. Due to the low power consumption and easy fabrication process, the Ti3C2Tx-TiO2 nanocomposite sensor is promising for application in IoT environmental monitoring as well as real-time health monitoring.

4.
Technol Health Care ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wearable lower extremity exoskeletons can provide walking assistance for the physical rehabilitation of paralyzed individuals. However, most of the existing exoskeletons require crutches to maintain balance, thus a self-balancing type is needed to improve applicability. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to study the kinematic characteristics of a novel lower extremity exoskeleton for crutch-less walking rehabilitation, and evaluate the movement performance through practical experiments. METHODS: Based on the human lower limb structure and movement characteristics, a fully actuated 10 degrees-of-freedom (DoF) lower extremity exoskeleton was proposed. The kinematic characteristics of the exoskeleton were analyzed by the D-H method and geometric method, and the model validity was verified through simulations and experiments. RESULTS: The closed-form solutions for both forward and inverse kinematics models were obtained. The consistent results of theoretical calculation and numerical simulation have shown the accuracy of the established models. The practical experiments regarding six trials have demonstrated the movement performance of the proposed exoskeleton, including sit, stance, leg extension/flexion, and left/right swing. CONCLUSIONS: The kinematic characteristics of the proposed 10-DoF lower extremity exoskeleton are similar to the human lower limb, and it could meet the motion demands of crutch-less walking rehabilitation.

5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1180: 338855, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538321

RESUMO

As one of the top three opportunistic pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) has long accounted for hospital-acquired infections with high risk of death. In this work, a fluorescent method based on a dual-site recognition mode was developed for rapid assay of P. aeruginosa. Employing its strong binding capability towards lipid A on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, polymyxin B acted as one recognition element for P. aeruginosa. To overcome the poor binding specificity of polymyxin B, a recombinant bacteriophage tail fiber protein was expressed and employed as a species-specific recognition element for the target pathogen. Thus a dual-site recognition mode was developed for specific assay of P. aeruginosa species by using fluorescein isothiocyanate as a fluorescent probe. The target pathogen can be assayed within a broad dynamic range from 2.0 × 103 CFU mL-1 to 2.0 × 107 CFU mL-1. Due to the ideal specificity of tail fiber protein, the method is capable of excluding the interference from other Gram-negative bacteria and all Gram-positive bacteria. It has been employed for assaying P. aeruginosa in various types of sample matrixes inclusive of lake water, physiological saline injection, human urine and milk. The acceptable assay results demonstrate its promising prospect for practical application in various areas such as environmental hygiene, medical diagnosis, as well as drug and food safety.

6.
Environ Res ; : 112064, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534519

RESUMO

This study investigated the physicochemical properties of the particles in a typical commercial laying hen barn in Southeast China. Mass concentrations and size distributions of the particulate matter (PM) and the key components (incl. organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), and the water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs)) were analyzed. The result shows that the mass concentrations of PM accumulated along with the airflow inside the house, with the total mass of the sampling particles increasing from 843.66 ±â€¯160.74 µg/m3 at the center of the house to 1264.93 ±â€¯285.70 µg/m3 at the place close to exhaust fans. The particles with the aerodynamic equivalent diameter, Dp > 9 µm, coarse particles (2.1 µm < Dp ≤ 9 µm), fine particles (Dp ≤ 2.1 µm) accounted for around 50%, 40%, and 10% of the total mass of the sampling particles, respectively. Mass closure analysis shows secondary inorganic ions (NH4+, SO42- and NO3-) were abundant in the fine-mode fraction and OC accounted for more than 40% of the coarse particles. Size distribution analysis shows that the three secondary inorganic ions were bimodally distributed, and the rest tested components were unimodally distributed. The ratios of OC/EC in fine particles were smaller than those in the coarse particles. The equivalent concentration of WSIIs indicated that fine particles were slightly acidic, and the large size particles were slightly alkaline. Knowledge gained from this study will lead to a better understanding of physicochemical properties, sources, and formation of PM.

