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J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(4): 261-266, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315537


Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of adolescents with antidepressant treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and to examine the utility of the Antidepressant Treatment Record (ATR) in categorizing treatment resistance in this population. Methods: Adolescents with treatment-resistant MDD enrolled in an interventional study underwent a baseline evaluation with the ATR, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scales. Demographic and clinical characteristics were examined with regard to ATR-defined level of resistance (level 1 to ≥3) using analysis of variance and χ2 tests. Results: In adolescents with treatment-resistant MDD (N = 97), aged 12-21 years, most were female (65%), white (89%), and had recurrent illness (78%). Patients were severely ill (median CGI-S score of 5), had a mean CDRS-R score of 63 ± 10, and 17.5% had been hospitalized for depression-related symptoms. Fifty-two patients were classified as ATR 1, whereas 32 were classified as ATR level 2 and 13 patients as ≥3, respectively. For increasing ATR-defined levels, illness duration increased from 12.0 (range: 1.5-31.9) to 14.8 (range: 1.8-31.7) to 19.5 (range: 2.5-36.2) months and the likelihood of treatment with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and dopamine norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (DNRIs) similarly increased (p = 0.006 for both SNRIs and DNRIs) as did the likelihood of treatment with mixed dopamine serotonin receptor antagonists (χ2 = 17, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study underscores the morbidity and chronicity of treatment-resistant MDD in adolescents. The present characterization of related clinical features describes the use of nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in adolescents with treatment-resistant depression and raises the possibility that those with the greatest medication treatment resistance are less likely to have had recurrent episodes. The study also demonstrates the utility of the ATR in categorizing treatment resistance in adolescents with MDD.

Psychiatry Res ; 205(1-2): 67-73, 2013 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23021320


As they alleviate major depressive disorder, antidepressant therapies may improve associated sleep disturbances, but may also have inherent sedating or activating properties. We examined sleep changes during a multicenter, sham-controlled, trial of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy for pharmacoresistant MDD. Medication-free outpatients (N=301) were randomized to receive active (N=155) or sham (N=146) TMS for 6 weeks. Depression severity was rated with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), and the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self Report (IDS-SR). Assessments were performed at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 week time points. Sleep was assessed using the HAMD and IDS-SR sleep factors; comparison between treatment groups employed ANCOVA model. No significant differences were identified between the active and sham treatment groups in either the HAMD or IDS-SR sleep factor scores at any time during treatment. Sleep difficulty as an adverse event over the length of the study did not differ between active and sham treatment. Stratified by end of acute treatment responder status, there was a statistically significant improvement in both the HAMD sleep factor score and the IDS-SR sleep factor during acute treatment in both the active and sham treatment conditions. TMS exerts no intrinsic effect upon sleep in patients with MDD.

Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
J Clin Psychiatry ; 69(2): 222-32, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18232722


BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorder; however, prior studies have provided only partial safety information. We examined the acute efficacy of TMS in a randomized sham-controlled trial, under open-label conditions, and its durability of benefit. METHOD: Aggregate safety data were obtained from a comprehensive clinical development program examining the use of TMS in the treatment of major depressive disorder. There were 3 separate clinical protocols, including 325 patients from 23 clinical sites in the United States, Australia, and Canada. Active enrollment occurred between January 2004 and August 2005. Adverse events were assessed at each study visit by review of spontaneous reports with separate reporting of serious adverse events. Safety assessments were also completed for cognitive function and auditory threshold. Assessment of disease-specific risk included the potential for worsening of depressive symptoms. Finally, the time course and accommodation to the most commonly appearing adverse events were considered. RESULTS: TMS was administered in over 10,000 cumulative treatment sessions in the study program. There were no deaths or seizures. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity. Transient headaches and scalp discomfort were the most common adverse events. Auditory threshold and cognitive function did not change. There was a low discontinuation rate (4.5%) due to adverse events during acute treatment. CONCLUSIONS: TMS was associated with a low incidence of adverse events that were mild to moderate in intensity and demonstrated a largely predictable time course of resolution. TMS may offer clinicians a novel, well-tolerated alternative for the treatment of major depressive disorder that can be safely administered in an outpatient setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT00104611.

Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto , Idoso , Limiar Auditivo , Austrália , Canadá , Cognição , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retratamento , Segurança , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos