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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124985, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421848

RESUMO

Plants roots are colonised by soil bacteria that are known to be the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs can transfer between these microorganisms and pathogens, but to what extent these ARGs and pathogens disseminate from soil into plant is poorly understood. Here, we examined a high-resolution resistome profile along the soil-root continuum of mangrove saplings using amplicon and metagenomic sequencing. Data revealed that 91.4% of total ARGs were shared across four root-associated compartments (endosphere, episphere, rhizosphere and unplanted soil). Rather than compartment-selective dynamics of microbiota, the resistome was disseminated in a continuous fashion along the soil-root continuum. Such dissemination was independent of underlying root-associated bacterial and fungal microbiota, but might be facilitated by a multiplicity of mobile genetic elements. As the multiple-drug resistant pathogens, Vibrio vulnificus, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae consistently predominated across four compartments, indicating the potential dissemination of antibiotic pathogens along the soil-root continuum. Through deciphering the profile and dynamics of the root-associated resistome and pathogens, our study identified the soil-root continuum as an interconnected sink through which certain ARGs and pathogens can flow from soil into the plant.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 411: 125094, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486227

RESUMO

The impacts of metal(loids) on soil microbial communities are research focuses to understand nutrient cycling in heavy metal-contaminated environments. However, how antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) contaminations synergistically affect microbially-driven ecological processes in the rhizosphere of plants is poorly understood. Here we examined the synergistic effects of Sb and As contaminations on bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in the rhizosphere of a pioneer plant (Miscanthus sinensis) by focusing on soil carbon and nitrogen cycle. High contamination (HC) soils showed significantly lower levels of soil enzymatic activities, carbon mineralization and nitrification potential than low contamination (LC) environments. Multivariate analysis indicated that Sb and As fractions, pH and available phosphorus (AP) were the main factors affecting the structure and assembly of microbial communities, while Sb and As contaminations reduced the microbial alpha-diversity and interspecific interactions. Random forest analysis showed that microbial keystone taxa provided better predictions for soil carbon mineralization and nitrification under Sb and As contaminations. Partial least squares path modeling indicated that Sb and As contaminations could reduce the carbon mineralization and nitrification by influencing the microbial biomass, alpha-diversity and soil enzyme activities. This study enhances our understanding of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling affected by Sb and As contaminations.

3.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 5, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469034

RESUMO

Clarifying mechanisms underlying the ecological succession of gut microbiota is a central theme of gut ecology. Under experimental manipulations of zebrafish hatching and rearing environments, we test our core hypothesis that the host development will overwhelm environmental dispersal in governing fish gut microbial community succession due to host genetics, immunology, and gut nutrient niches. We find that zebrafish developmental stage substantially explains the gut microbial community succession, whereas the environmental effects do not significantly affect the gut microbiota succession from larvae to adult fish. The gut microbiotas of zebrafish are clearly separated according to fish developmental stages, and the degree of homogeneous selection governing gut microbiota succession is increasing with host development. This study advances our mechanistic understanding of the gut microbiota assembly and succession by integrating the host and environmental effects, which also provides new insights into the gut ecology of other aquatic animals.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116508, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516953

RESUMO

An increasing production and use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) pose a huge threat to phytoplankton since they are largely released into aquatic environments, which represent a sink for TiO2 NPs. However, toxicity and protective mechanisms of cyanobacteria in response to TiO2 NPs remain elusive. Here we investigated toxic effects of two sizes of TiO2 NPs (50 and 10 nm) and one bulk TiO2 (200 nm) on a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. and their possible protective mechanisms. We found that 10 nm TiO2 NPs caused significant growth and photosynthesis inhibition in Synechocystis sp. cells, largely reflected in decreased growth rate (38%), operational PSII quantum yields (40%), phycocyanin (51%) and allophycocyanin (63%), and increased reactive oxygen species content (245%), superoxide dismutase activity (46%). Also, transcriptomic analysis of Synechocystis sp. exposure to 10 nm TiO2 NPs showed the up-regulation of D1 and D2 protein genes (psbA and psbD), ferredoxin gene (petF) and F-type ATPase genes (e.g., atpB), and the down-regulation of psbM and psb28-2 in PS II. We further proposed a conceptual model to explore possible toxic and protective mechanisms for Synechocystis sp. under TiO2 nanoparticle exposure. This study provides mechanistic insights into our understanding of Synechocystis sp. responses to TiO2 NPs. This is essential for more accurate environmental risk assessment approaches of nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystems by governmental environmental agencies worldwide.

5.
Chemosphere ; 267: 129152, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316619

RESUMO

Organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) remove halogens from a variety of organohalides, which have been utilized for in situ remediation of different contaminated sites, e.g., groundwater, sediment and soil. Nonetheless, dehalogenation activities of OHRB and consequent remediation efficiencies can be synergistically affected by water content, soil type and inoculated/indigenous OHRB, which need to be disentangled to identify the key driving parameter and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. In this study, we investigated the impacts of water content (0-100%), soil type (laterite, brown soil and black soil) and inoculated OHRB (Dehalococcoides mccartyi CG1 and a river sediment culture) on reductive dechlorination of perchloroethene (PCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as well as on associated microbial communities. Results suggested that the water content as a primary rate-limiting parameter governed dechlorination activities in environmental matrices, particularly in the soil, possibly through mediation of cell-to-organohalide mobility of OHRB. By contrast, interestingly, organohalide-dechlorinating microbial communities were predominantly clustered based on soil types, rather than water contents or inoculated OHRB. This study provided knowledge on the impacts of major parameters on OHRB-mediated reductive dechlorination in groundwater, sediment and soil for future optimization of in situ bioremediation of organohalides.


Assuntos
Chloroflexi , Bifenilos Policlorados , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo , Água
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141513, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853935

RESUMO

Excessive nitrate in water systems is prevailing and a global risk of human health. Polluted river sediments are dominated by anaerobes and often the hotspot of denitrification. So far, little is known about the ecological effects of nitrate pollution on microbial dynamics, especially those in sulfide-rich sediments. Here we simulated a nitrate surge and monitored the microbial responses, as well as the changes of important environmental parameters in a sulfide-rich river sediment for a month. Our analysis of sediment microbial communities showed that elevated nitrate led to (i) a functional convergence at denitrification and sulfide oxidation, (ii) a taxonomic convergence at Proteobacteria, and (iii) a significant loss of biodiversity, community stability and other functions. Two chemolithotrophic denitrifiers Thiobacillus and Luteimonas were enriched after nitrate amendment, although the original communities were dominated by methanogens and syntrophic bacteria. Also, serial dilutions of sediment microbial communities found that Thiobacillus thiophilus dominated 18/30 communities because of its capability of simultaneous nitrate reduction and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, our network analysis indicated that keystone taxa seemed more likely to be native auxotrophs (e.g., syntrophic bacteria, methanogens) rather than dominant denitrifiers, possibly because of the extensive interspecific cross-feeding they estabilished, while environment perturbations probably disrupted that cross-feeding and simplified microbial interactions. This study advances our understanding of microbial community responses to nitrate pollution and possible mechanism in the sulfide-rich river sediment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rios , Desnitrificação , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitratos , Sulfetos , Thiobacillus
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124663, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278726

