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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 830-842, 2016 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087319

RESUMO

Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome with a significant risk of gastric, but not colorectal, adenocarcinoma. We mapped the gene to 5q22 and found loss of the wild-type allele on 5q in fundic gland polyps from affected individuals. Whole-exome and -genome sequencing failed to find causal mutations but, through Sanger sequencing, we identified point mutations in APC promoter 1B that co-segregated with disease in all six families. The mutations reduced binding of the YY1 transcription factor and impaired activity of the APC promoter 1B in luciferase assays. Analysis of blood and saliva from carriers showed allelic imbalance of APC, suggesting that these mutations lead to decreased allele-specific expression in vivo. Similar mutations in APC promoter 1B occur in rare families with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Promoter 1A is methylated in GAPPS and sporadic FGPs and in normal stomach, which suggests that 1B transcripts are more important than 1A in gastric mucosa. This might explain why all known GAPPS-affected families carry promoter 1B point mutations but only rare FAP-affected families carry similar mutations, the colonic cells usually being protected by the expression of the 1A isoform. Gastric polyposis and cancer have been previously described in some FAP-affected individuals with large deletions around promoter 1B. Our finding that GAPPS is caused by point mutations in the same promoter suggests that families with mutations affecting the promoter 1B are at risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, regardless of whether or not colorectal polyps are present.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Pólipos Adenomatosos/genética , Éxons/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Desequilíbrio Alélico/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Ligação Genética/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Linhagem , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
2.
J Med Genet ; 53(1): 34-42, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26534844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gene panel testing for breast cancer susceptibility has become relatively cheap and accessible. However, the breast cancer risks associated with mutations in many genes included in these panels are unknown. METHODS: We performed custom-designed targeted sequencing covering the coding exons of 17 known and putative breast cancer susceptibility genes in 660 non-BRCA1/2 women with familial breast cancer. Putative deleterious mutations were genotyped in relevant family members to assess co-segregation of each variant with disease. We used maximum likelihood models to estimate the breast cancer risks associated with mutations in each of the genes. RESULTS: We found 31 putative deleterious mutations in 7 known breast cancer susceptibility genes (TP53, PALB2, ATM, CHEK2, CDH1, PTEN and STK11) in 45 cases, and 22 potential deleterious mutations in 31 cases in 8 other genes (BARD1, BRIP1, MRE11, NBN, RAD50, RAD51C, RAD51D and CDK4). The relevant variants were then genotyped in 558 family members. Assuming a constant relative risk of breast cancer across age groups, only variants in CDH1, CHEK2, PALB2 and TP53 showed evidence of a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with some supportive evidence that mutations in ATM confer moderate risk. CONCLUSIONS: Panel testing for these breast cancer families provided additional relevant clinical information for <2% of families. We demonstrated that segregation analysis has some potential to help estimate the breast cancer risks associated with mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, but very large case-control sequencing studies and/or larger family-based studies will be needed to define the risks more accurately.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Éxons , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Linhagem
3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 61, 2015 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925750

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Variability in mitochondrial genetic background can alter reactive oxygen species production, leading to cancer risk. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We genotyped 22,214 (11,421 affected, 10,793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched in affected or unaffected individuals. RESULTS: We discovered that subclade T1a1 was depleted in affected BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with the rest of clade T (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 0.88; P = 0.01). Compared with the most frequent haplogroup in the general population (that is, H and T clades), the T1a1 haplogroup has a HR of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates how original approaches such as the phylogeny-based method we used can empower classical molecular epidemiological studies aimed at identifying association or risk modification effects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA2 , Genes Mitocondriais , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Risco
4.
JAMA ; 313(13): 1347-61, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849179

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. OBJECTIVE: To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk. EXPOSURES: Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breast and ovarian cancer risks. RESULTS: Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.69-3.16; P = .00002). We also identified 3 OCCRs: the first (OCCR1) spanned c.3249 to c.5681 that was adjacent to c.5946delT (6174delT; RHR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.44-0.60; P = 6 × 10(-17)). The second OCCR spanned c.6645 to c.7471 (OCCR2; RHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.80; P = .001). Mutations conferring nonsense-mediated decay were associated with differential breast or ovarian cancer risks and an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Breast and ovarian cancer risks varied by type and location of BRCA1/2 mutations. With appropriate validation, these data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nucleotídeos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nat Genet ; 47(2): 164-71, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581431