7.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492160

RESUMO

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) non-invasively measures the activity of the human brain and provides a unique technological tool for investigating aspects of the human brain including cognition, development, and disorders. As one of the main funding agencies for basic research in China, the National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (NSFC) has initiated various research programs during the last two decades that are related to fMRI research. In this review, we collected and analyzed the metadata of the projects and published studies in research fields using fMRI that were funded by the NSFC. We observed a trend of increasing funding amounts from the NSFC for fMRI research, typically from the General Program and Key Program. Leading research institutes from economically developed municipalities and provinces received the most support and formed close collaboration relationships. Finally, we reviewed several representative achievements from research institutions in china, involving data analysis methods, brain connectomes, and computational platforms in addition to their applications in brain disorders.

8.
Cardiology ; : 1-8, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We recently developed the Coronary Artery Tree description and Lesion EvaluaTion (CatLet) angiographic scoring system. Our preliminary study demonstrated that the CatLet score better predicted clinical outcomes than the SYNTAX score. The current study aimed at assessing whether 3 clinical variables (CVs) - age, serum creatinine, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) - improved the performance of the CatLet score in outcome predictions in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: This study was a post hoc study of the CatLet score validation trial. Primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), and secondary endpoints were all-cause deaths and cardiac deaths. RESULTS: Over 1,185 person-years (median [interquartile range], 4.3 [3.8-4.9] years), there were 64 MACCEs (20.8%), 56 all-cause deaths (18.2%), and 47 cardiac deaths (15.2%). The addition of the 3 CVs to the stand-alone CatLet score significantly increased the Harrell's C-index by 0.0967 (p = 0.002) in MACCEs, by 0.1354 (p < 0.001) in all-cause deaths, and by 0.1187 (p = 0.001) in cardiac deaths. When compared with the stand-alone CatLet score, improved discrimination and better calibration led to a significantly refined risk stratification, particularly at the intermediate-risk category. CONCLUSIONS: CatLet score had a predicting value for clinical outcome in AMI patients. This predicting value can be improved through a combination with age, serum creatinine, and LVEF (http://www.chictr.org.cn; unique identifier: ChiCTR-POC-17013536).

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149824, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454145

RESUMO

The problem of excessive lead content in tea has become more and more serious with the development of society and industry. This paper investigated the ability of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy to evaluate foliar lead uptake by tea plants through simulating real air pollution. Lead content of tea leaves in different treatment groups during stress time was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It was determined that stomata can be a channel for lead particles in the air and most of the lead entering through the stomata accumulates in the leaves. The spectral variation of treated samples was measured, and it was found that a combination of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and spectral responses can perfectly classify the tea samples under different lead concentrations stress with an overall accuracy of 0.979. Then the Vis-NIR spectra were used for fast monitoring physiological and biochemical indicators in tea leaves under atmospheric deposition. Relevant spectra pretreatment methods and characteristic wavelength selection approaches were evaluated for quantitative analysis and then optimal prediction models to instantly detect quality indicators in tea samples were built. Among predictive models, PLS had the best results (RMSE = 0.139 mg/g, 0.663 mmol/g, and 1.494 µmol/g) for the prediction of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), ascorbic acid (ASA), and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Also, principal component regression (PCR) gave the best results (RMSE = 0.053 mg/g, 0.024 mg/g, and 0.011%) for prediction of chlorophyll b (Chl-b), carotenoid (Car) and moisture content (MC), respectively. Results of this study can be applied for developing an effective and reliable approach for monitoring atmospheric deposition in plants.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, characterized by steatosis and hallmark liver neutrophil infiltration. NASH also is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, but the role of adipose tissue inflammation in NASH pathogenesis remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between neutrophil recruitment in adipose tissue and the progression of NASH. METHODS: A mouse model of NASH was obtained by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding plus adenovirus-Cxcl1 overexpression (HFD+AdCxcl1). Genetic deletion of E-selectin (Sele) and treatment with an S100A9 inhibitor (Paquinimod) were investigated using this model. RESULTS: By analyzing transcriptomic data sets of adipose tissue from NASH patients, we found that E-selectin, a key adhesion molecule for neutrophils, is the highest up-regulated gene among neutrophil recruitment-related factors in adipose tissue of NASH patients compared with those in patients with simple steatosis. A marked up-regulation of Sele in adipose tissue also was observed in HFD+AdCxcl1 mice. The HFD+AdCxcl1-induced NASH phenotype was ameliorated in Sele knockout mice and was accompanied by reduced lipolysis and inflammation in adipose tissue, which resulted in decreased serum free fatty acids and proinflammatory adipokines. S100A8/A9, a major proinflammatory protein secreted by neutrophils, was highly increased in adipose tissue of HFD+AdCxcl1 mice. This increase was blunted in the Sele knockout mice. Therapeutically, treatment with the S100A inhibitor Paquinimod reduced lipolysis, inflammation, and adipokine production, ameliorating the NASH phenotype in mice. CONCLUSIONS: E-selectin plays an important role in inducing neutrophil recruitment in adipose tissue, which subsequently promotes inflammation and lipolysis via the production of S100A8/A9, thereby exacerbating the steatosis-to-NASH progression. Targeting adipose tissue inflammation therefore may represent a potential novel therapy for treatment of NASH.

