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1.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-30, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814955

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is common in older adults and may be modified by the diet. The aim of this study was to examine associations between a posteriori dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in an older New Zealand population.The REACH study (Researching Eating, Activity, and Cognitive Health) included 366 participants (65-74 years, 36% male) living independently in Auckland, New Zealand. Dietary data were collected using a 109-item food frequency questionnaire with demonstrated validity and reproducibility for assessing dietary patterns using principal component analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Associations between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome, adjusted for age, sex, index of multiple deprivation, physical activity, and energy intake were analysed using logistic regression analysis.Three dietary patterns explained 18% of dietary intake variation - 'Mediterranean style' (salad/leafy cruciferous/other vegetables, avocados/olives, alliums, nuts/seeds, shellfish and white/oily fish, berries), 'prudent' (dried/fresh/frozen legumes, soy-based foods, whole grains, carrots), and 'Western' (processed meat/fish, sauces/condiments, cakes/biscuits/puddings, meat pies/hot chips). No associations were seen between 'Mediterranean style' [OR=0.75 (95% CI 0.53, 1.06), P=0.11] or 'prudent' [OR=1.17 (95% CI 0.83, 1.59), P=0.35] patterns and metabolic syndrome after co-variate adjustment. The 'Western' pattern was positively associated with metabolic syndrome [OR=1.67 (95% CI 1.08, 2.63), P=0.02]. There was also a small association between an index of multiple deprivation [OR=1.04 (95% CI 1.02, 1.06), P<0.001] and metabolic syndrome.This cross-sectional study provides further support for a Western dietary pattern being a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in an older population.

2.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(12): 2389-2400.e10, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary pattern analysis considers the overall dietary intake and combinations of foods eaten. Valid and reproducible tools for determining dietary patterns are necessary to assess diet-disease relationships. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the relative validity and reproducibility of the Researching Eating, Activity, and Cognitive Health (REACH) Study food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specifically designed to identify dietary patterns in older adults. DESIGN: A subset of participants from the REACH study completed two identical 109-item FFQs 1 month apart (FFQ1 and FFQ2) to assess reproducibility and a 4-day food record between FFQ administrations to assess relative validity. Foods from each dietary assessment tool were assigned to 57 food groups. Principal component analysis was applied to the food group consumption reported in each dietary assessment tool to derive dietary patterns. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Dietary data were collected (2018 and 2019) from a subset of the REACH study (n = 294, 37% men) aged 65 to 74 years, living in Auckland, New Zealand. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily intakes of 57 food groups and dietary patterns of older adults participating in REACH living in New Zealand. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Agreement of dietary pattern loadings were assessed using Tucker's congruence coefficient. Agreement of dietary pattern scores and food group intakes were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients (acceptable correlation rho = 0.20 to 0.49), weighted kappa statistic (acceptable statistic κw = 0.20 to 0.60), and Bland-Altman analysis, including mean difference, limits of agreement, plots, and slope of bias. RESULTS: Three similar dietary patterns were identified from each dietary assessment tool: Mediterranean style, Western, and prudent. Congruence coefficients between factor loadings ranged from 0.54 to 0.80. Correlations of dietary pattern scores ranged from 0.47 to 0.59 (reproducibility) and 0.33 to 0.43 (validity) (all P values < 0.001); weighted kappa scores from 0.40 to 0.48 (reproducibility) and 0.27 to 0.37 (validity); limits of agreement from ± 1.79 to ± 2.09 (reproducibility) and ± 2.09 to ± 2.27 (validity); a negative slope of bias was seen in the prudent pattern for reproducibility and validity (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The REACH FFQ generated dietary patterns with acceptable reproducibility and relative validity and therefore can be used to examine associations between dietary patterns and health outcomes in older New Zealand adults.