RESUMO

With rapid global urbanization, massive anthropogenic inputs of organic matter and inorganic nutrients are resulting in severe pollution of urban rivers and consequently altering the structure and function of their aquatic microbial communities. In contrast to nutrient-induced eutrophication of freshwaters, water blackening and odorization of urban rivers, as well as their microbial communities, are poorly understood at a mechanistic level. Here, in a one-year field study on the taxonomic composition, predicted function and spatiotemporal dynamics of water and sediment microbial communities in seven black-odorous urban rivers in a megacity in southern China, combined with laboratory water-sediment column experiments, we pinpointed organic carbon as a key parameter driving the overgrowth of aquatic heterogeneous microorganisms. These microorganisms are major constituents of suspended black flocs that mediate methanogenic digestion of organic carbon and consequent water blackening and odorization. Source tracking analysis revealed a strikingly high contribution of sewage communities to black-odorous water microbial communities, in which emerging pathogens are enriched. Our results provide mechanistic insight into organic carbon-driven water blackening and odorization of urban rivers, which brings up current remediation strategies in questioning and sheds light on the future sustainable management of urban aquatic ecosystems.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(52): 33317-33324, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318221

RESUMO

Whether and how CO2 and nitrogen (N) availability interact to influence carbon (C) cycling processes such as soil respiration remains a question of considerable uncertainty in projecting future C-climate feedbacks, which are strongly influenced by multiple global change drivers, including elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) and increased N deposition. However, because decades of research on the responses of ecosystems to eCO2 and N enrichment have been done largely independently, their interactive effects on soil respiratory CO2 efflux remain unresolved. Here, we show that in a multifactor free-air CO2 enrichment experiment, BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and N deposition) in Minnesota, the positive response of soil respiration to eCO2 gradually strengthened at ambient (low) N supply but not enriched (high) N supply for the 12-y experimental period from 1998 to 2009. In contrast to earlier years, eCO2 stimulated soil respiration twice as much at low than at high N supply from 2006 to 2009. In parallel, microbial C degradation genes were significantly boosted by eCO2 at low but not high N supply. Incorporating those functional genes into a coupled C-N ecosystem model reduced model parameter uncertainty and improved the projections of the effects of different CO2 and N levels on soil respiration. If our observed results generalize to other ecosystems, they imply widely positive effects of eCO2 on soil respiration even in infertile systems.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Solo/química , Aerobiose , Simulação por Computador , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124385, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229269

RESUMO

Microbial sulfate-reduction coupling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation is an important process for the remediation of contaminated sediments. However, little is known about core players and their mechanisms in this process due to the complexity of PAH degradation and the large number of microorganisms involved. Here we analyzed potential core players in a black-odorous sediment using gradient-dilution culturing, isolation and genomic/metagenomic approaches. Along the dilution gradient, microbial PAH degradation and sulfate consumption were not decreased, and even a significant (p = 0.003) increase was observed in the degradation of phenanthrene although the microbial diversity declined. Two species, affiliated with Desulfovibrio and Petrimonas, were commonly present in all of the gradients as keystone taxa and showed as the dominant microorganisms in the single colony (SB8) isolated from the highest dilution culture with 93.49% and 4.73% of the microbial community, respectively. Desulfovibrio sp. SB8 and Petrimonas sp. SB8 could serve together as core players for sulfate-reduction coupling PAH degradation, in which Desulfovibrio sp. SB8 could degrade PAHs to hexahydro-2-naphthoyl through the carboxylation pathway while Petrimonas sp. SB8 might degrade intermediate metabolites of PAHs. This study provides new insights into the microbial sulfate-reduction coupling PAH degradation in black-odorous sediments.

10.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 6(1): 52, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184266

RESUMO

Mangrove roots harbor a repertoire of microbial taxa that contribute to important ecological functions in mangrove ecosystems. However, the diversity, function, and assembly of mangrove root-associated microbial communities along a continuous fine-scale niche remain elusive. Here, we applied amplicon and metagenome sequencing to investigate the bacterial and fungal communities among four compartments (nonrhizosphere, rhizosphere, episphere, and endosphere) of mangrove roots. We found different distribution patterns for both bacterial and fungal communities in all four root compartments, which could be largely due to niche differentiation along the root compartments and exudation effects of mangrove roots. The functional pattern for bacterial and fungal communities was also divergent within the compartments. The endosphere harbored more genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid transport, and methane production, and fewer genes were found to be involved in sulfur reduction compared to other compartments. The dynamics of root-associated microbial communities revealed that 56-74% of endosphere bacterial taxa were derived from nonrhizosphere, whereas no fungal OTUs of nonrhizosphere were detected in the endosphere. This indicates that roots may play a more strictly selective role in the assembly of the fungal community compared to the endosphere bacterial community, which is consistent with the projections established in an amplification-selection model. This study reveals the divergence in the diversity and function of root-associated microbial communities along a continuous fine-scale niche, thereby highlighting a strictly selective role of soil-root interfaces in shaping the fungal community structure in the mangrove root systems.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158887

