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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12117384, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538100

RESUMO

MicroRNA miR-181a is downregulated in the kidneys of hypertensive patients and hypertensive mice. In vitro, miR-181a is a posttranslational inhibitor of renin expression, but pleiotropic mechanisms by which miR-181a may influence blood pressure (BP) are unknown. Here, we determined whether deletion of miR-181a/b-1 in vivo changes BP and the molecular mechanisms involved at the single-cell level. We developed a KO (knockout) mouse model lacking miR-181a/b-1 genes using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Radiotelemetry probes were implanted in 12-week-old C57BL/6J WT (wild type) and miR-181a/b-1 KO mice. Systolic and diastolic BP were 4- to 5-mm Hg higher in KO compared with WT mice over 24 hours (P<0.01). Compared with WT mice, renal renin was higher in the juxtaglomerular cells of KO mice. BP was similar in WT mice on a high- (3.1%) versus low- (0.3%) sodium diet (+0.4±0.8 mm Hg), but KO mice showed salt sensitivity (+3.3±0.8 mm Hg; P<0.001). Since microRNAs can target several mRNAs simultaneously, we performed single-nuclei RNA sequencing in 6699 renal cells. We identified 12 distinct types of renal cells, all of which had genes that were dysregulated. This included genes involved in renal fibrosis and inflammation such as Stat4, Col4a1, Cd81, Flt3l, Cxcl16, and Smad4. We observed upregulation of pathways related to the immune system, inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, and nerve development, consistent with higher tyrosine hydroxylase in the kidney. In conclusion, downregulation of the miR-181a gene led to increased BP and salt sensitivity in mice. This is likely due to an increase in renin expression in juxtaglomerular cells, as well as microRNA-driven pleiotropic effects impacting renal pathways associated with hypertension.

2.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12117037, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538104

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that renal denervation is effective in alleviating hypertension associated with elevation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether this is due to reduction in renal afferent signaling is unclear. We determined the cardiovascular and sympathetic effects of total renal denervation or afferent renal denervation (topical capsaicin) on CKD induced by glomerular layer lesioning of the left kidney and right nephrectomy in conscious rabbits. CKD increased blood pressure by 18±2 mmHg and plasma creatinine by 40% over 2 to 4 weeks (both P<0.001), while RSNA (43%) and total norepinephrine spillover (28%) were elevated in CKD compared with sham (both P=0.04). After total or afferent renal denervation blood pressure, RSNA and norepinephrine spillover were similar or lower than non-CKD (sham) rabbits. While plasma creatinine in CKD rabbits was not affected by total renal denervation, deafferented rabbits had lower levels (P=0.017). The greater hypotensive response to pentolinium in CKD was also normalized after total or afferent denervation. Heart rate and RSNA baroreflex gain were similar in all groups. The RSNA response to airjet stress was greater in CKD compared with sham but not after total or afferent renal denervation. By contrast, the sympathetic response to hypoxia was similar in sham and CKD intact or deafferented groups but elevated in total denervated CKD animals. We conclude that the elevated sympathetic activity and blood pressure in this model of CKD is predominantly driven by renal afferents.

3.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(11): 1716-1725, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452845

RESUMO

AIM: Gut microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have vasodilator properties in animal and human ex vivo arteries. However, the role of the gut microbiota and SCFAs in arterial stiffness in humans is still unclear. Here we aimed to determine associations between the gut microbiome, SCFA and their G-protein coupled sensing receptors (GPCRs) in relation to human arterial stiffness. METHODS: Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) was determined from ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring in 69 participants from regional and metropolitan regions in Australia (55.1% women; mean, 59.8± SD, 7.26 years of age). The gut microbiome was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, SCFA levels by gas chromatography, and GPCR expression in circulating immune cells by real-time PCR. RESULTS: There was no association between metrics of bacterial α and ß diversity and AASI or AASI quartiles in men and women. We identified two main bacteria taxa that were associated with AASI quartiles: Lactobacillus spp. was only present in the lowest quartile, while Clostridium spp. was present in all quartiles but the lowest. AASI was positively associated with higher levels of plasma, but not faecal, butyrate. Finally, we identified that the expression of GPR43 (FFAR2) and GPR41 (FFAR3) in circulating immune cells were negatively associated with AASI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that arterial stiffness is associated with lower levels of the metabolite-sensing receptors GPR41/GPR43 in humans, blunting its response to BP-lowering metabolites such as butyrate. The role of Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium spp., as well as butyrate-sensing receptors GPR41/GPR43, in human arterial stiffness needs to be determined.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rigidez Vascular , Animais , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S
4.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453104