3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(4): e29048, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complementary feeding period is a time of unparalleled dietary change for every human, during which the diet changes from one that is 100% milk to one that resembles the usual diet of the wider family in less than a year. Despite this major dietary shift, we know relatively little about food and nutrient intake in infants worldwide and virtually nothing about the impact of baby food "pouches" and "baby-led weaning" (BLW), which are infant feeding approaches that are becoming increasingly popular. Pouches are squeezable containers with a plastic spout that have great appeal for parents, as evidenced by their extraordinary market share worldwide. BLW is an alternative approach to introducing solids that promotes infant self-feeding of whole foods rather than being fed purées, and is popular and widely advocated on social media. The nutritional and health impacts of these novel methods of infant feeding have not yet been determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the First Foods New Zealand study is to determine the iron status, growth, food and nutrient intakes, breast milk intake, eating and feeding behaviors, dental health, oral motor skills, and choking risk of New Zealand infants in general and those who are using pouches or BLW compared with those who are not. METHODS: Dietary intake (two 24-hour recalls supplemented with food photographs), iron status (hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor), weight status (BMI), food pouch use and extent of BLW (questionnaire), breast milk intake (deuterium oxide "dose-to-mother" technique), eating and feeding behaviors (questionnaires and video recording of an evening meal), dental health (photographs of upper and lower teeth for counting of caries and developmental defects of enamel), oral motor skills (questionnaires), and choking risk (questionnaire) will be assessed in 625 infants aged 7.0 to 9.9 months. Propensity score matching will be used to address bias caused by differences in demographics between groups so that the results more closely represent a potential causal effect. RESULTS: This observational study has full ethical approval from the Health and Disability Ethics Committees New Zealand (19/STH/151) and was funded in May 2019 by the Health Research Council (HRC) of New Zealand (grant 19/172). Data collection commenced in July 2020, and the first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2022. CONCLUSIONS: This large study will provide much needed data on the implications for nutritional intake and health with the use of baby food pouches and BLW in infancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12620000459921; http://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=379436. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/29048.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670442

RESUMO

There has been an important shift in the New Zealand infant food market over the past decade, with the majority of complementary foods now sold in "pouches". Along with the increasing market share of commercial infant food pouches internationally, there have been growing concerns about their nutritional quality. However, research examining the nutritional quality of these pouches compared to other forms of commercial infant foods in New Zealand has not been undertaken. Nor have any studies reported the free sugars or added sugars content of these foods. To address this knowledge gap, a cross-sectional survey of infant foods sold in New Zealand supermarkets was conducted in 2019-2020. Recipes and nutrient lines were developed for the 266 foods identified (133 food pouches). The energy, iron, vitamin B12, total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars content of infant food pouches and other forms of commercial infant foods per 100 g were compared, both within food groups and by age group. Infant food pouches contained similar median amounts of energy, iron, and vitamin B12 to other forms of commercial infant foods but contained considerably more total sugars (8.4 g/100 g vs. 2.3 g/100 g). However, median free sugars and added sugars content was very low across all food groups except for "dairy" and "sweet snacks". All "dry cereals" were fortified with iron whereas none of the infant food pouches were. Therefore, consuming food pouches to the exclusion of other commercial infant foods may place infants at risk of iron deficiency if they do not receive sufficient iron from other sources.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Ferro na Dieta/análise , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Vitamina B 12/análise
5.
Br J Nutr ; 125(2): 183-193, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799967

RESUMO

The Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) has been shown to have good reliability and comparative validity for ranking nutrient intakes in young children. With the addition of food items (n 4), we aimed to re-assess the validity of the EAT FFQ and estimate calibration factors in a sub-sample of children (n 97) participating in the Growing Up Milk - Lite (GUMLi) randomised control trial (2015-2017). Participants completed the ninety-nine-item GUMLi EAT FFQ and record-assisted 24-h recalls (24HR) on two occasions. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed at months 9 and 12 post-randomisation and calibration factors calculated to determine predicted estimates from the GUMLi EAT FFQ. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, weighted kappa (κ) and exact quartile categorisation. Calibration was calculated using linear regression models on 24HR, adjusted for sex and treatment group. Nutrient intakes were significantly correlated between the GUMLi EAT FFQ and 24HR at both time points. Energy-adjusted, de-attenuated Pearson correlations ranged from 0·3 (fibre) to 0·8 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·3 (Ca) to 0·7 (Fe) at 12 months. Weighted κ for the quartiles ranged from 0·2 (Zn) to 0·6 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·1 (total fat) to 0·5 (Fe) at 12 months. Exact agreement ranged from 30 to 74 %. Calibration factors predicted up to 56 % of the variation in the 24HR at 9 months and 44 % at 12 months. The GUMLi EAT FFQ remained a useful tool for ranking nutrient intakes with similar estimated validity compared with other FFQ used in children under 2 years.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Animais , Calibragem , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Leite , Nutrientes/análise , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171602