RESUMO

Amoebae are protists that have complicated relationships with bacteria, which cover the whole spectrum of symbiosis. Amoeba-bacteria interactions contribute to the study of predation, symbiosis, pathogenesis, and human health. Given the complexity of their relationships, it is necessary to understand the ecology and evolution of their interactions. In this paper, we provide an updated review of the current understanding of amoeba-bacteria interactions. We start by discussing the diversity of amoebae and their bacterial partners. Besides, we define three types of ecological interactions between amoebae and bacteria and discuss their different outcomes. Finally, we focus on the implications of amoeba-bacteria interactions on human health, horizontal gene transfer, drinking water safety, and the evolution of symbiosis. In conclusion, amoeba-bacteria interactions are excellent model systems to investigate a wide range of scientific questions. Future studies should utilize advanced techniques to address research gaps such as detecting hidden diversity, lack of amoebae genome, and the impacts of amoeba predation on the microbiome.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162041

RESUMO

The presence of large amounts of antibiotic residues can potentially threaten environmental sustainability and human health. Thus, it is imperative to develop convenient and effective technologies for eliminating antibiotics from aquatic environments, which are major contaminant reservoirs. Herein, based on Zn/Fe-MIL-88B, we designed and synthesized a magnetic nanocomposite (MC) that contains hierarchical pores and as an effective and regenerative adsorbent for the removal of chlortetracycline (CTC) from water. The characteristics of the MC and its CTC adsorption performance were investigated systematically. The synthesized MC sample pyrolyzed at 800 °C (MC-800) consisted of metallic iron and N/O-doped graphitic carbon along with cluster-like particles with a mesoporous structure. Further, the adsorption of CTC on MC-800 (maximum adsorption amount of 1158.0 mg/g) could be described using the Freundlich isotherm model and a pseudo-second-order model, indicating that the surface of MC-800 was heterogeneous. The adsorption is likely driven by weak chemical forces, including hydrogen bond formation, cation-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA), and π-π EDA interactions. Finally, MC-800 could be recovered readily through facile magnetic separation and regenerated such that its adsorption rate remained higher than 85% even after five cycles.

13.
Environ Microbiol ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201573

RESUMO

Gut microbiota could facilitate host to defense diseases, but fish-microbiota interactions during viral infection and the underlying mechanism are poorly understood. We examined interactions and responses of gut microbiota to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection in Ctenopharyngodon idellus, which is the most important aquaculture fish worldwide. We found that GCRV infection group with serious haemorrhagic symptoms (G7s) showed considerably different gut microbiota, especially with an abnormally high abundance of gram-negative anaerobic Cetobacterium somerae. It also showed the lowest (p < 0.05) alpha-diversity but with much higher ecological process of homogenizing dispersal (28.8%), confirming a dysbiosis of the gut microbiota after viral infection. Interestingly, signaling pathways of NOD-like receptors (NLRs), toll-like receptors (TLRs), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation genes were significantly (q-value < 0.01) enriched in G7s, which also significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with the core gut microbial genera of Cetobacterium and Acinetobacter. The results suggested that an expansion of C. somerae initiated by GCRV could aggravate host inflammatory reactions through the LPS-related NLRs and TLRs pathways. This study advances our understanding of the interplay between fish immunity and gut microbiota challenged by viruses; it also sheds new insights for ecological defense of fish diseases with the help of gut microbiota.