RESUMO

Recent findings in experimental models have shown that the microRNA miR-132 (mir-132) is an important regulator of liver homeostasis and lipid metabolism. We aimed to assess miR-132 expression in liver and fat tissues of obese individuals and examine its association with blood pressure (BP) and hepatic steatosis. We examined obese individuals undergoing bariatric surgery for weight loss (n = 19). Clinical and demographic information was obtained. Quantitative PCR was performed to determine tissue expression of miR-132 in liver and subcutaneous and visceral fat biopsies obtained during bariatric surgery. Liver biopsies were read by a single liver pathologist and graded for steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Participants (aged 39 ± 8.1 years) had a body mass index (BMI) of 42 ± 4.5 kg/m2 and presented with 2.2 ± 1.2 metabolic abnormalities. Supine BP was 127 ± 16/74 ± 11 mmHg. Hepatic and visceral fat expression of miR-132 were correlated (r = 0.59, P = 0.033). There was no correlation between subcutaneous and visceral expression of miR-132 (r = -0.31, P = 0.20). Hepatic and visceral fat miR-132 expression were associated with BMI (r = 0.62 and r = 0.68, P = 0.049 respectively) and degree of liver steatosis (r = 0.60 and r = 0.55, P < 0.05, respectively). Subcutaneous fat miRNA-132 expression was correlated to office systolic BP (r = 0.46, P < 0.05), several aspects of 24 h BP (24 h systolic BP: r = 0.52; day systolic BP: r = 0.59, P < 0.05 for all), plasma triglycerides (r = 0.51, P < 0.01) and liver enzymes (ALT: r = -0.52; AST: r = -0.48, P < 0.05 for all). We found an association between miR-132 and markers of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Reduction of miR-132 may be a target for the regulation of liver lipid homeostasis and control of obesity-related blood pressure.

5.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363610

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), or hypertension, is the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease. As a multifactorial and systemic disease that involves multiple organs and systems, hypertension remains a challenging disease to study. Models of hypertension are invaluable to support the discovery of the specific genetic, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying essential hypertension, as well as to test new possible treatments to lower BP. Rodent models have proven to be an invaluable tool for advancing the field. In this review, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of rodent models of hypertension through a systems approach. We highlight the ways how target organs and systems including the kidneys, vasculature, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), immune system and the gut microbiota influence BP in each rodent model. We also discuss often overlooked hypertensive conditions such as pulmonary hypertension and hypertensive-pregnancy disorders, providing an important resource for researchers.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14795, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285286

RESUMO

Renal sympathetic nerves contribute to renal excretory function during volume expansion. We hypothesized that intact renal innervation is required for excretion of a fluid/electrolyte load in hypertensive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and normotensive healthy settings. Blood pressure, kidney hemodynamic and excretory response to 180 min of isotonic saline loading (0.13 ml/kg/min) were examined in female normotensive (control) and hypertensive CKD sheep at 2 and 11 months after sham (control-intact, CKD-intact) or radiofrequency catheter-based RDN (control-RDN, CKD-RDN) procedure. Basal blood pressure was ~ 7 to 9 mmHg lower at 2, and 11 months in CKD-RDN compared with CKD-intact sheep. Saline loading did not alter glomerular filtration rate in any group. At 2 months, in response to saline loading, total urine and sodium excretion were ~ 40 to 50% less, in control-RDN and CKD-RDN than intact groups. At 11 months, the natriuretic and diuretic response to saline loading were similar between control-intact, control-RDN and CKD-intact groups but sodium excretion was ~ 42% less in CKD-RDN compared with CKD-intact at this time-point. These findings indicate that chronic withdrawal of basal renal sympathetic activity impairs fluid/electrolyte excretion during volume expansion. Clinically, a reduced ability to excrete a saline load following RDN may contribute to disturbances in body fluid balance in hypertensive CKD.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111668, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243630