11.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406663

RESUMO

Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) is a human plasma-derived immunoglobulin G concentrate that contains a high titer of neutralizing antibodies (anti-HBs) to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg). HBIG is known to be highly effective in treating HBV infections, however, a more systematic characterization of the antibody binding sites on HBsAg and their correlation with emerging "escape" mutations in HBsAg was lacking. By using anti-HBs antibodies from HBIG lots to screen random peptide phage display libraries, we identified five clusters of peptides that corresponded to five distinct anti-HBs binding sites on the HBsAg. Three sites, Site II (C121-C124), Site III (M133-P135), and Site IV (T140-G145), were mapped within the "a" determinant, while the two other sites, Site I (Q101-M103) and Site V (I152-S154), were outside the "a" determinant. We then tested in binding assays HBsAg peptides containing clinically relevant mutations previously reported within these sites, such as Y134S, P142S, and G145R, and observed a significant reduction in anti-HBs binding activity to the mutated sites, suggesting a mechanism the virus may use to avoid HBIG-mediated neutralization. The current HBIG treatment could be improved by supplementing it with site-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that target these mutations for control of HBV infections.

12.
J Virol ; : JVI0088121, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406868

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that infects cloven-hoofed animals. Neutralizing antibodies play critical roles in antiviral infection. Although five known antigen sites that induce neutralizing antibodies have been defined, studies on cross-protective antigen sites are still scarce. We mapped two cross-protective antigen sites using 13 bovine-derived broadly neutralizing mAbs (bnAbs) capable of neutralizing 4 lineages within 3 topotypes of FMDV serotype O. One antigen site was formed by a novel cluster of VP3-focused epitopes recognized by bnAbs C4 and C4-like antibodies. The cryo-EM structure of the FMDV-OTi-C4 complex showed close contact with VP3 and a novel interprotomer antigen epitope around the icosahedral threefold axis of the FMDV particle, which is far beyond the known antigen site 4. The key determinants of the neutralizing function of C4 and C4-like antibodies on the capsid were ßB (T65), the B-C loop (T68), the E-F loop (E131 and K134) and the H-I loop (G196), revealing a novel antigen site on VP3. The other antigen site comprised two group epitopes on VP2 recognized by 9 bnAbs (B57, B73, B77, B82, F28, F145, F150, E46 and E54), which belong to the known antigen site 2 of FMDV serotype O. Notably, bnAb C4 potently promoted FMDV RNA release in response to damage to viral particles, suggesting that the targeted epitope contains a trigger mechanism for particle disassembly. This study revealed two cross-protective antigen sites that can elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in cattle and provided new structural information for the design of a broad-spectrum molecular vaccine against FMDV serotype O. Importance: FMDV is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is one of the most contagious and economically devastating diseases of domestic animals. The antigenic structure of FMDV serotype O is rather complicated, especially for those sites that can elicit a cross-protective neutralizing antibody response. Monoclonal neutralization antibodies provide both crucial defense components against FMDV infection and valuable tools for fine analysis of the antigenic structure. In this study, we found a cluster of novel VP3-focused epitopes using 13 bnAbs against FMDV serotype O from natural host cattle, which revealed two cross-protective antigen sites on VP2 and VP3. Antibody C4 targeting this novel epitope potently promoted viral particle disassembly and RNA release before infection, which may indicate a vulnerable region of FMDV. This study reveals new structural information about cross-protective antigen sites of FMDV serotype O, providing valuable and strong support for future research on broad-spectrum vaccines against FMD.