14.
Chemosphere ; : 128597, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077194

RESUMO

Microbially-driven sulfur cycling is a vital biogeochemical process in the sulfur-rich mangrove ecosystem. It is critical to evaluate the potential impact of sulfur transformation in mangrove ecosystems. To reveal the diversity, composition, and structure of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the physicochemical properties and sediment microbial communities from an introduced mangrove species (Sonneratia apetala), a native mangrove species (Kandelia obovata) and the mudflat in Hanjiang River Estuary in Guangdong (23.27°N, 116.52°E), China. The results indicated that SOB was dominated by autotrophic Thiohalophilus and chemoautotrophy Chromatium in S. apetala and K. obovata, respectively, while Desulfatibacillum was the dominant genus of SRB in K. obovata sediments. Also, the redundancy analysis indicated that temperature, redox potential (ORP), and SO42- were the significant factors influencing the sulfur cycling microbial communities with elemental sulfur (ES) as the key factor driver for SOB and total carbon (TC) for SRB in mangrove sediments. Additionally, the morphological transformation of ES, acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and SO42- explained the variation of sulfur cycling microbial communities under sulfur-rich conditions, and we found mangrove species-specific dominant Thiohalobacter, Chromatium and Desulfatibacillum, which could well use ES and SO42-, thus promoting the sulfur cycling in mangrove sediments. Meanwhile, the change of nutrient substances (TN, TC) explained why SOB were more susceptible to environmental changes than SRB. Sulfate reducing bacteria produces sulfide in anoxic sediments at depth that then migrate upward, toward fewer reducing conditions, where it's oxidized by sulfur oxidizing bacteria. This study indicates the high ability of SOB and SRB in ES, SO42-,S2- and S2- generation and transformation in sulfur-rich mangrove ecosystems, and provides novel insights into sulfur cycling in other wetland ecosystems from a microbial perspective.

15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111183, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890922

RESUMO

Seaweed is an inherently important entity in marine ecosystems. It is not only consumed by aquatic animals but also improves environmental quality in the mariculture. Seaweed is also part of the diet of human beings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antagonism of selenium (Se)-enriched Gracilaria lemaneiformis against heavy metals, specifically, the potential of dietary Se-enriched Gracilaria to protect against heavy metal toxicity in rabbitfish (Siganus oramin). Growth rate, heavy metal (Se, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), metallothionein (MT), and the activity of the antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were all assessed. The results showed that the total organic and inorganic Se concentration for the 250 mg L-1 Se-enriched Gracilaria was significantly higher than those of the 50 and 10 mg L-1 treatments after 3 days of enrichment. The mean total Se concentrations in Gracilaria were 42.5 µg g-1 in the 250 mg L-1 treatment, 13.5 µg g-1 in the 50 mg L-1 treatment and 2.5 µg g-1 in the 10 mg L-1 treatment, respectively. Organic Se accounts for 80-82% of total Se in Se-enriched Gracilaria. The Se concentration of rabbitfish fed Se-enriched Gracilaria was significantly higher than control. Furthermore, Se increased Cu and Zn absorption, and enhanced MT generation, and improved GPX, CAT, and SOD antioxidant activity, and decreased MDA concentrations and lipid peroxidation levels, all antagonistic to Cd, Pb and Cr. The effects of Se-enriched Gracilaria on waterborne Cd, Pb and Cr-induced toxicity occurred via both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative mechanisms in rabbitfish. Selenium had synergistic effects on Zn and Cu in rabbitfish. For the 50 mg L-1 Se-enriched Gracilaria treatment, the Se, Cu, Zn, and antagonistic Cd, Pb, Cr, and the antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, GPX activities, and MT concentrations in rabbitfish were higher than that with the 250 mg L-1 and 10 mg L-1 Se-enriched Gracilaria treatments. The 50 mg L-1 Se treatment of Gracilaria was deemed to be the optimum concentration to promote growth of rabbitfish. Therefore, the obtained results suggest Se-enriched Gracilaria can antagonize heavy metal toxicity, and is an advisable Se supplement to improve the edible safety of cultured animals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Gracilaria/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Alga Marinha/química , Selênio/análise , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cadeia Alimentar , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Selênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4897, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994415