RESUMO

Dietary patterns analyse combinations of foods eaten. This cross-sectional study identified dietary patterns and their nutrients. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were examined in older New Zealand adults. Dietary data (109-item food frequency questionnaire) from the Researching Eating, Activity and Cognitive Health (REACH) study (n = 367, 36% male, mean age = 70 years) were collapsed into 57 food groups. Using principal component analysis, three dietary patterns explained 18% of the variation in diet. Dietary pattern associations with sex, age, employment, living situation, education, deprivation score, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking, along with energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, were investigated using regression analysis. Higher 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern scores were associated with being female, higher physical activity, and higher education (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.07). Higher 'Western' pattern scores were associated with being male, higher alcohol intake, living with others, and secondary education (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.16). Higher 'prudent' pattern scores were associated with higher physical activity and lower alcohol intake (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.15). There were positive associations between beta-carotene equivalents, vitamin E, and folate and 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern scores (p < 0.0001, R2 ≥ 0.26); energy intake and 'Western' scores (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.43); and fibre and carbohydrate and 'prudent' scores (p < 0.0001, R2 ≥ 0.25). Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary patterns. Understanding relationships between these characteristics and dietary patterns can assist in health promotion.


Assuntos
Demografia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Nutrientes , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia
7.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e24968, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) randomized controlled trial assessed the effect of a more conventional food, physical activity, and breastfeeding intervention, with a more novel sleep intervention on weight outcomes at 2 years of age. The trial had 58% uptake at recruitment, and retention was 86% at age 2 years, 77% at age 3.5 years, and 69% at age 5 years. Children who received the brief sleep intervention in infancy had just half the risk of obesity at 2 years of age compared to those who did not receive the sleep intervention. Importantly, this substantially reduced risk was still apparent at our follow-up at 5 years of age. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this follow-up at age 11 years is to determine whether differences in BMI z-score and obesity risk remain apparent now that it is at least 9 years since cessation of the sleep intervention. Several secondary outcomes of interest will also be examined including 24-hour movement patterns, mental health and wellbeing, and use of electronic media, particularly prior to sleep. METHODS: We will seek renewed consent from all 734 of the original 802 POI families who expressed interest in further involvement. Children and parent(s) will attend 2 clinics and 1 home appointment to obtain measures of anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan), 24-hour movement patterns (sleep, sedentary time, and physical activity measured using an AX3 accelerometer), mental health and wellbeing (validated questionnaires), family functioning (validated questionnaires), use of electronic media (wearable and stationary cameras, questionnaires), and diet and eating behaviors (24-hour recall, questionnaires). RESULTS: This follow-up study has full ethical approval from the University of Otago Human Ethics Committee (H19/109) and was funded in May 2019 by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (grant 19/346). Data collection commenced in June 2020, and first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2022. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcomes of early obesity intervention are rare. Despite the growing body of evidence linking insufficient sleep with an increased risk of obesity in children, interventions targeting improvements in sleep have been insufficiently explored. Our initial follow-up at 5 years of age suggested that an early sleep intervention may have long-term benefits for effective weight management in children. Further analysis in our now preteen population will provide much-needed evidence regarding the long-term effectiveness of sleep interventions in infancy as an obesity prevention approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00892983; https://tinyurl.com/y3xepvxf. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24968.