13.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 123, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427772

RESUMO

In this work, we used a cross-sectional study to evaluate influence of menarche age, menstrual cycle, menstrual period, menopausal age, and menopause years for osteoporosis in women from China. We found that different menarche age, menstrual cycle, menopausal years, and menopausal age are related with the prevalence of osteoporosis. However, menarche age exceeds 17 years and menopausal age smaller than 48 years are risk factors for osteoporosis in women. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional, population-based study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and menarche age, menstrual cycle, menstrual period, menopausal age, and menopause years for women. METHODS: From March to October 2016, the cluster sampling method was used to conduct an osteoporosis-related questionnaire survey on women aged 40-80 in two communities in Lanzhou City, Gansu, China, and bone mineral density(BMD)was carried out using the DTX-200 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer produced by the US OSTEOMETER company. The relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and menarche age, menstrual cycle, menstrual period, menopausal age, and menopause years were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 2224 female participates enrolled in this study and average age was 61.60 ± 8.05 years and total rate of prevalence was 32.73%; among them, different menarche age, menstrual cycle, menopausal years, and menopausal age have statistical differences with the prevalence of osteoporosis, but there is no statistical difference between different menstruation and the prevalence of osteoporosis. Single logistic regression analysis found that older menarche age, earlier menopausal age, and longer menopausal years were related factors for the prevalence of osteoporosis, while menarche age exceed 17 years and menopausal age smaller than 48 years are risk factors for osteoporosis for women in multivariate regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In China, ages at menarche and menopause are associated with prevalence of osteoporosis. Later, menarche and earlier menopause are associated with higher osteoporosis risk. Menarche and menopause history may help identify women with increased risk of developing osteoporosis.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4683, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344876

RESUMO

Many countries have undertaken large and high-profile payment-for-ecosystem-services (PES) programs to sustain the use of their natural resources. Nevertheless, few studies have comprehensively examined the impacts of existing PES programs. Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy (GECP) is one of the few pastorally focused PES programs with large investments and long duration, which aim to improve grassland quality and increase herder income. Here we present empirical evidence of the effects of GECP on grassland quality and herder income. Through a thorough and in-depth econometric analysis of remote sensing and household survey data, we find that, although GECP improves grassland quality (albeit to only a small extent) and has a large positive effect on income, it exacerbates existing income inequality among herders within their local communities. The analysis demonstrates that the program has induced herders to change their livestock production behavior. Heterogeneity analysis emphasizes the importance of making sure the programs are flexible and are adapted to local resource circumstances.