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we assessed associations of 11 million genetic variants with EOC risk from 15,437 cases unselected for family history and 30,845 controls and from 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers (3,096 with ovarian cancer), and we combined the results in a meta-analysis. This new study design yielded increased statistical power, leading to the discovery of six new EOC susceptibility loci. Variants at 1p36 (nearest gene, WNT4), 4q26 (SYNPO2), 9q34.2 (ABO) and 17q11.2 (ATAD5) were associated with EOC risk, and at 1p34.3 (RSPO1) and 6p22.1 (GPX6) variants were specifically associated with the serous EOC subtype, all with P < 5 × 10(-8). Incorporating these variants into risk assessment tools will improve clinical risk predictions for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 4: 4669, 2014 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24810093

RESUMO

ABCB1 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B1) mediates cellular elimination of many chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel, which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. A significant association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1 and progression-free survival has been reported in patients with ovarian cancer. Variable paclitaxel clearance due to genotype specific differences in ABCB1 activity in cancer cells and/or normal tissues may underlie the association. Using cell-based models, we evaluated the correlations between ABCB1 expression, polymorphisms, transporter activity and paclitaxel sensitivity in ovarian cancer (n = 10) and lymphoblastoid (n = 19) cell lines. Close associations between ABCB1 expression, transporter function and paclitaxel sensitivity were found in lymphoblastoid cell lines, although we could not demonstrate an association with common SNPs. In ovarian cancer cell lines, ABCB1 expression was low and the association between expression and function was lost. These results suggest that ABCB1 related survival difference in ovarian cancer patients is more likely to be due to differential whole body paclitaxel clearance mediated by normal cells rather than a direct effect on cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos
7.
Breast Cancer Res ; 16(6): 3416, 2014 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25919761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: More than 70 common alleles are known to be involved in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, and several exhibit significant heterogeneity in their associations with different BC subtypes. Although there are differences in the association patterns between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and the general population for several loci, no study has comprehensively evaluated the associations of all known BC susceptibility alleles with risk of BC subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. METHODS: We used data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 carriers to analyze the associations between approximately 200,000 genetic variants on the iCOGS array and risk of BC subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and triple-negative- (TN) status; morphologic subtypes; histological grade; and nodal involvement. RESULTS: The estimated BC hazard ratios (HRs) for the 74 known BC alleles in BRCA1 carriers exhibited moderate correlations with the corresponding odds ratios from the general population. However, their associations with ER-positive BC in BRCA1 carriers were more consistent with the ER-positive associations in the general population (intraclass correlation (ICC) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45 to 0.74), and the same was true when considering ER-negative associations in both groups (ICC = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.72). Similarly, there was strong correlation between the ER-positive associations for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (ICC = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.78), whereas ER-positive associations in any one of the groups were generally inconsistent with ER-negative associations in any of the others. After stratifying by ER status in mutation carriers, additional significant associations were observed. Several previously unreported variants exhibited associations at P <10(-6) in the analyses by PR status, HER2 status, TN phenotype, morphologic subtypes, histological grade and nodal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in associations of common BC susceptibility alleles between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers and the general population are explained to a large extent by differences in the prevalence of ER-positive and ER-negative tumors. Estimates of the risks associated with these variants based on population-based studies are likely to be applicable to mutation carriers after taking ER status into account, which has implications for risk prediction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 16(6): 3419, 2014 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25857409

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The distribution of histopathological features of invasive breast tumors in BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation carriers differs from that of individuals with no known mutation. Histopathological features thus have utility for mutation prediction, including statistical modeling to assess pathogenicity of BRCA1 or BRCA2 variants of uncertain clinical significance. We analyzed large pathology datasets accrued by the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) to reassess histopathological predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status, and provide robust likelihood ratio (LR) estimates for statistical modeling. METHODS: Selection criteria for study/center inclusion were estrogen receptor (ER) status or grade data available for invasive breast cancer diagnosed younger than 70 years. The dataset included 4,477 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 2,565 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 47,565 BCAC breast cancer cases. Country-stratified estimates of the likelihood of mutation status by histopathological markers were derived using a Mantel-Haenszel approach. RESULTS: ER-positive phenotype negatively predicted BRCA1 mutation status, irrespective of grade (LRs from 0.08 to 0.90). ER-negative grade 3 histopathology was more predictive of positive BRCA1 mutation status in women 50 years or older (LR = 4.13 (3.70 to 4.62)) versus younger than 50 years (LR = 3.16 (2.96 to 3.37)). For BRCA2, ER-positive grade 3 phenotype modestly predicted positive mutation status irrespective of age (LR = 1.7-fold), whereas ER-negative grade 3 features modestly predicted positive mutation status at 50 years or older (LR = 1.54 (1.27 to 1.88)). Triple-negative tumor status was highly predictive of BRCA1 mutation status for women younger than 50 years (LR = 3.73 (3.43 to 4.05)) and 50 years or older (LR = 4.41 (3.86 to 5.04)), and modestly predictive of positive BRCA2 mutation status in women 50 years or older (LR = 1.79 (1.42 to 2.24)). CONCLUSIONS: These results refine likelihood-ratio estimates for predicting BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status by using commonly measured histopathological features. Age at diagnosis is an important variable for most analyses, and grade is more informative than ER status for BRCA2 mutation carrier prediction. The estimates will improve BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant classification and inform patient mutation testing and clinical management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
9.
PLoS Genet ; 9(3): e1003173, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23544012