8.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(5): e17310, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anecdotally, vegetarian eating patterns seem to be increasing in parallel with growing concerns about environmental sustainability. While this pattern of eating is widely believed to be associated with benefits for the planet and individual health, it may increase the risk of inadequate intakes and nutrient deficiency if not planned carefully. Adolescent girls may be particularly at risk, as they have increased requirements for nutrients such as iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamin B12 during growth and development. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the SuNDiAL Project (Survey of Nutrition, Dietary Assessment, and Lifestyles) is to compare the dietary intakes and habits, nutrition status, motivations, attitudes, and physical activity of a sample of vegetarian and nonvegetarian adolescent girls in New Zealand. METHODS: A clustered, cross-sectional, nationwide study of adolescents aged 15-18 years was conducted. Secondary schools were recruited throughout New Zealand, and pupils (n=290) were invited to participate in data collection in either the first (February to April) or third (August to October) school term of 2019 (New Zealand schools operate on a 4-term year). Sociodemographic and health information; vegetarian status; dietary habits; and attitudes, motivations, and beliefs regarding food choices were assessed via an online self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were collected via two 24-hour diet recalls on nonconsecutive days and will be adjusted for within-person variation using the Multiple Source Method, to represent usual intakes. Nutrient adequacy will be assessed by the estimated average requirement cut-point method or probability approach as appropriate. Height and weight were measured, and blood and urine samples collected for micronutrient status assessment. Participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days to assess 24-hour activity patterns (time spent asleep, sedentary, or engagement in light-intensity or moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity). RESULTS: Recruitment and data collection were conducted in 2019. Data are currently being cleaned and analyzed, with publication of the main results anticipated at the end of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The SuNDiAL Project will provide a meaningful and timely description of diet, nutrition status, and motivational factors associated with vegetarianism and identify any risks this pattern of eating may pose for female adolescents. The results of this study will support the development of targeted recommendations and interventions aimed at enhancing the health, growth, and development of adolescent girls. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619000290190; https://tinyurl.com/yaumh278. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/17310.

9.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(9): 1362-1365, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969698

RESUMO

The gut microbiota harvests energy from indigestible plant polysaccharides, forming short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are absorbed from the bowel. SCFAs provide energy-presumably after easily digested food components have been absorbed from the small intestine. Infant night waking is believed by many parents to be due to hunger. Our objective was to determine whether faecal SCFAs are associated with longer uninterrupted sleep in infants. Infants (n = 57) provided faecal samples for determining SCFAs (7 months of age), and questionnaire data for determining infant sleep (7 and 8 months). Linear regression determined associations between SCFAs-faecal acetate, propionate and butyrate-and sleep. For each 1% higher propionate at 7 months of age, the longest night sleep was 6 (95% CI: 1, 10) minutes longer at both 7 and 8 months. A higher proportion of total faecal SCFA as propionate was associated with longer uninterrupted infant sleep.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Propionatos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Humanos , Lactente , Sono
10.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(3): 909-919, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929067

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of consuming iodine-fortified toddler milk for improving dietary iodine intakes and biochemical iodine status in toddlers. METHODS: In a 20-week parallel randomised controlled trial, healthy 12-20-month-old children were assigned to: Fortified Milk [n = 45; iodine-fortified (21.1 µg iodine/100 g prepared drink) cow's milk], or Non-Fortified Milk (n = 90; non-fortified cow's milk). Food and nutrient intakes were assessed with 3-day weighed food records at baseline, and weeks 4 and 20. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured at baseline and 20 weeks. RESULTS: At baseline, toddlers' median milk intake was 429 g/day. There was no evidence that milk intakes changed within or between the groups during the intervention. Toddlers' baseline geometric mean iodine intake was 46.9 µg/day, and the median UIC of 43 µg/L in the Fortified Milk group and 55 µg/L in the Non-Fortified Milk group indicated moderate and mild iodine deficiency, respectively, with this difference due to chance. During the intervention, iodine intakes increased by 136% (p < 0.001) and UIC increased by 85 µg/L (p < 0.001) in the Fortified Milk group compared to the Non-Fortified Milk group. The 20-week median UIC was 91 µg/L in the Fortified Milk group and 49 µg/L in the Non-Fortified Milk group. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of ≈ 1.7 cups of iodine-fortified toddler milk per day for 20 weeks can increase dietary iodine intakes and UIC in healthy iodine-deficient toddlers. This strategy alone is unlikely to provide sufficient intake to ensure adequate iodine status in toddlers at risk of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/urina , Leite/química , Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nova Zelândia
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 70-78, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota data obtained by DNA sequencing are complex and compositional because of large numbers of detectable taxa, and because microbiota characteristics are described in relative terms. Nutrition researchers use principal component analysis (PCA) to derive dietary patterns from food data. Although compositional PCA methods are not commonly used to describe patterns from complex microbiota data, this approach would be useful for identifying gut microbiota patterns associated with diet and body composition. OBJECTIVES: To use compositional PCA to describe the principal components (PCs) of gut microbiota in 5-y-old children and explore associations between microbiota components, diet, and BMI z-score. METHODS: A fecal sample was provided by 319 children aged 5 y. Their primary caregiver completed a validated 123-item quantitative FFQ. Body composition was determined using DXA, and a BMI z-score was calculated. Compositional PCA identified characterizing taxa and weightings for calculation of gut microbiota PC scores at the genus level, and was examined in relation to diet and body size. RESULTS: Three gut microbiota PCs were found. PC1 (negative loadings on uncultured Christensenellaceae and Ruminococcaceae) was related to lower BMI z-scores and longer duration of breastfeeding (per month) (ß = -0.14; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.02; and ß = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.34, respectively). PC2 (positive loadings on Fusicatenibacter and Bifidobacterium; negative loadings on Bacteroides) was associated with a lower intake of nuts, seeds, and legumes (ß = -0.05 per gram; 95% CI: -0.09, -0.01). When adjusted for fiber intake, PC2 was also associated with higher BMI z-scores (ß = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.24). PC3 (positive loadings on Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, and Roseburia) was associated with higher intakes of fiber (ß = 0.02 per gram; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.04) and total nonstarch polysaccharides (ß = 0.02 per gram; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that specific gut microbiota components determined using compositional PCA are associated with diet and BMI z-score.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00892983.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Composição Corporal , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Peso Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nozes/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Verduras/metabolismo
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(2)2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676481

