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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(11): e0553, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729491

RESUMO

Donation after circulatory determination of death has increased the number of organs available but can result in worse recipient outcomes than organs recovered from donors after neurologic death. Normothermic regional perfusion is a novel tool that can circumvent the shortcomings of donation after circulatory determination of death. However, its implementation may pose a threat to existing laws surrounding death declaration. Here, we propose a research agenda that will allow this technology to be introduced within current Canadian organ donation frameworks.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Task-sharing treatment approaches offer a pragmatic approach to treating common mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Friendship Bench (FB), developed in Zimbabwe with increasing adoption in other LMICs, is one example of this type of treatment model using lay health workers (LHWs) to deliver treatment. OBJECTIVE: To consider the level of treatment coverage required for a recent scale-up of the FB in Zimbabwe to be considered cost-effective. METHODS: A modelling-based deterministic threshold analysis conducted within a 'cost-utility' framework using a recommended cost-effectiveness threshold. FINDINGS: The FB would need to treat an additional 3413 service users (10 per active LHW per year) for its scale-up to be considered cost-effective. This assumes a level of treatment effect observed under clinical trial conditions. The associated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $191 per year lived with disability avoided, assuming treatment coverage levels reported during 2020. The required treatment coverage for a cost-effective outcome is within the level of treatment coverage observed during 2020 and remained so even when assuming significantly compromised levels of treatment effect. CONCLUSIONS: The economic case for a scaled-up delivery of the FB appears convincing in principle and its adoption at scale in LMIC settings should be given serious consideration. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Further evidence on the types of scale-up strategies that are likely to offer an effective and cost-effective means of sustaining required levels of treatment coverage will help focus efforts on approaches to scale-up that optimise resources invested in task-sharing programmes.

4.
CJEM ; 23(5): 626-630, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis are common conditions that frequently require patients to come to the Emergency Department (ED) and undergo diagnostic imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test characteristics of emergency physician performed point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to diagnose cholelithiasis and cholecystitis in a Canadian ED. METHODS: A health records review was performed on all ED patients > 17 years of age for whom POCUS was performed to diagnose cholelithiasis and cholecystitis in a Canadian academic ED over a 5-year period. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated. The gold standard used for diagnosis was pathology, laparoscopy, radiology-performed comprehensive ultrasonography, followed by computed tomography scans. RESULTS: A total of 577 patients were included in the study. The sensitivity and specificity of POCUS to diagnose cholelithiasis was 95.2% (95% CI 91.1-97.8%) and 93.1% (95% CI 90.1-95.4%). The positive and negative likelihood ratios for POCUS to diagnose cholelithiasis were found to be 14 and 0.05; the negative predictive value was 97.6% (95% CI 95.5-98.7%). The sensitivity and specificity of POCUS to diagnose cholecystitis was 67.1% (95% CI 54.9-77.9%) and 97.6% (95% CI 95.9-98.8%). The positive and negative likelihood ratios for POCUS to diagnose cholecystitis were found to be 28 and 0.34; the negative predictive value was 95.6% (95% CI 93.9-96.8%). CONCLUSION: POCUS is reliable for the diagnosis of cholelithiasis and for ruling in cholecystitis. In cases where POCUS is negative or indeterminate for cholecystitis, further imaging should be obtained as clinical suspicion warrants.


Assuntos
Colecistite , Colelitíase , Canadá , Colelitíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia
5.
Age Ageing ; 50(5): 1770-1777, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: increasing numbers of older people are undergoing vascular surgery. Preoperative comprehensive geriatric assessment and optimisation (CGA) reduces postoperative complications and length of hospital stay. Establishing CGA-based perioperative services requires health economic evaluation prior to implementation. Through a modelling-based economic evaluation, using data from a single site clinical trial, this study evaluates whether CGA is a cost-effective alternative to standard preoperative assessment for older patients undergoing elective arterial surgery. METHODS: an economic evaluation, using decision-analytic modelling, comparing preoperative CGA and optimisation with standard preoperative care, was undertaken in older patients undergoing elective arterial surgery. The incremental net health benefit of CGA, expressed in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), was used to evaluate cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: CGA is a cost-effective substitute for standard preoperative care in elective arterial surgery across a range of cost-effectiveness threshold values. An incremental net benefit of 0.58 QALYs at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £30k, 0.60 QALYs at a threshold of £20k and 0.63 QALYs at a threshold of £13k was observed. Mean total pre- and postoperative health care utilisation costs were estimated to be £1,165 lower for CGA patients largely accounted for by reduced postoperative bed day utilisation. CONCLUSION: this study demonstrates a likely health economic benefit in addition to the previously described clinical benefit of employing CGA methodology in the preoperative setting in older patients undergoing arterial surgery. Further evaluation should examine whether CGA-based perioperative services can be effectively implemented and achieve the same clinical and health economic outcomes at scale.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
6.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(2): 147-152, 2021 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685560

