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1.
Community Dent Health ; 38(3): 158-160, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473431

RESUMO

Since the discovery of the caries preventive benefits of fluoride, it has been the cornerstone of preventive programs for children and adults. Water fluoridation, the controlled addition of a precise amount of fluoride to community water systems to the level beneficial for dental health, is one of the most effective and safe means to deliver fluoride (McDonagh et al., 2000; National Health and Medical Research Council, 2017). In 1999, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) named fluoridation of drinking water as one of ten great public health achievements in the 20th Century, alongside vaccination, control of infectious diseases, a decline in death from coronary heart disease and other accomplishments (CDC, 2011). This is a remarkable recognition of the impact of dental conditions and the importance of a dental preventive program.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretação , Adulto , Criança , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos , Humanos , Saúde Pública
2.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 109(10): 1603-12, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25155225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have found higher mortality rates among inpatients (IPs) compared with new admissions (outpatients, OPs) with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB), but no studies have investigated the cause for this. The objective of this study was to determine whether the difference in outcomes between IPs and OPs with AUGIB can be explained by differences in baseline characteristics, bleeding severity, or processes of care. METHODS: Data were collected from 6,657 presentations with all-cause AUGIB from 212 UK hospitals as part of a nationwide audit. RESULTS: IPs were older (77 vs. 65 years, P<0.001), had greater comorbidity, and presented with more severe bleeding. There was no difference in median time to endoscopy (24 vs. 24 h, P=0.67) or receipt of endotherapy (19% vs. 17%, P=0.29). IPs had an odds of mortality 4.8 times that of OPs (26% vs. 7%; odds ratio (OR) 4.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9-5.8); after adjusting for baseline characteristics, this fell by 24% to 3.3 (95% CI 3.2-4.9) and after adjusting for bleeding severity alone to 4.0 (95% CI 3.2-4.9); adjusting for care processes had minimal effect. IPs had more than a twofold increased odds of rebleeding (20% vs. 12%; OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.7-2.5); adjusting for both baseline characteristics and severity of bleeding reduced this by 50% (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-2.4), but process of care had no additional impact. CONCLUSIONS: IPs present with both higher baseline risks and more severe bleeding. These differences in baseline characteristics explain some but not all of the greater mortality of IPs with AUGIB.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Sangue , Endoscopia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/patologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tempo para o Tratamento , Reino Unido
3.
Br J Surg ; 99(12): 1672-80, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23023268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB), 10-15 per cent of patients experience further bleeding. Although surgery has been the traditional salvage therapy, there is renewed interest in transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). This study examined the use, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving salvage surgery or TAE after failed endoscopic haemostasis for NVUGIB. METHODS: A UK national audit of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was undertaken in May and June 2007. A logistic regression model was used to identify clinical predictors of endoscopic failure. RESULTS: Data were analysed from 4478 patients involving 212 UK centres. Some 533 (11·9 per cent) experienced further bleeding, of whom 163 (30·6 per cent) proceeded to salvage therapy with surgery (97), TAE (60) or both (6). Among surgical patients (mean age 71 years), 66·0 per cent (68 of 103) had a Rockall score of at least 3 and emergency surgery was carried out between midnight and 08.00 hours in 21 per cent, with a consultant surgeon present in 89 per cent of operations. Some 9 per cent of patients had further bleeding after TAE, resulting in later surgery. The mortality rate was 29 per cent after surgery, 10 per cent after TAE and 23·2 per cent among those with further bleeding after the index endoscopy that was managed by endoscopy alone. The strongest predictors of endoscopic failure were coagulopathy (odds ratio 3·27, 95 per cent confidence interval 2·37 to 4·53) and a haemoglobin level of 10 g/dl or less (odds ratio 2·22, 1·71 to 2·87, for haemoglobin 8-10 g/dl). CONCLUSION: Salvage surgery and embolization are required in fewer than 4 per cent of patients with NVUGIB. The high postoperative mortality rate, reflecting age, co-morbidity and severity of bleeding, warrants a prospective study to establish the effectiveness and safety of TAE as an alternative to surgery in the management of bleeding after failure of endoscopic therapy.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hemostase Endoscópica/métodos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Idoso , Embolização Terapêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemostase Endoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia Intervencionista/métodos , Recidiva , Terapia de Salvação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
4.
Endoscopy ; 44(8): 723-30, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22752889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Despite the established efficacy of therapeutic endoscopy, the optimum timeframe for performing endoscopy in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) remains unclear. The aim of the current audit study was to examine the relationship between time to endoscopy and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with NVUGIB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was a prospective national audit performed in 212 UK hospitals. Regression models examined the relationship between time to endoscopy and mortality, rebleeding, need for surgery, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: In 4478 patients, earlier endoscopy ( < 12 hours) was not associated with a lower mortality or need for surgery compared with later ( > 24 hours) endoscopy (odds ratio [OR] for mortality 0.98, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.88 - 1.09 for endoscopy > 24 hours vs. < 12 hours; P = 0.70). In patients receiving therapeutic endoscopy, there was a nonsignificant trend towards an increase in rebleeding associated with later endoscopy (OR 1.13, 95 %CI 0.97 - 1.32 for endoscopy > 24 hours vs. < 12 hours), with the converse seen in patients not requiring therapeutic endoscopy (OR 0.83, 95 %CI 0.73 - 0.95 for endoscopy > 24 hours vs. < 12 hours; interaction P = 0.003). Later endoscopy ( > 24 hours) was associated with an increase in risk-adjusted length of hospital stay (1.7 days longer, 95 %CI 1.39 - 1.99 vs. < 12 hours; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Earlier endoscopy was not associated with a reduction in mortality or need for surgery. However, it was associated with an increased efficiency of care and potentially improved control of hemorrhage in higher risk patients, supporting the routine use of early endoscopy unless specific contraindications exist. These results may help inform the debate about emergency endoscopy service provision.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Hemostase Endoscópica/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Br Dent J ; 212(7): 304, 2012 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22498516