RESUMO

Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH) identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated with risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (rs9348512; per allele HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80-0.90, P = 3.9 × 10(-8)). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk either in the general population or in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The locus lies within a region containing TFAP2A, which encodes a transcriptional activation protein that interacts with several tumor suppressor genes. This report identifies the first breast cancer risk locus specific to a BRCA2 mutation background. This comprehensive update of novel and previously reported breast cancer susceptibility loci contributes to the establishment of a panel of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for medical prevention of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
10.
PLoS Genet ; 9(3): e1003212, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23544013

RESUMO

BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7 × 10(-8), HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4 × 10(-8), HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4 × 10(-8), HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10(-4)). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%-50% compared to 81%-100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nat Genet ; 45(4): 371-84, 384e1-2, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23535731

RESUMO

TERT-locus SNPs and leukocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the Illumina custom genotyping array iCOGs, we analyzed ∼480 SNPs at the TERT locus in breast (n = 103,991), ovarian (n = 39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (n = 11,705) cancer cases and controls. Leukocyte telomere measurements were also available for 53,724 participants. Most associations cluster into three independent peaks. The minor allele at the peak 1 SNP rs2736108 associates with longer telomeres (P = 5.8 × 10(-7)), lower risks for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (P = 1.0 × 10(-8)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)) breast cancers and altered promoter assay signal. The minor allele at the peak 2 SNP rs7705526 associates with longer telomeres (P = 2.3 × 10(-14)), higher risk of low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer (P = 1.3 × 10(-15)) and greater promoter activity. The minor alleles at the peak 3 SNPs rs10069690 and rs2242652 increase ER-negative (P = 1.2 × 10(-12)) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (P = 1.6 × 10(-14)) breast and invasive ovarian (P = 1.3 × 10(-11)) cancer risks but not via altered telomere length. The cancer risk alleles of rs2242652 and rs10069690, respectively, increase silencing and generate a truncated TERT splice variant.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Telomerase/genética , Telômero/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatina/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco
12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 136(1): 295-302, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23011509