15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 259, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tests to identify reversible airflow limitation are important in asthma diagnosis, but they are time-consuming and it may be difficult for patients to cooperate. We aimed to evaluate whether the combination of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophil (B-Eos) can be used to distinguish some asthma patients who could avoid objective tests. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 7463 suspected asthma cases between January 2014 and December 2019 in Chongqing, China, and identified 2349 patients with complete FeNO, B-Eos count, and spirometry data. Asthma was diagnosed by clinicians by the criteria of recurrent respiratory symptoms and a positive bronchial-provocation or bronchodilation test (BPT, BPD). We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO or B-Eos alone or both in combination for asthma using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: In this study, 824 patients were diagnosed with asthma. When FeNO and B-Eos counts were used in combination, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for diagnosing asthma increased slightly (0.768 vs. 0.745 [FeNO] or 0.728 [B-Eos]; both P < 0.001). The odds ratio for having asthma increased progressively with a gradual increase in FeNO or B-Eos count (both P < 0.001; assessed using the Cochran-Armitage trend test). Further analysis of in-series combinations of different threshold values for these biomarkers indicated that moderately elevated biomarker levels (FeNO > 40 ppb and B-Eos > 300 cells/µl) support a diagnosis of asthma because diagnostic specificity was > 95% and the positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was > 10. This conclusion was verified when selecting the 2017-2019 data as the internal validation dataset. CONCLUSION: FeNO or B-Eos count alone is insufficient to accurately diagnose asthma. Patients with moderately elevated biomarkers (FeNO > 40 ppb and B-Eos > 300 cells/µl) could be diagnosed with asthma and avoid objective tests when such tests are not feasible.

16.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378030

RESUMO

Functional brain networks require dynamic reconfiguration to support flexible cognitive function. However, the developmental principles shaping brain network dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we report the longitudinal development of large-scale brain network dynamics during childhood and adolescence, and its connection with gene expression profiles. Using a multilayer network model, we show the temporally varying modular architecture of child brain networks, with higher network switching primarily in the association cortex and lower switching in the primary regions. This topographical profile exhibits progressive maturation, which manifests as reduced modular dynamics, particularly in the transmodal (e.g., default-mode and frontoparietal) and sensorimotor regions. These developmental refinements mediate age-related enhancements of global network segregation and are linked with the expression profiles of genes associated with the enrichment of ion transport and nucleobase-containing compound transport. These results highlight a progressive stabilization of brain dynamics, which expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive development.

17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(8)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer vaccines are a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. Cancer vaccines elicits a specific cytotoxic immune response to tumor antigens. However, the efficacy of traditional peptide-based cancer vaccines is limited due to the inefficient delivery of antigens and adjuvants to dendritic cells (DCs). Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel rationally designed cancer vaccine to maximize its desired effects. METHODS: A Self-assembling Vehicle-free Multi-component Antitumor nanoVaccine (SVMAV) was constructed by using an unsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-conjugated antigen and R848 (a Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist) to encapsulate stattic (a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 inhibitor). The characteristics of SVMAV were investigated. The ability of SVMAV to promote DC functions was examined by in vitro analysis. The antitumor effects of SVMAV and its combination with antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 antibody (aPD-1) were also investigated in vivo. The potential application of SVMAV for neoantigen-targeted, personalized cancer vaccines was examined in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model. RESULTS: The obtained SVMAV efficiently migrated into lymph nodes and primed CD8+ T cells for exert neoantigen-specific killing by promoting the antigen uptake by DCs, stimulating DC maturation, and enhancing antigen cross-presentation, due to the simultaneous delivery of the antigen, R848 and stattic. SVMAV could not only yield a robust antitumor effect for primary melanoma allografts, but also exert a protective effect for lung metastases. Moreover, combination treatment of SVMAV and aPD-1 exerted synergistic antitumor activity and extended the survival duration of melanoma-bearing mice. Notably, a cell line-specific neoantigen-based SVMAV was designed according to predicted neoantigens for Hepa1-6 cells to examine the potential application of SVMAV for personalized cancer vaccine. Encouragingly, neoantigen-specific SVMAV achieved stronger antitumor activity than aPD-1 in an orthotopic hepatocellular cancer model established with Hepa1-6 cells. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study offers an efficient codelivery platform for neoantigens and immunoregulatory compounds to enhance immune responses during cancer immune therapy.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 374, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226510

RESUMO

Suffering from COVID-19 and witnessing the suffering and deaths of patients with COVID-19 may place frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) at particularly high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, few data are available on the clinical characteristics of PTSD among frontline HCWs who survived COVID-19 ("surviving HCWs" hereafter). The present study examined the prevalence, correlates, and clinical symptoms of possible PTSD in surviving HCWs 6 months after the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A total of 291 surviving HCWs and 42 age- and gender-matched COVID-19-free frontline HCWs (control group) were recruited and administered the Chinese Essen Trauma Inventory, which was used to assess the presence of possible PTSD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Survivors' clinical data and characteristics of exposure to COVID-19 were collected via self-report questionnaires. Surviving HCWs had significantly higher rates of possible PTSD than controls (19.9% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.017). Correlates of PTSD in survivors were ICU admission (OR = 8.73, P = 0.003), >10 respiratory symptoms during the most symptomatic period of COVID-19 (OR = 3.08, P = 0.006), the residual symptom of dizziness (OR = 2.43, P = 0.013), the residual symptom of difficult breathing (OR = 2.23, P = 0.027), life in danger due to COVID-19 (OR = 16.59, P = 0.006), and exposure to other traumatic events (OR = 2.94, P = 0.035). Less commonly seen PTSD symptoms in survivors were having nightmares about the event (34.5%), suddenly feeling like they were living through the event suddenly (25.9%), being unable to remember an important part of the event (32.8%), and overalertness (31.0%). Nearly one-fifth of the surviving HCWs had possible PTSD 6 months after the COVID-19 outbreak. Mental health services for this vulnerable population should include periodic screening for PTSD, expanded social support, and, when necessary, psychotherapy and psychopharmacological treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
19.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(5): 055103, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243358

RESUMO

Maximum correlation kurtosis deconvolution (MCKD) is an effective means of identifying the periodic impulses of fault signals. However, the multiple input parameters required by MCKD complicate the process of fault diagnosis. To overcome this drawback, a new method for identifying fault types based on a parameter-adaptive MCKD method is proposed. First, an improved adaptive variational mode decomposition is developed to denoise the raw signal. The improved method adopts the weighted envelope entropy, which is constructed by combining the envelope entropy with the kurtosis, allowing the salience of the denoising performance to be evaluated. Furthermore, the mean maximum correlation kurtosis is constructed to allow the specification of fault types and the corresponding parameters. Finally, two rolling bearing test datasets are used to demonstrate the strong adaptability of this method compared with other adaptive techniques.

20.
Plant Methods ; 17(1): 72, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surface roughness has a significant effect on leaf wettability. Consequently, it influences the efficiency and effectiveness of pesticide application. Therefore, roughness measurement of leaf surface offers support to the relevant research efforts. To characterize surface roughness, the prevailing methods have drawn support from large equipment that often come with high costs and poor portability, which is not suitable for field measurement. Additionally, such equipment may even suffer from inherent drawbacks like the absence of relationship between pixel intensity and corresponding height for scanning electron microscope (SEM). RESULTS: An imaging system with variable object distance was created to capture images of plant leaves, and a method based on shape from focus (SFF) was proposed. The given space-variantly blurred images were processed with the proposed algorithm to obtain the surface roughness of plant leaves. The algorithm improves the current SFF method through image alignment, focus distortion correction, and the introduction of NaN values that allows it to be applied for precise 3d-reconstruction and small-scale surface roughness measurement. CONCLUSION: Compared with methods that rely on optical three-dimensional interference microscope, the method proposed in this paper preserves the overall topography of leaf surface, and achieves superior cost performance at the same time. It is clear from experiments on standard gauge blocks that the RMSE of step was approximately 4.44 µm. Furthermore, according to the Friedman/Nemenyi test, the focus measure operator SML was expected to demonstrate the best performance.

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