RESUMO

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex and multifactorial condition often characterised by obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and fasting hyperglycaemia. Collectively, MetS can increase the risk of atherosclerotic-cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. However, no animal model currently exists to study MetS in the context of atherosclerosis. In this study we developed a pre-clinical mouse model that recapitulates the spectrum of MetS features while developing atherosclerosis. When BPHx mice were placed on a western type diet for 16 weeks, all the classical characteristics of MetS were observed. Comprehensive metabolic analyses and atherosclerotic imaging revealed BPHx mice to be obese and hypertensive, with elevated total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, that accelerated atherosclerosis. Altogether, we demonstrate that the BPHx mouse has all the major components of MetS, and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 496, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide that remains poorly controlled. Recent studies support the concept that the gut microbiota is involved in the development of hypertension and that dietary fibre intake may act through the gut microbiota to lower blood pressure (BP). Resistant starch is a type of prebiotic fibre which is metabolised by commensal bacteria in the colon to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Previous work in pre-clinical models provides strong evidence that both prebiotic fibre as well as SCFAs (i.e. postbiotics) can prevent the development of hypertension. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine if acetylated and butyrylated modified resistant starch can decrease BP of hypertensive individuals via the modulation of the gut microbiota and release of high levels of SCFAs. METHODS: This is a phase IIa double-blinded, randomised, cross-over, placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomly allocated to receive either a diet containing 40 g/day of the modified resistant starch or placebo (corn starch or regular flour) for 3 weeks on each diet, with a 3-week washout period between the two diets. BP is measured in the office, at home, and using a 24-h ambulatory device. Arterial stiffness is measured using carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity. Our primary endpoint is a reduction in ambulatory daytime systolic BP. Secondary endpoints include changes to circulating cytokines, immune markers, and modulation to the gut microbiome. DISCUSSION: The findings of this study will provide the first evidence for the use of a combination of pre- and postbiotics to lower BP in humans. The results are expected at the end of 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12619000916145 . Registered on 1 July 2019.


Assuntos
Análise de Onda de Pulso , Austrália , Pressão Sanguínea , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
10.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-7, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185521

RESUMO

Nutrition during the periconceptional period influences postnatal cardiovascular health. We determined whether in vitro embryo culture and transfer, which are manipulations of the nutritional environment during the periconceptional period, dysregulate postnatal blood pressure and blood pressure regulatory mechanisms. Embryos were either transferred to an intermediate recipient ewe (ET) or cultured in vitro in the absence (IVC) or presence of human serum (IVCHS) and a methyl donor (IVCHS+M) for 6 days. Basal blood pressure was recorded at 19-20 weeks after birth. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after varying doses of phenylephrine (PE). mRNA expression of signaling molecules involved in blood pressure regulation was measured in the renal artery. Basal MAP did not differ between groups. Baroreflex sensitivity, set point, and upper plateau were also maintained in all groups after PE stimulation. Adrenergic receptors alpha-1A (αAR1A), alpha-1B (αAR1B), and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) mRNA expression were not different from controls in the renal artery. These results suggest there is no programmed effect of ET or IVC on basal blood pressure or the baroreflex control mechanisms in adolescence, but future studies are required to determine the impact of ET and IVC on these mechanisms later in the life course when developmental programming effects may be unmasked by age.

11.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1470-1479, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895021

RESUMO

Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and high blood pressure are implicated in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and independently predict cardiovascular events in end-stage renal disease. To assess the role of renal nerves, we determined whether renal denervation (RDN) altered the hypertension and sympathoexcitation associated with a rabbit model of CKD. The model involves glomerular layer lesioning and uninephrectomy, resulting in renal function reduced by one-third and diuresis. After 3-week CKD, blood pressure was 13±2 mm Hg higher than at baseline (P<0.001), and compared with sham control rabbits, renal sympathetic nerve activity was 1.2±0.5 normalized units greater (P=0.01). The depressor response to ganglion blockade was also +8.0±3 mm Hg greater, but total norepinephrine spillover was 8.7±3.7 ng/min lower (both P<0.05). RDN CKD rabbits only increased blood pressure by 8.0±1.5 mm Hg. Renal sympathetic activity, the response to ganglion blockade and diuresis were similar to sham denervated rabbits (non-CKD). CKD rabbits had intact renal sympathetic baroreflex gain and range, as well as normal sympathetic responses to airjet stress. However, hypoxia-induced sympathoexcitation was reduced by -9±0.4 normalized units. RDN did not alter the sympathetic response to hypoxia or airjet stress. CKD increased oxidative stress markers Nox5 and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) in the kidney, but RDN had no effect on these measures. Thus, RDN is an effective treatment for hypertension in this model of CKD without further impairing renal function or altering the normal sympathetic reflex responses to various environmental stimuli.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/inervação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Denervação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Coelhos , Simpatectomia
12.
Kidney Int ; 98(4): 906-917, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763117

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with greater sympathetic nerve activity but it is unclear if this is a kidney-specific response or due to generalized stimulation of sympathetic nervous system activity. To determine this, we used a rabbit model of CKD in which quantitative comparisons with control rabbits could be made of kidney sympathetic nerve activity and whole-body norepinephrine spillover. Rabbits either had surgery to lesion 5/6th of the cortex of one kidney by electro-lesioning and two weeks later removal of the contralateral kidney, or sham lesioning and sham nephrectomy. After three weeks, the blood pressure was statistically significantly 20% higher in conscious rabbits with CKD compared to rabbits with a sham operation, but their heart rate was similar. Strikingly, kidney nerve activity was 37% greater than in controls, with greater burst height and frequency. Total norepinephrine spillover was statistically significantly lower by 34%, and kidney baroreflex curves were shifted to the right in rabbits with CKD. Plasma creatinine and urine output were elevated by 38% and 131%, respectively, and the glomerular filtration rate was 37% lower than in sham-operated animals (all statistically significant). Kidney gene expression of fibronectin, transforming growth factor-ß, monocyte chemotactic protein1, Nox4 and Nox5 was two- to eight-fold greater in rabbits with CKD than in control rabbits. Overall, the glomerular layer lesioning model in conscious rabbits produced a moderate, stable degree of CKD characterized by elevated blood pressure and increased kidney sympathetic nerve activity. Thus, our findings, together with that of a reduction in total norepinephrine spillover, suggest that kidney denervation, rather than generalized sympatholytic treatments, may represent a preferable management for CKD associated hypertension.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Animais , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Rim , Coelhos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático
13.
Front Physiol ; 11: 489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499720
14.
Diabetologia ; 63(7): 1424-1434, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372207

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We determined whether empagliflozin altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and baroreflexes in a diabetes model in conscious rabbits. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by alloxan, and RSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured before and after 1 week of treatment with empagliflozin, insulin, the diuretic acetazolamide or the ACE inhibitor perindopril, or no treatment, in conscious rabbits. RESULTS: Four weeks after alloxan administration, blood glucose was threefold and MAP 9% higher than non-diabetic controls (p < 0.05). One week of treatment with empagliflozin produced a stable fall in blood glucose (-43%) and increased water intake (+49%) but did not change RSNA, MAP or heart rate compared with untreated diabetic rabbits. The maximum RSNA to hypotension was augmented by 75% (p < 0.01) in diabetic rabbits but the heart rate baroreflex was unaltered. Empagliflozin and acetazolamide reduced the augmentation of the RSNA baroreflex (p < 0.05) to be similar to the non-diabetic group. Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) spillover was similar in untreated diabetic and non-diabetic rabbits but twofold greater in empagliflozin- and acetazolamide-treated rabbits (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: As empagliflozin can restore diabetes-induced augmented sympathetic reflexes, this may be beneficial in diabetic patients. A similar action of the diuretic acetazolamide suggests that the mechanism may involve increased sodium and water excretion. Graphical abstract.