RESUMO

Dietary fiber provides growth substrates for bacterial species that belong to the colonic microbiota of humans. The microbiota degrades and ferments substrates, producing characteristic short-chain fatty acid profiles. Dietary fiber contains plant cell wall-associated polysaccharides (hemicelluloses and pectins) that are chemically diverse in composition and structure. Thus, depending on plant sources, dietary fiber daily presents the microbiota with mixtures of plant polysaccharides of various types and complexity. We studied the extent and preferential order in which mixtures of plant polysaccharides (arabinoxylan, xyloglucan, ß-glucan, and pectin) were utilized by a coculture of five bacterial species (Bacteroides ovatus, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies longum, Megasphaera elsdenii, Ruminococcus gnavus, and Veillonella parvula). These species are members of the human gut microbiota and have the biochemical capacity, collectively, to degrade and ferment the polysaccharides and produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). B. ovatus utilized glycans in the order ß-glucan, pectin, xyloglucan, and arabinoxylan, whereas B. longum subsp. longum utilization was in the order arabinoxylan, arabinan, pectin, and ß-glucan. Propionate, as a proportion of total SCFAs, was augmented when polysaccharide mixtures contained galactan, resulting in greater succinate production by B. ovatus and conversion of succinate to propionate by V. parvula Overall, we derived a synthetic ecological community that carries out SCFA production by the common pathways used by bacterial species for this purpose. Systems like this might be used to predict changes to the emergent properties of the gut ecosystem when diet is altered, with the aim of beneficially affecting human physiology.IMPORTANCE This study addresses the question as to how bacterial species, characteristic of the human gut microbiota, collectively utilize mixtures of plant polysaccharides such as are found in dietary fiber. Five bacterial species with the capacity to degrade polymers and/or produce acidic fermentation products detectable in human feces were used in the experiments. The bacteria showed preferential use of certain polysaccharides over others for growth, and this influenced their fermentation output qualitatively. These kinds of studies are essential in developing concepts of how the gut microbial community shares habitat resources, directly and indirectly, when presented with mixtures of polysaccharides that are found in human diets. The concepts are required in planning dietary interventions that might correct imbalances in the functioning of the human microbiota so as to support measures to reduce metabolic conditions such as obesity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Glucanos/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(19)2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375480