RESUMO

Background: Epinephrine is the first-line therapy for patients with anaphylaxis, and intramuscular (IM) delivery is shown to be superior to subcutaneous (SC) delivery. There currently is no consensus on the ideal body position for epinephrine autoinjector (EAI) administration. Objective: We designed this study to investigate whether SC tissue depth (SCTD) is affected by body position (e.g., standing, sitting, supine), which can potentially impact delivery of EAI into the IM space. Methods: Volunteer adults (ages ≥ 18 years) from a military medical treatment facility in the United States were recruited to participate in this study. SCTD of the vastus lateralis was measured via ultrasound at standing, sitting, and supine body positions. Subjects' age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to compare average SCTD between body positions, sex, and BMI. Results: An analysis of variance of 51 participants (33 men and 18 women) did not reveal statistically significant difference in SCTD among standing, sitting, and supine body positions. It did show a significantly greater SCTD in women than in men (2.72 ± 1.36 cm versus 1.10 ± 0.38 cm; p < 0.001). There was no significant association observed between BMI and SCTD in this study. Conclusion: Body position did not seem to significantly change the distance between skin and thigh muscle in adults. This would suggest that there might not be an ideal body position for EAI administration. Therefore, in case of anaphylaxis, prompt administration of epinephrine is recommended at any position.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Postura , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoadministração , Coxa da Perna , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
7.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(5): 661-671, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543427

RESUMO

Controlled donation after circulatory determination of death (DCD), where death is determined after cardiac arrest, has been responsible for the largest quantitative increase in Canadian organ donation and transplants, but not for heart transplants. Innovative international advances in DCD heart transplantation include direct procurement and perfusion (DPP) and normothermic regional perfusion (NRP). After death is determined, DPP involves removal and reanimation of the arrested heart on an ex situ organ perfusion system. Normothermic regional perfusion involves surgically interrupting (ligating the aortic arch vessels) brain blood flow after death determination, followed by restarting the heart and circulation in situ using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The objectives of this Canadian consensus building process by a multidisciplinary group of Canadian stakeholders were to review current evidence and international DCD heart experience, comparatively evaluate international protocols with existing Canadian medical, legal, and ethical practices, and to discuss implementation barriers. Review of current evidence and international experience of DCD heart donation (DPP and NRP) determined that DCD heart donation could be used to provide opportunities for more heart transplants in Canada, saving additional lives. Although candid discussion identified a number of potential barriers and challenges for implementing DCD heart donation in Canada, it was determined that DPP implementation is feasible (pending regulatory approval for the use of an ex situ perfusion device in humans) and in alignment with current medical guidelines for DCD. Nevertheless, further work is required to evaluate the consistency of NRP with current Canadian death determination policy and to ensure the absence of brain perfusion during this process.


Assuntos
Preservação de Órgãos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Canadá , Consenso , Morte , Humanos , Perfusão , Doadores de Tecidos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients with chronic intestinal failure but can be associated with a degree of psychological distress. The factors associated with the need for antidepressants (ADs) in this cohort have not yet been described. METHODS: The study involved prospective data collection from patients attending an HPN clinic at a national intestinal failure referral center. Patients requiring HPN as a result of active malignancy were excluded. Patients were divided in 2 groups according to AD usage; demographic, anthropometric, socioeconomic characteristics, and intravenous supplementation (IVS) regimens were compared between groups. RESULTS: A total of 184 patients were recruited between July 2018 and April 2019, with an overall prevalence of AD use of 41.7% (70/168 patients). Daily mean IVS volume was significantly higher among patients taking AD ("AD" group; 2125.48 ± 991.8 ml/day, "no-AD" group; 1828.54 ± 847.0 ml/day, P = .039), with the proportion of patients needing high-volume IVS (≥3000 ml/day) being 3 times higher in the AD group (20.0%(14/70 patients) vs 6.1% (6/98 patients), P = .006). The average energy IVS infusion per day was similar between the groups. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate that AD use correlates with higher IVS volume rather than energy requirements in HPN patients, suggesting that high IVS volume requirements may be better associated with the patient's disease burden. Early and tailored mental health intervention may be beneficial in those with high IVS volume requirements.

9.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(6): 846-854, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While most overdose deaths in Canada occur in the community, some patients are resuscitated, admitted to intensive care units having sustained severe anoxic brain injury, and have the potential to be organ donors. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the overdose crisis on organ donation in selected Canadian provinces. METHODS: We obtained data on the total number of organ donors and those dying because of overdose in five Canadian provinces from 2014 to 2018. We also obtained data for January-June 2019 for four of five provinces (Quebec excepted). We accessed federal and provincial data on the number of overdose deaths and compared the proportion of organ donors who died of an overdose both over time and between provinces. The number of organ transplants resulting from donors dying of an overdose from three provinces was also determined. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2017, there was a 35% increase (554 to 747) in total deceased organ donors but a 294% increase (31 to 122) in organ donors dying of an overdose. While the proportion of organ donors dying from an overdose increased overall, this varied from 35% (42 of 121) in British Columbia to < 5% in both Quebec (9 of 182) and Nova Scotia (< 2 of 16). There were 1,043 organ transplants resulting from organ donors dying of overdose in BC, Ontario and Alberta although only 2.5-3.5% (297 of 10,858) of those dying of an overdose became organ donors. CONCLUSIONS: There has been an increase in organ donors dying from drug overdose in Canada. Regional variation mirrors differences in total opiate-related death.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transplante de Órgãos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Alberta , Colúmbia Britânica , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos
11.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(3): 293-314, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174163

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurologic determination of death (NDD) is legally accepted as death in Canada but remains susceptible to misunderstandings. In some cases, families request continued organ support after NDD. Conflicts can escalate to formal legal challenges, causing emotional, financial, and moral distress for all involved. We describe prevalence, characteristics, and common experiences with requests for continued organ support following NDD in Canada. METHODS: Mixed-methods design combining anonymous online survey with semi-structured interviews of Canadian critical care physicians (448 practitioners, adult and pediatric). RESULTS: One hundred and six physicians responded to the survey and 12 participated in an interview. Fifty-two percent (55/106) of respondents had encountered a request for continued organ support after NDD within two years, 47% (26/55) of which involved threat of legal action. Requests for continued support following NDD ranged from appeals for time for family to gather before ventilator removal to disagreement with the concept of NDD. Common responses to requests included: consultation with an additional physician (54%), consultation with spiritual services (41%), and delay of one to three days for NDD acceptance (49%). Respondents with prior experience were less likely to recommend ancillary tests (P = 0.004) or consultation with bioethics services (P = 0.004). Qualitative analysis revealed perceptions that requests for continued organ support were driven by mistrust, tensions surrounding decision-making, and cultural differences rather than a lack of specific information about NDD. CONCLUSIONS: Family requests for continued somatic support following NDD were encountered by half our sample of Canadian critical care physicians. Mitigation strategies require attention to the multifaceted social contexts surrounding these complex scenarios.


Assuntos
Médicos , Adulto , Canadá , Criança , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Am J Transplant ; 21(1): 415-418, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803817

RESUMO

Organ donation after medical assistance in dying (MAID) has only been possible for patients having the MAID procedure performed at a hospital facility due to prohibitive warm ischemic times. Herein, we describe a protocol for lung donation following MAID at home and demonstrate excellent postoperative outcomes. Lung donation following MAID at home is possible and should be considered by transplant programs.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Humanos , Pulmão , Assistência Médica , Doadores de Tecidos
14.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epinephrine is the first-line therapy for patients with anaphylaxis, and intramuscular (IM) delivery is shownto be superior to subcutaneous (SC) delivery. There currently is no consensus on the ideal body position for epinephrine autoinjector (EAI) administration. OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to investigate whether SC tissue depth (SCTD) is affected by body position (e.g., standing, sitting, supine), which can potentially impact delivery of EAI into the IM space. METHODS: Volunteer adults (ages >/= 18 years) from a military medical treatment facility in the United States were recruitedto participate in this study. SCTD of the vastus lateralis was measured via ultrasound at standing, sitting, and supine bodypositions. Subjects' age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were collected. Statistical analysis was performed to compare averageSCTD between body positions, sex, and BMI. RESULTS: An analysis of variance of 51 participants (33 men and 18 women) did not reveal statistically significant differencein SCTD among standing, sitting, and supine body positions. It did show a significantly greater SCTD in women than in men (2.72 +/- 1.36 cm versus 1.10 +/- 0.38 cm; p < 0.001). There was no significant association observed between BMI and SCTD in this study. CONCLUSION: Body position did not seem to significantly change the distance between skin and thigh muscle in adults. Thiswould suggest that there might not be an ideal body position for EAI administration. Therefore, in case of anaphylaxis, promptadministration of epinephrine is recommended at any position.

15.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(12): 1738-1748, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heart donation and transplantation following circulatory determination of death has yet to be performed in Canada. A consensus forum was held to provide expert guidance to inform policy with a comprehensive patient partner strategy. This paper describes the process used to create fulsome patient partner engagement resulting in mutually beneficial policy development in this complex area. METHODS: A wide-ranging process for involving patient partners in this area included pre-meeting education, in-meeting expert support, full participation and permission to step back if desired, and post-meeting debriefing. Following the meeting, a questionnaire was used to guide a debrief discussion with patient partners and steering committee members who co-authored this paper. RESULTS: Five key themes arose that echoed the sentiments and contributions made by patient partners, including: 1) a strong desire to improve the system, 2) gratitude and honour, 3) expert support and process, 4) simplification of complex concepts, and 5) mutual benefit expressed by patient partners and healthcare professionals. CONCLUSION: Despite the complexity of the content and the emotionally sensitive nature of discussions around deceased organ donation, a well-planned strategy to involve patient partners is important, impactful, and central to the process. This suggests a broad interprofessional audience can engage with properly prepared and supported patient partners to strengthen and focus dialogue and outputs in the development of health policy in the donation and transplant sector.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Canadá , Consenso , Morte , Humanos , Doadores de Tecidos
17.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(11): 1549-1556, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donation after circulatory determination of death (DCD) is responsible for the largest increase in deceased donation over the past decade. When the Canadian DCD guideline was published in 2006, it included recommendations to create standard policies and procedures for withdrawal of life-sustaining measures (WLSM) as well as quality assurance frameworks for this practice. In 2016, the Canadian Critical Care Society produced a guideline for WLSM that requires modifications to facilitate implementation when DCD is part of the end-of-life care plan. METHODS: A pan-Canadian multidisciplinary collaborative was convened to examine the existing guideline framework and to create tools to put the existing guideline into practice in centres that practice DCD. RESULTS: A set of guiding principles for implementation of the guideline in DCD practice were produced using an iterative, consensus-based approach followed by development of four implementation tools and three quality assurance and audit tools. CONCLUSIONS: The tools developed will aid DCD centres in fulsomely adapting the Canadian Critical Care Society Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Measures guideline.


Assuntos
Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Canadá , Cuidados Críticos , Morte , Humanos , Doadores de Tecidos
20.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(8): 1035-1043, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440908

RESUMO

The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasing globally, although mortality in this setting remains high. Patients on ECMO may be potential organ donors in the context of withdrawal of life-sustaining measures (WLSM) or neurologic determination of death (NDD). Nevertheless, there are currently no Canadian standards to guide clinicians on NDD or WLSM for the purposes of organ donation in this patient population. Apnea testing remains fundamental to determining NDD and is an area where ECMO may alter routine procedures. In this review, we outline protocols for the performance of apnea testing and WLSM for patients supported with ECMO, highlighting important technical and physiologic considerations that may affect the determination of death. In addition, we review important considerations for NDD in ECMO, including management of potential confounders, strategies for controlling oxygen and carbon dioxide levels during apnea testing, and the appropriate use of ancillary tests to support NDD. In the context of ECMO support, there is limited evidence to guide NDD and WLSM for the purposes of organ donation. Drawing upon extensive clinical experience, we provide protocols for these processes and review other important considerations in an effort to maximize donor potential in this growing patient population.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Morte Encefálica , Humanos , Doadores de Tecidos
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