RESUMO

Several common germline variants identified through genome-wide association studies of breast cancer risk in the general population have recently been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. When combined, these variants can identify marked differences in the absolute risk of developing breast cancer for mutation carriers, suggesting that additional modifier loci may further enhance individual risk assessment for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recently, a common variant on 6p22 (rs9393597) was found to be associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.55, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.92, p = 6.0 × 10(-5)]. This observation was based on data from GWAS studies in which, despite statistical correction for multiple comparisons, the possibility of false discovery remains a concern. Here, we report on an analysis of this variant in an additional 6,165 BRCA1 and 3,900 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). In this replication analysis, rs9393597 was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95 % CI 0.96-1.24, p = 0.18). No association with ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers or with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers was observed. This follow-up study suggests that, contrary to our initial report, this variant is not associated with breast cancer risk among individuals with germline BRCA2 mutations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Med Genet ; 49(8): 525-32, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22889855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical classification of rare sequence changes identified in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential for appropriate genetic counselling of individuals carrying these variants. We previously showed that variant BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln in the BRCA1 transcriptional transactivation domain demonstrated equivocal results from a series of functional assays, and proposed that this variant may confer low to moderate risk of cancer. METHODS: Measures of genetic risk (report of family history, segregation) were assessed for 68 BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) families recruited through family cancer clinics, comparing results with 34 families carrying the previously classified pathogenic BRCA1 c.5095C>T p.Arg1699Trp (R1699W) mutation at the same residue, and to 243 breast cancer families with no BRCA1 pathogenic mutation (BRCA-X). RESULTS: Comparison of BRCA1 carrier prediction scores of probands using the BOADICEA risk prediction tool revealed that BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln variant carriers had family histories that were less 'BRCA1-like' than BRCA1 c.5095C>T p.Arg1699Trp mutation carriers (p<0.00001), but more 'BRCA1-like' than BRCA-X families (p=0.0004). Further, modified segregation analysis of the subset of 30 families with additional genotyping showed that BRCA1 c.5096G >A p.Arg1699Gln had reduced penetrance compared with the average truncating BRCA1 mutation penetrance (p=0.0002), with estimated cumulative risks to age 70 of breast or ovarian cancer of 24%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide substantial evidence that the BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) variant, demonstrating ambiguous functional deficiency across multiple assays, is associated with intermediate risk of breast and ovarian cancer, highlighting challenges for risk modelling and clinical management of patients of this and other potential moderate-risk variants.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Linhagem , Penetrância , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Ativação Transcricional
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 21(8): 1362-70, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22729394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: IRS1 rs1801123, rs1330645, and rs1801278 were genotyped in samples from 36 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analyzed by a retrospective cohort approach modeling the associations with breast and ovarian cancer risks simultaneously. Analyses were stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 status and mutation class in BRCA1 carriers. RESULTS: Rs1801278 (Gly972Arg) was associated with ovarian cancer risk for both BRCA1 (HR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.92; P = 0.019) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.52, P = 0.0008). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the breast cancer risk was higher in carriers with class II mutations than class I mutations (class II HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.28-2.70; class I HR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.69-1.09; P(difference), 0.0006). Rs13306465 was associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 class II mutation carriers (HR, 2.42; P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The IRS1 Gly972Arg single-nucleotide polymorphism, which affects insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling, modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 class II mutation carriers. IMPACT: These findings may prove useful for risk prediction for breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 14(2): R63, 2012 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22513257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cis-acting regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at specific loci may modulate penetrance of germline mutations at the same loci by introducing different levels of expression of the wild-type allele. We have previously reported that BRCA2 shows differential allelic expression and we hypothesize that the known variable penetrance of BRCA2 mutations might be associated with this mechanism. METHODS: We combined haplotype analysis and differential allelic expression of BRCA2 in breast tissue to identify expression haplotypes and candidate cis-regulatory variants. These candidate variants underwent selection based on in silico predictions for regulatory potential and disruption of transcription factor binding, and were functionally analyzed in vitro and in vivo in normal and breast cancer cell lines. SNPs tagging the expression haplotypes were correlated with the total expression of several genes in breast tissue measured by Taqman and microarray technologies. The effect of the expression haplotypes on breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers was investigated in 2,754 carriers. RESULTS: We identified common haplotypes associated with differences in the levels of BRCA2 expression in human breast cells. We characterized three cis-regulatory SNPs located at the promoter and two intronic regulatory elements which affect the binding of the transcription factors C/EBPα, HMGA1, D-binding protein (DBP) and ZF5. We showed that the expression haplotypes also correlated with changes in the expression of other genes in normal breast. Furthermore, there was suggestive evidence that the minor allele of SNP rs4942440, which is associated with higher BRCA2 expression, is also associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.72 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Our work provides further insights into the role of cis-regulatory variation in the penetrance of disease-causing mutations. We identified small-effect genetic variants associated with allelic expression differences in BRCA2 which could possibly affect the risk in mutation carriers through altering expression levels of the wild-type allele.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 14(1): R33, 2012 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22348646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 (ZNF365), rs704010 (ZMIZ1), rs2380205 (10p15), rs614367 (11q13), rs1292011 (12q24), rs10771399 (12p11 near PTHLH) and rs865686 (9q31.2). METHODS: To evaluate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers and analysed the associations with breast cancer risk within a retrospective likelihood framework. RESULTS: Only SNP rs10771399 near PTHLH was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.94, P-trend = 3 × 10-4). The association was restricted to mutations proven or predicted to lead to absence of protein expression (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 3.1 × 10-5, P-difference = 0.03). Four SNPs were associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs10995190, P-trend = 0.015; rs1011970, P-trend = 0.048; rs865686, 2df-P = 0.007; rs1292011 2df-P = 0.03. rs10771399 (PTHLH) was predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 4 × 10-5) and there was marginal evidence of association with ER-negative breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings, in combination with previously identified modifiers of risk, will ultimately lead to more accurate risk prediction and an improved understanding of the disease etiology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Heterozigoto , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 21(4): 645-57, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22351618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified variants at 19p13.1 and ZNF365 (10q21.2) as risk factors for breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. We explored associations with ovarian cancer and with breast cancer by tumor histopathology for these variants in mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). METHODS: Genotyping data for 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 40 studies were combined. RESULTS: We confirmed associations between rs8170 at 19p13.1 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers [HR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.27; P = 7.42 × 10(-4)] and between rs16917302 at ZNF365 (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97; P = 0.017) but not rs311499 at 20q13.3 (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.31; P = 0.22) and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Analyses based on tumor histopathology showed that 19p13 variants were predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, whereas rs16917302 at ZNF365 was mainly associated with ER-positive breast cancer for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We also found for the first time that rs67397200 at 19p13.1 was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P = 3.8 × 10(-4)) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.52; P = 1.8 × 10(-3)). CONCLUSIONS: 19p13.1 and ZNF365 are susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer and ER subtypes of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. IMPACT: These findings can lead to an improved understanding of tumor development and may prove useful for breast and ovarian cancer risk prediction for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
JAMA ; 307(4): 382-90, 2012 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22274685