RESUMO

The biological succession that occurs during the first year of life in the gut of infants in Western countries is broadly predictable in terms of the increasing complexity of the composition of microbiotas. Less information is available about microbiotas in Asian countries, where environmental, nutritional, and cultural influences may differentially affect the composition and development of the microbial community. We compared the fecal microbiotas of Indonesian (n = 204) and New Zealand (NZ) (n = 74) infants 6 to 7 months and 12 months of age. Comparisons were made by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and derivation of community diversity metrics, relative abundances of bacterial families, enterotypes, and cooccurrence correlation networks. Abundances of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and B. longum subsp. longum were determined by quantitative PCR. All observations supported the view that the Indonesian and NZ infant microbiotas developed in complexity over time, but the changes were much greater for NZ infants. B. longum subsp. infantis dominated the microbiotas of Indonesian children, whereas B. longum subsp. longum was dominant in NZ children. Network analysis showed that the niche model (in which trophic adaptation results in preferential colonization) of the assemblage of microbiotas was supported in Indonesian infants, whereas the neutral (stochastic) model was supported by the development of the microbiotas of NZ infants. The results of the study show that the development of the fecal microbiota is not the same for infants in all countries, and they point to the necessity of obtaining a better understanding of the factors that control the colonization of the gut in early life.IMPORTANCE This study addresses the microbiology of a natural ecosystem (the infant bowel) for children in a rural setting in Indonesia and in an urban environment in New Zealand. Analysis of DNA sequences generated from the microbial community (microbiota) in the feces of the infants during the first year of life showed marked differences in the composition and complexity of the bacterial collections. The differences were most likely due to differences in the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding of infants in the two countries. These kinds of studies are essential for developing concepts of microbial ecology related to the influence of nutrition and environment on the development of the gut microbiota and for determining the long-term effects of microbiological events in early life on human health and well-being.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fatores Etários , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Nova Zelândia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural , População Urbana
14.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181631

RESUMO

NOVA is a food classification system that categorises food items into one of four categories according to the extent and purpose of their processing: minimally processed food (MPF), processed culinary ingredient (PCI), processed food (PF), or ultra-processed food (UPF). The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (EAT5 FFQ) for measuring daily energy intake (EI kJ) and percentage of daily energy intake (EI%) from each NOVA group in New Zealand children. One hundred parents of five year old children completed the 123 item EAT5 FFQ on two occasions four weeks apart. A 3 day weighed diet record (WDR) was completed on non-consecutive randomly assigned days between FFQ appointments. The FFQ overestimated EI (both as kJ and %) from MPF and UPF, and underestimated intakes from PCI and PF, compared with the WDR. Bland-Altman plots indicated reasonably consistent agreement between FFQ and WDR for MPF and UPF but not PCI or PF. Correlation coefficients between the FFQ and WDR were acceptable for EI (%) for MPF (r = 0.31) and UPF (r = 0.30). The FFQ differentiated between the highest and lowest quartiles for EI (%) from MPF and UPF foods (p-values for the trends were 0.006 and 0.009 respectively), and for EI (kJ) from UPF foods (p-value for trend 0.003). Bland-Altman plots indicated consistent agreement between repeat administrations of FFQ for MPF and UPF only, while intra-class correlations suggested good reproducibility for EI (kJ and %) for all four NOVA categories (range 0.51-0.76). The EAT5 FFQ has acceptable relative validity for ranking EI (%) from MPF and UPF. It has good reproducibility for measuring EI from all four NOVA categories, in young children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/classificação , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Pais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 535, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of cognitive function is a significant issue as the world's population ages. Preserving cognitive function maintains independence in older adults bringing major societal and financial benefits. Lifestyle factors such as diet are modifiable risk factors, which may help preserve cognitive function. Most nutrition research aimed at preserving cognitive function and metabolic health has focussed on individual nutrients and foods, not allowing for food combinations and interactions. A dietary pattern approach considers the entire diet including its complexity. Previous research investigating dietary patterns and cognitive function has not always considered relevant covariates such as physical activity and the Apolipoprotein E genotype, which are known to have associations with cognitive function. The aim of the REACH (Researching Eating, Activity and Cognitive Health) study is to investigate associations between dietary patterns, cognitive function and metabolic syndrome, accounting for a range of covariates. METHODS: This cross-sectional study design will recruit older, community-living adults (65-74 years) from Auckland, New Zealand. Dietary data will be collected via a 109-item food frequency questionnaire validated using a 4-day food record. Cognitive function will be assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (paper based) and the Computerised Mental Performance Assessment System (COMPASS) - a testing suite covering six domains. Additional data will include genetic (Apolipoprotein E ε4) and biochemical markers (fasting glucose, HbA1c, lipids profile), anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist and hip circumference, body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - short form) and health and demographics (questionnaire). Dietary patterns will be derived by principal component analysis. Associations between cognitive function and dietary patterns will be examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates and interaction factors will include age, education, socio-economic status, physical activity, Apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, family history of dementia or cognitive impairment, and lifestyle factors. Differences between participants with and without metabolic syndrome will also be examined. DISCUSSION: This study will bring new knowledge regarding associations between dietary patterns and cognitive function and metabolic health in older adults living in New Zealand. This is important for developing nutrition related recommendations to help older adults maintain cognitive function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Nova Zelândia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
N Z Med J ; 132(1489): 89-101, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to determine whether anthropometric data from the New Zealand B4 School Check (B4SC) universal health service assessments are comparable to research grade anthropometric data. METHODS: B4SC anthropometric data were obtained for a subsample (n=394) of children who participated in the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) randomised control trial. B4SC anthropometric measures were compared to POI anthropometric values that had been interpolated to align with the date of the B4SC assessment. RESULTS: Interclass correlation coefficients between values from the two sources (0.93-0.98) suggested that across all these measures, most variation depended on between child effects rather than between source effects. A paired t-test found no evidence for differences between POI and B4SC height values. B4SC weights were a mean of 0.45kg heavier, and BMIs a mean of 0.41kg/m2 greater. Exploratory analyses demonstrated that greater overestimation of weight by the B4SC was associated with assessments on colder days. CONCLUSION: B4SC measurements of weight were greater than values obtained from interpolating the POI standardised research assessments. Interestingly, this overestimation was inversely associated with the average temperature on the day when the B4SC occurred. These findings suggest that universal health services that monitor growth in children could be improved by including standardised procedures to account for non-removal of clothing.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Sobrepeso , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Criança , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , População , Melhoria de Qualidade , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/normas , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400145

RESUMO

Dietary fiber is an important nutrient for the gut microbiota, with different fiber fractions having different effects. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (EAT5 FFQ) for measuring intake of fiber, and low and high fiber foods, in studies examining diet and gut microbiota in young children. One hundred parents of 5-year old children completed the 123-item EAT5 FFQ on two occasions four weeks apart. A 3-day weighed diet record (WDR) was completed on non-consecutive days between FFQ appointments. Mean correlations between the (randomly chosen) FFQ and WDR were acceptable for nutrient and food group intakes (r = 0.34 and r = 0.41 respectively). Gross misclassification was below chance (12.5%) for quartiles of nutrient (mean 5.7%) and food group (mean 5.1%) intake. 'Absolute values for surrogate categories' suggested the FFQ clearly differentiated between highest and lowest quartiles for all nutrients and food groups tested. Mean correlations between repeat administrations of the FFQ suggested very good reproducibility for nutrients (r = 0.83) and food groups (r = 0.80). The EAT5 FFQ appears to be an appropriate tool for investigating the intake of nutrients and food groups of relevance to the gut microbiota, and is the first FFQ validated to measure total, soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharide intakes in young children.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nutrientes , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 15(1): 118, 2018 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New physical activity guidelines for children address all movement behaviors across the 24-h day (physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep), but how each component relates to body composition when adjusted for the compositional nature of 24-h data is uncertain. AIMS: To i) describe 24-h movement behaviors from 1 to 5 years of age, ii) determine cross-sectional relationships with body mass index (BMI) z-score, iii) determine whether movement behaviors from 1 to 5 years of age predict body composition and bone health at 5 years. METHODS: 24-h accelerometry data were collected in 380 children over 5-7 days at 1, 2, 3.5 and 5 years of age to determine the proportion of the day spent: sedentary (including wake after sleep onset), in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and asleep (including naps). BMI was determined at each age and a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan measured fat mass, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at 5 years of age. 24-h movement data were transformed into isometric log-ratio co-ordinates for multivariable regression analysis and effect sizes back-transformed. RESULTS: At age 1, children spent 49.6% of the 24-h day asleep, 38.2% sedentary, 12.1% in LPA, and 0.1% in MVPA, with corresponding figures of 44.4, 33.8, 19.8 and 1.9% at 5 years of age. Compositional time use was only related significantly to BMI z-score at 3.5 years in cross-sectional analyses. A 10% increase in mean sleep time (65 min) was associated with a lower BMI z-score (estimated difference, - 0.25; 95% CI, - 0.42 to - 0.08), whereas greater time spent sedentary (10%, 47 min) or in LPA (10%, 29 min) were associated with higher BMI z-scores (0.12 and 0.08 respectively, both p < 0.05). Compositional time use from 1 to 3.5 years was not related to future BMI z-score or percent fat. Although MVPA at 2 and 3.5 years was consistently associated with higher BMD and BMC at 5 years, actual differences were small. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable changes in compositional time use occur from 1 to 5 years of age, but there is little association with adiposity. Although early MVPA predicted better bone health, the differences observed had little clinical relevance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00892983 .