RESUMO

Soil microbial respiration is an important source of uncertainty in projecting future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks. However, its feedbacks to climate warming and underlying microbial mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we show that the temperature sensitivity of soil microbial respiration (Q10) in a temperate grassland ecosystem persistently decreases by 12.0 ± 3.7% across 7 years of warming. Also, the shifts of microbial communities play critical roles in regulating thermal adaptation of soil respiration. Incorporating microbial functional gene abundance data into a microbially-enabled ecosystem model significantly improves the modeling performance of soil microbial respiration by 5-19%, and reduces model parametric uncertainty by 55-71%. In addition, modeling analyses show that the microbial thermal adaptation can lead to considerably less heterotrophic respiration (11.6 ± 7.5%), and hence less soil C loss. If such microbially mediated dampening effects occur generally across different spatial and temporal scales, the potential positive feedback of soil microbial respiration in response to climate warming may be less than previously predicted.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Aclimatação/genética , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Celulose/metabolismo , DNA Ambiental/genética , DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Aquecimento Global , Pradaria , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Metagenômica , Modelos Genéticos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poaceae/química
17.
ISME J ; 14(11): 2862-2876, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934357

RESUMO

Elevated nitrate in the environment inhibits sulfate reduction by important microorganisms of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Several SRB may respire nitrate to survive under elevated nitrate, but how SRB that lack nitrate reductase survive to elevated nitrate remains elusive. To understand nitrate adaptation mechanisms, we evolved 12 populations of a model SRB (i.e., Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, DvH) under elevated NaNO3 for 1000 generations, analyzed growth and acquired mutations, and linked their genotypes with phenotypes. Nitrate-evolved (EN) populations significantly (p < 0.05) increased nitrate tolerance, and whole-genome resequencing identified 119 new mutations in 44 genes of 12 EN populations, among which six functional gene groups were discovered with high mutation frequencies at the population level. We observed a high frequency of nonsense or frameshift mutations in nitrosative stress response genes (NSR: DVU2543, DVU2547, and DVU2548), nitrogen regulatory protein C family genes (NRC: DVU2394-2396, DVU2402, and DVU2405), and nitrate cluster (DVU0246-0249 and DVU0251). Mutagenesis analysis confirmed that loss-of-functions of NRC and NSR increased nitrate tolerance. Also, functional gene groups involved in fatty acid synthesis, iron regulation, and two-component system (LytR/LytS) known to be responsive to multiple stresses, had a high frequency of missense mutations. Mutations in those gene groups could increase nitrate tolerance through regulating energy metabolism, barring entry of nitrate into cells, altering cell membrane characteristics, or conferring growth advantages at the stationary phase. This study advances our understanding of nitrate tolerance mechanisms and has important implications for linking genotypes with phenotypes in DvH.