15.
Hypertens Res ; 43(11): 1152-1164, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427944

RESUMO

BPH/2J mice are a genetic model of hypertension with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). BPH/2J display higher renal renin mRNA and low levels of its negative regulator microRNA-181a (miR-181a). We hypothesise that high renal SNS activity may reduce miR-181a expression, which contributes to elevated RAS activity and hypertension in BPH/2J. Our aim was to determine whether in vivo administration of a renal-specific miR-181a mimic or whether renal denervation could increase renal miR-181a abundance to reduce renal renin mRNA, RAS activity and hypertension in BPH/2J mice. Blood pressure (BP) in BPH/2J and normotensive BPN/3J mice was measured via radiotelemetry probes. Mice were administered miR-181a mimic or a negative control (1-25 nmol, i.v., n = 6-10) with BP measured for 48 h after each dose or they underwent renal denervation or sham surgery (n = 7-9). Injection of 5-25 nmol miR-181a mimic reduced BP in BPH/2J mice after 36-48 h (-5.3 ± 1.8, -6.1 ± 1.9 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.016). Treatment resulted in lower renal renin and inflammatory marker (TLR4) mRNA levels in BPH/2J. The mimic abolished the hypotensive effect of blocking the RAS with enalaprilat (P < 0.01). No differences between mimic or vehicle were observed in BPN/3J mice except for a higher level of renal angiotensinogen in the mimic-treated mice. Renal miR-181a levels that were lower in sham BPH/2J mice were greater following renal denervation and were thus similar to those of BPN/3J. Our findings suggest that the reduced renal miR-181a may partially contribute to the elevated BP in BPH/2J mice, through an interaction between the renal sympathetic nerves and miR-181a regulation of the RAS.

16.
Neural Regen Res ; 15(3): 512-518, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571663

RESUMO

Hypertension is a risk factor for a large number of vision-threatening eye disorders. In this study, we investigated for the first time the retinal neural structure of the hypertensive BPH/2J mouse (Schlager mouse) and compared it to its control counterpart, the normotensive BPN/3J strain. The BPH/2J mouse is a selectively inbred mouse strain that develops chronic hypertension due to elevated sympathetic nervous system activity. When compared to the BPN/3J strain, the hypertensive BPH/2J mice showed a complete loss of outer layers of the neural retina at 21 weeks of age, which was indicative of a severe vision-threatening disease potentially caused by hypertension. To elucidate whether the retinal neural phenotype in the BPH/2J strain was attributed to increased BP, we investigated the neural retina of both BPN/3J and BPH/2J mice at 4 weeks of age. Our preliminary results showed for the first time that the BPH/2J strain develops severe retinal neural damage at a young age. Our findings suggest that the retinal phenotype in the BPH/2J mouse is possibly due to elevated blood pressure and may be contributed by an early onset spontaneous mutation which is yet to be identified or a congenital defect occurring in this strain. Further characterization of the BPH/2J mouse strain is likely to i) elucidate gene defects underlying retinal disease; ii) understand mechanisms leading to neural retinal disease and iii) permit testing of molecules for translational research to interfere with the progression of retinal disease. The animal experiments were performed with the approval of the Royal Perth Hospital Animal Ethics Committee (R535/17-18) on June 1, 2017.

17.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(1): 21-28, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769175

RESUMO

We examined whether there were differences in the circadian variation in blood pressure and the morning surge in blood pressure between black and white Africans. Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure data obtained from the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study was examined (n = 406; 49% black African). Ambulatory blood pressure readings were fitted to a six-parameter double logistic equation to determine the power and rate of the morning surge in blood pressure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine differences in blood pressure between black and white participants. Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure were higher in black participants throughout the day and night. In those taking medications, blood pressure was less well controlled in black subjects. Despite the higher systolic blood pressure, the day-night difference estimated by the logistic function was similar in black and white participants. However, the rate of rise and power in the morning surge in blood pressure was lower in black participants. We conclude that black participants of the SABPA study present with higher blood pressure throughout the day and night but have a lower power of the morning surge in blood pressure due to a slower morning rate of increase. Moreover, they had an increased prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension and, in those taking medication, were less likely to have their blood pressure controlled than their white counterparts.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Hipertensão , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , África do Sul
18.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681017