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Comportamento Infantil , Exercício Físico , Comportamento do Lactente , Comportamento Sedentário , Absorciometria de Fóton , Acelerometria , Tecido Adiposo , Adiposidade , Osso e Ossos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Obesidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sono
19.
J Nutr ; 148(10): 1570-1579, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281106

RESUMO

Background: Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are significant pediatric health issues in New Zealand and Australia and remain prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in young children globally. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effect of a micronutrient-fortified, reduced-energy growing-up milk (GUMLi) compared with cow milk (CM) consumed for 1 y on dietary iron and vitamin D intakes and the status of New Zealand and Australian children at 2 y of age. Methods: The GUMLi Trial was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 160 healthy 1-y-old New Zealand and Australian children conducted in 2015-2017. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive GUMLi (1.7 mg Fe/100 mL; 1.3 µg cholecalciferol/100 mL) or CM (0.02 mg Fe/100 mL; 0.06 µg cholecalciferol/100 mL) for 12 mo. Secondary outcomes, reported here, included change in dietary iron and vitamin D intakes, iron status, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from blood samples at age 2 y. All regression models were adjusted for baseline outcome and study center. Results: GUMLi was a large contributor to dietary intakes of iron and vitamin D after 12 mo when compared with intakes from food and CM. The adjusted mean difference between groups for serum ferritin concentrations was 17.8 µg/L (95% CI: 13.6, 22.0 µg/L; P < 0.0001), and for 25(OH)D it was 16.6 nmol/L (95% CI: 9.9, 23.3 nmol/L; P < 0.0001). After 12 mo, ID was present in 16 (24%) participants in the CM group and 5 (7%) participants in the GUMLi group (P = 0.009), and the prevalence of VDD in the CM group increased to 14% (n = 10) and decreased to 3% (n = 2) (P = 0.03) in the GUMLi group. Conclusion: In comparison with CM, GUMLi significantly improved dietary iron and vitamin D intakes and the iron and vitamin D status of healthy children at 2 y of age. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12614000918628.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Fortificados , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Leite , Estado Nutricional , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Colecalciferol/sangue , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Ferro na Dieta/sangue , Ferro na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue
20.
Appetite ; 130: 110-116, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077730

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare food fussiness, weight, serious choking, and early feeding characteristics in babies following Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) and babies following traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) at 6-7 months of age. The First Foods New Zealand Internet Survey recruited 876 New Zealand caregivers of children aged 6-36 months through social media. Information was collected on food fussiness, infant weight, choking, infant feeding practices, and demographics. Based on infant feeding at 6-7 months of age, participants were described as: TSF (mostly or all adult spoonfed), partial BLW (half adult spoonfed, half self-fed), or full BLW (mostly or all self-fed). A total of 628 (72%), 93 (11%), and 155 (18%) infants followed TSF, partial BLW, and full BLW respectively. Compared to infants following TSF, infants following full BLW had significantly lower food fussiness scores at 6-36 months (difference, 95% CI: -0.37,-0.51 to -0.24). Infants following BLW had been exclusively breastfed for longer (P = 0.019), and at 6-7 months had 1.96 times the odds of consuming red meat, but 0.10 times the odds of consuming iron-fortified infant cereal. Only 21% of BLW participants had received advice from a health professional. In conclusion, many New Zealand parents are following BLW. Benefits associated with BLW included less food fussiness. Although BLW infants were more likely to eat red meat, they were less likely to eat iron-fortified infant cereal. These results suggest the need for studies with biochemical measurement of nutritional status, standardized measurement of weight, and rigorous assessment of diet in infants following BLW.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Comportamento do Lactente , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Internet , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desmame
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