18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948522

RESUMO

Pretreatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS) is an effective way to destabilize sludge floc structure and release organic matter for improving sludge digestion efficiency. Nonetheless, information on the impact of WAS pretreatment on digestion sludge microbiomes, as well as mechanistic insights into how sludge pretreatment improves digestion performance, remains elusive. In this study, a genome-centric metagenomic approach was employed to investigate the digestion sludge microbiome in four sludge digesters with different types of feeding sludge: WAS pretreated with 0.25 mol/liter alkaline/acid (APAD), WAS pretreated with 0.8 mol/liter alkaline/acid (HS-APAD), thermally pretreated WAS (thermal-AD), and fresh WAS (control-AD). We retrieved 254 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to identify the key functional populations involved in the methanogenic digestion process. These MAGs span 28 phyla, including 69 yet-to-be-cultivated lineages, and 30 novel lineages were characterized with metabolic potential associated with hydrolysis and fermentation. Interestingly, functional populations involving carbohydrate digestion were enriched in APAD and HS-APAD, while lineages related to protein and lipid fermentation were enriched in thermal-AD, corroborating the idea that different substrates are released from alkaline/acid and thermal pretreatments. Among the major functional populations (i.e., fermenters, syntrophic acetogens, and methanogens), significant correlations between genome sizes and abundance of the fermenters were observed, particularly in APAD and HS-APAD, which had improved digestion performance.IMPORTANCE Wastewater treatment generates large amounts of waste-activated sludge (WAS), which consists mainly of recalcitrant microbial cells and particulate organic matter. Though WAS pretreatment is an effective way to release sludge organic matter for subsequent digestion, detailed information on the impact of the sludge pretreatment on the digestion sludge microbiome remains scarce. Our study provides unprecedented genome-centric metagenomic insights into how WAS pretreatments change the digestion sludge microbiomes, as well as their metabolic networks. Moreover, digestion sludge microbiomes could be a unique source for exploring microbial dark matter. These results may inform future optimization of methanogenic sludge digestion and resource recovery.


Assuntos
Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Metagenoma , Microbiota , Esgotos/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
19.
Microb Biotechnol ; 13(5): 1597-1610, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940416

RESUMO

Microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation are vital processes to enhance organic matter degradation in sediments. However, the diversity and composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and their environmental driving factors are still poorly understood in aquaculture ponds, which received mounting of organic matter. In this study, bacterial communities, SRB and SOB from sediments of aquaculture ponds with different sizes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) were analysed using high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results indicated that microbial communities in aquaculture pond sediments of large juvenile fish showed the highest richness and abundance of SRB and SOB, potentially further enhancing microbial sulfur cycling. Specifically, SRB were dominated by Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio, whereas SOB were dominated by Dechloromonas and Leptothrix. Although large juvenile fish ponds had relatively lower concentrations of sulfur compounds (i.e. total sulfur, acid-volatile sulfide and elemental sulfur) than those of larval fish ponds, more abundant SRB and SOB were found in the large juvenile fish ponds. Further redundancy analysis (RDA) and linear regression indicated that sulfur compounds and sediment suspension are the major environmental factors shaping the abundance and community structure of SRB and SOB in aquaculture pond sediments. Findings of this study expand our current understanding of microbial driving sulfur cycling in aquaculture ecosystems and also provide novel insights for ecological and green aquaculture managements.

20.
Environ Int ; 144: 106068, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871382

RESUMO

Atmospheric CO2 concentration is increasing, largely due to anthropogenic activities. Previous studies of individual free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental sites have shown significant impacts of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on soil microbial communities; however, no common microbial response patterns have yet emerged, challenging our ability to predict ecosystem functioning and sustainability in the future eCO2 environment. Here we analyzed 66 soil microbial communities from five FACE sites, and showed common microbial response patterns to eCO2, especially for key functional genes involved in carbon and nitrogen fixation (e.g., pcc/acc for carbon fixation, nifH for nitrogen fixation), carbon decomposition (e.g., amyA and pulA for labile carbon decomposition, mnp and lcc for recalcitrant carbon decomposition), and greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., mcrA for methane production, norB for nitrous oxide production) across five FACE sites. Also, the relative abundance of those key genes was generally increased and directionally associated with increased biomass, soil carbon decomposition, and soil moisture. In addition, a further literature survey of more disparate FACE experimental sites indicated increased biomass, soil carbon decay, nitrogen fixation, methane and nitrous oxide emissions, plant and soil carbon and nitrogen under eCO2. A conceptual framework was developed to link commonly responsive functional genes with ecosystem processes, such as pcc/acc vs. soil carbon storage, amyA/pulA/mnp/lcc vs. soil carbon decomposition, and nifH vs. nitrogen availability, suggesting that such common responses of microbial functional genes may have the potential to predict ecosystem functioning and sustainability in the future eCO2 environment.

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