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Approximately 10% of women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) carry deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. A recent article suggested that BRCA2-related EOC was associated with an improved prognosis, but the effect of BRCA1 remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the survival of BRCA carriers with EOC compared with noncarriers and to determine whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers show similar survival patterns. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A pooled analysis of 26 observational studies on the survival of women with ovarian cancer, which included data from 1213 EOC cases with pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 (n = 909) or BRCA2 (n = 304) and from 2666 noncarriers recruited and followed up at variable times between 1987 and 2010 (the median year of diagnosis was 1998). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Five-year overall mortality. RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival was 36% (95% CI, 34%-38%) for noncarriers, 44% (95% CI, 40%-48%) for BRCA1 carriers, and 52% (95% CI, 46%-58%) for BRCA2 carriers. After adjusting for study and year of diagnosis, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers showed a more favorable survival than noncarriers (for BRCA1: hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89; P < .001; and for BRCA2: HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.50-0.76; P < .001). These survival differences remained after additional adjustment for stage, grade, histology, and age at diagnosis (for BRCA1: HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.64-0.84; P < .001; and for BRCA2: HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.39-0.61; P < .001). The BRCA1 HR estimate was significantly different from the HR estimated in the adjusted model (P for heterogeneity = .003). CONCLUSION: Among patients with invasive EOC, having a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 was associated with improved 5-year overall survival. BRCA2 carriers had the best prognosis.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 132(3): 1119-26, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22212556

RESUMO

Klotho (KL) is a putative tumor suppressor gene in breast and pancreatic cancers located at chromosome 13q12. A functional sequence variant of Klotho (KL-VS) was previously reported to modify breast cancer risk in Jewish BRCA1 mutation carriers. The effect of this variant on breast and ovarian cancer risks in non-Jewish BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers has not been reported. The KL-VS variant was genotyped in women of European ancestry carrying a BRCA mutation: 5,741 BRCA1 mutation carriers (2,997 with breast cancer, 705 with ovarian cancer, and 2,039 cancer free women) and 3,339 BRCA2 mutation carriers (1,846 with breast cancer, 207 with ovarian cancer, and 1,286 cancer free women) from 16 centers. Genotyping was accomplished using TaqMan(®) allelic discrimination or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed within a retrospective cohort approach, stratified by country of origin and Ashkenazi Jewish origin. The per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for breast cancer was 1.02 (95% CI 0.93-1.12, P = 0.66) for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 0.92 (95% CI 0.82-1.04, P = 0.17) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results remained unaltered when analysis excluded prevalent breast cancer cases. Similarly, the per-allele HR for ovarian cancer was 1.01 (95% CI 0.84-1.20, P = 0.95) for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 0.9 (95% CI 0.66-1.22, P = 0.45) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The risk did not change when carriers of the 6174delT mutation were excluded. There was a lack of association of the KL-VS Klotho variant with either breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Glucuronidase/genética , Heterozigoto , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
20.
Hum Mutat ; 33(4): 690-702, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22253144

RESUMO

Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67-0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10(-4), rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10-1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10(-4), rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02-1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81-0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10-1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10(-4). The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos
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