RESUMO

It has been 45 years since Gunther Schlager used a cross breeding program in mice to develop inbred strains with high, normal, and low blood pressure (BPH/2, BPN/3, and BPL/1 respectively). Thus, it is timely to gather together the studies that have characterized and explored the mechanisms associated with the hypertension to take stock of exactly what is known and what remains to be determined. Growing evidence supports the notion that the mechanism of hypertension in BPH/2 mice is predominantly neurogenic with some of the early studies showing aberrant brain noradrenaline levels in BPH/2 compared with BPN/3. Analysis of the adrenal gland using microarray suggested an association with the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, in support of this, there is a larger depressor response to ganglion blockade, which reduced blood pressure in BPH/2 mice to the same level as BPN/3 mice. Greater renal tyrosine hydroxylase staining and greater renal noradrenaline levels in BPH/2 mice suggest sympathetic hyperinnervation of the kidney. Renal denervation markedly reduced the blood pressure in BPH/2 but not BPN/3 mice, confirming the importance of renal sympathetic nervous activity contributing to the hypertension. Further, there is an important contribution to the hypertension from miR-181a and renal renin in this strain. BPH/2 mice also display greater neuronal activity of amygdalo-hypothalamic cardiovascular regulatory regions. Lesions of the medial nucleus of the amygdala reduced the hypertension in BPH/2 mice and abolished the strain difference in the effect of ganglion blockade, suggesting a sympathetic mechanism. Further studies suggest that aberrant GABAergic inhibition may play a role since BPH/2 mice have low GABAA receptor δ, α4 and ß2 subunit mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, which are predominantly involved in promoting tonic neuronal inhibition. Allopregnanolone, an allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, which increase the expression of these subunits in the amygdala and hypothalamus, is shown to reduce the hypertension and sympathetic nervous system contribution in BPH/2 mice. Thus far, evidence suggests that BPH/2 mice have aberrant GABAergic inhibition, which drives neuronal overactivity within amygdalo-hypothalamic brain regions. This overactivity is responsible for the greater sympathetic contribution to the hypertension in BPH/2 mice, thus making this an ideal model of neurogenic hypertension.

19.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620011

RESUMO

Objective: Excess adiposity increases the risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. Beyond the simple level of adiposity, the pattern of fat distribution may influence these risks. We sought to examine if higher android fat distribution was associated with different hemodynamic, metabolic or vascular profile compared to a lower accumulation of android fat deposits in young overweight males. Methods: Forty-six participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and were stratified into two groups. Group 1: low level of android fat (<9.5%) and group 2: high level of android fat (>9.5%). Assessments comprised measures of plasma lipid and glucose profile, blood pressure, endothelial function [reactive hyperemia index (RHI)] and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Results: There were no differences in weight, BMI, total body fat and lean mass between the two groups. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (fasting plasma insulin) were impaired in group 2 (p < 0.05). Levels of plasma triglycerides and 5 lipid species were higher in group 2 (p < 0.05). Endothelial function was less in group 2 (RHI: 1.64 vs. 2.26, p = 0.003) and heart rate was higher (76 vs. 67 bpm, p = 0.004). No difference occurred in MSNA nor blood pressure between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Preferential fat accumulation in the android compartment is associated with increased cardiovascular and metabolic risk via alteration of endothelial function.

20.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 133(20): 2061-2067, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654065

RESUMO

The precise mechanisms underlying resistant hypertension remain elusive. Reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is frequently documented in chronic kidney disease, obesity, diabetes and advanced age, all of which are risk factors for resistant hypertension. Sympathetic overactivity and chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin system are salient features of resistant hypertension. Interestingly, recent data indicate that renal sympathetic overactivity can reduce the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the paraventricular nucleus. Reduced NO levels in the paraventricular nucleus can increase sympathetic outflow and this can create a vicious cycle contributing to resistant hypertension. Angiotensin II can reduce l-arginine transport and hence NO production. Reduced NO levels may reduce the formation of angiotensin 1-7 dampening the cardio-protective effects of the renin-angiotensin system contributing to resistant hypertension. In addition, interleukin-6 (IL-6) is demonstrated to be independently associated with resistant hypertension, and IL-6 can reduce NO synthesis. Despite this, NO levels have not been quantified in resistant hypertension. Findings from a small proof of concept study indicate that NO donors can reduce blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension but more studies are required to validate these preliminary findings. In the present paper, we put forward the hypothesis that reduced NO bioavailability contributes substantially to the development of resistant hypertension.


Assuntos
Arginina/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Inflamação/complicações , Óxido Nítrico/deficiência , Óxido Nítrico/farmacocinética , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Falha de Tratamento , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
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