6.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 106(9): 1621-8, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21606977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An increased mortality in patients presenting to hospital at weekends has been observed for several medical conditions. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between weekend presentation to hospital following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and mortality. METHODS: Data were collected on 6,749 patients presenting to 212 UK hospitals. A logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between weekend presentation to hospital and mortality. RESULTS: Patients presenting at the weekend were more likely to present with shock (39% vs. 36%), hematemesis (41% vs. 38%), and receive red cell transfusion (42% vs. 39%). Only 38% of those presenting at weekends underwent endoscopy within 24 h compared with 55% admitted on weekdays (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.41-0.54), although the proportion of all patients receiving endoscopic therapy was identical at weekends compared with weekdays (24%). After adjustment for confounders, there was no evidence of a difference between weekend and weekday mortality (OR=0.93; 95% CI=0.75-1.16). Similar results were seen when restricting the analysis to those patients who underwent endoscopy (n=5,004) (OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.65-1.16). There was no difference in the OR for mortality for weekend compared with weekday presentation between patients presenting to hospitals with an out-of-hours (OOH) endoscopy rota compared with those presenting to hospitals without such a facility. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the United Kingdom, there was no increase in mortality for weekend vs. weekday presentation despite patients being more critically ill and having greater delays to endoscopy at weekends. Provision of an OOH endoscopy service at weekends in the remaining UK hospitals may not lead to further reductions in case fatality, although a reduction in OOH endoscopy provision from current levels could lead to an increase in mortality at weekends.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/radioterapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 32(2): 215-24, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20456308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) accounts for 14% of RBC units transfused in the UK. In exsanguinating AUGIB the value of RBC transfusion is self evident, but in less severe bleeding its value is less obvious. AIM: To examine the relationship between early RBC transfusion, re-bleeding and mortality following AUGIB, which is one of the most common indications for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. METHOD: Data were collected on 4441 AUGIB patients presenting to UK hospitals. The relationship between early RBC transfusion, re-bleeding and death was examined using logistic regression. RESULTS: 44% were transfused RBCs within 12 hours of admission. In patients transfused with an initial haemoglobin of <8 g/dl, re-bleeding occurred in 23% and mortality was 13% compared with a re-bleeding rate of 15%, and mortality of 13% in those not transfused. In patients transfused with haemoglobin >8 g/dl, re-bleeding occurred in 24% and mortality was 11% compared with a re-bleeding rate of 6.7%, and mortality of 4.3% in those not transfused. After adjusting for Rockall score and initial haemoglobin, early transfusion was associated with a two-fold increased risk of re-bleeding (Odds ratio 2.26, 95% CI 1.76-2.90) and a 28% increase in mortality (Odds ratio 1.28, 95% CI 0.94-1.74). CONCLUSIONS: Early RBC transfusion in AUGIB was associated with a two-fold increased risk of re-bleeding and an increase in mortality, although the latter was not statistically significant. Although these findings could be due to residual confounding, they indicate that a randomized comparison of restrictive and liberal transfusion policies in AUGIB is urgently required.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 20(1): 14-23; quiz 24-6, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17241188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a costly technology used widely to provide nutrition to patients who have an inaccessible or nonfunctioning intestine. A prospective survey was designed to collect data on PN for inpatients to study the current use of PN, its complications and outcomes in the north of England. The study objectives were to use the Northern Nutrition Network to collect data from all acute hospital inpatients prospectively receiving PN, for 3 months and to provide evidence for current PN practice, and to establish whether this is in line with recognized published clinical guidelines. METHODS: Using a paper-based collection tool information was recorded on aspects of PN including: total inpatient episodes, patient demographics, indications, duration, venous access used, complications, number returning to enteral feeding and mortality. The presence of a nutrition support team was also recorded. RESULTS: Data on 193 patient PN episodes were recorded totalling 1708 patient days. The median age of the patients was 67 years. Of these, 158 (82%) were deemed to have a clear indication for PN using the indications cited in the NICE guidelines (http://www.nice.org.uk). The median duration of PN was 7 days (range 1-93). Thirty (16%) patients developed complications due to PN, 23 (12%) had catheter infections which were most common on medical wards. Thirty-nine (20%) patients died within 28 days of PN starting; no deaths were attributable to PN. A total of 118 (61%) patients returned to full enteral feeding. Only three hospitals had nutrition support teams, which had no significant effect on outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Parenteral nutrition practice in the north of England is generally in line with current guidelines, however, only three of 15 hospitals had nutrition support teams. Eighteen per cent of patients did not have a clearly documented indication for PN and 15% developed a complication, most often a catheter-related infection.


Assuntos
Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Nutrição Parenteral , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Nutrição Parenteral/mortalidade , Nutrição Parenteral/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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