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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In humans, stillbirth describes the death of a fetus before birth after 28 weeks gestation, and accounts for approximately 2.6 million deaths worldwide annually. In high-income countries, up to half of stillbirths have an unknown cause and are described as "unexplained stillbirths"; this lack of understanding impairs efforts to prevent stillbirth. There are also few animal models of stillbirth, but those that have been described usually have significant placental abnormalities. This study describes a novel mutant murine model of fetal death with atrial conduction block due to an ErbB2 missense mutation which is not associated with abnormal placental morphology. METHODS: Phenotypic characterisation and histological analysis of the mutant mouse model was conducted. The mRNA distribution of the early cardiomyocyte marker Nkx2-5 was assessed via in situ hybridisation. Cardiac structure was quantified and cellular morphology evaluated by electron microscopy. Immunostaining was employed to quantify placental structure and cell characteristics on matched heterozygous and homozygous mutant placental samples. RESULTS: There were no structural abnormalities observed in hearts of mutant embryos. Comparable Nkx2-5 expression was observed in hearts of mutants and controls, suggesting normal cardiac specification. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the weight, placenta dimensions, giant cell characteristics, labyrinth tissue composition, levels of apoptosis, proliferation or vascularisation between placentas of homozygous mutant mice and controls. CONCLUSION: Embryonic lethality in the ErbB2 homozygous mutant mouse cannot be attributed to placental pathology. As such, we conclude the ErbB2M802R mutant is a model of stillbirth with a non-placental cause of death. The mechanism of the atrial block resulting from ErbB2 mutation and its role in embryonic death is still unclear. Studying this mutant mouse model could identify candidate genes involved in stillbirth associated with structural or functional cardiac defects.

2.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13267, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421915

RESUMO

PROBLEM: There is growing evidence for the role of placental inflammation in the pathophysiology of pregnancy complications including fetal growth restriction (FGR). This study aimed to characterize the inflammatory profile in the maternal circulation and the placenta of infants who were growth restricted and those that were small for gestational age (SGA). METHOD OF STUDY: Placental villous tissue and maternal serum were obtained from pregnancies where infants were SGA at birth or who had a decreasing growth rate (≥25 centiles) across the third trimester. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses of placental samples were conducted for macrophage number, alongside vascular and cell turnover analysis. Inflammatory profile was analyzed in maternal and placental compartments via ELISAs and multiplex assays. RESULTS: There were significantly more CD163+ macrophages in placentas of infants with a decreased growth rate compared to controls, but not in SGA infants (median 8.6/ nuclei vs 3.8 and 2.9, P = .008 and P = .003, respectively). Uric acid (P = .0007) and IL-8 (P = .0008) were increased in placentas, and S100A8 (P < .0002) was increased in maternal serum of infants with decreased growth rate. No changes in the maternal serum or placental lysates of SGA infants were observed. CONCLUSION: The evidence of an altered inflammatory profile in infants with a decreasing growth rate, but not in those that were born SGA, provides further evidence that inflammation plays a role in true FGR. It remains unclear whether the increased placental macrophages occur as a direct result, or as a consequence of the pro-inflammatory environment observed in fetal growth restriction.

3.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 78, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia and being born small for gestational age are associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Placental dysfunction is a key pathological process underpinning these conditions; thus, markers of placental function have the potential to identify pregnancies ending in pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and the birth of a small for gestational age infant. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive ability of late pregnancy (after 24 weeks' gestation) tests in isolation or in combination for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with placental dysfunction, including pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, delivery of a SGA infant (more specifically neonatal growth restriction), and stillbirth. METHODS: Studies assessing the ability of biochemical tests of placental function and/or ultrasound parameters in pregnant women beyond 24 weeks' gestation to predict outcomes including pre-eclampsia, stillbirth, delivery of a SGA infant (including neonatal growth restriction), and/or fetal growth restriction will be identified by searching the following databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, CINAHL, ISRCTN registry, UK Clinical Trials Gateway, and WHO International Clinical Trials Portal. Any study design in which the biomarker and ultrasound scan potential predictors have been assessed after 24 weeks' gestation but before diagnosis of outcomes (pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, SGA (including neonatal growth restriction), and stillbirth) will be eligible (this would include randomized control trials and nested prospective case-control and cohort studies), and there will be no restriction on the background risk of the population. All eligible studies will be assessed for risk of bias using the modified QUADAS-2 tool. Meta-analyses will be undertaken using the ROC models to estimate and compare test discrimination and reclassification indices to test calibration. Validation will be explored by comparing consistency across studies. DISCUSSION: This review will assess whether current published data reporting either a single or combination of tests in late pregnancy can accurately predict adverse pregnancy outcome(s) associated with placental dysfunction. Accurate prediction could allow targeted management and possible intervention for high-risk pregnancies, ultimately avoiding adverse outcomes associated with placental disease. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018107049.

4.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(2)2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327423

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The UK Department of Health have targeted a reduction in stillbirth by 50% by 2025; to achieve this, the first version of the Saving Babies' Lives Care Bundle (SBLCB) was developed by NHS England in 2016 to improve four key areas of antenatal and intrapartum care. Clinical practice guidelines are a key means by which quality improvement initiatives are disseminated to front-line staff. METHODS: Seventy-five clinical practice guidelines covering the four areas of antenatal and intrapartum care in the first version of SBLCB were obtained from 19 maternity providers. The content and quality of guidelines were evaluated using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool. Maternity health professionals in participating organisations were invited to participate in an anonymous survey to determine perceptions toward and experiences of the use of clinical practice guidelines using a series of Likert scales. RESULTS: Unit guidelines showed considerable variation in quality with median scores of 50%-58%. Only 4 (5.6%) guidelines were recommended for use in clinical practice without modifications, 54 (75.0%) were recommended for use subject to modifications and 12 (16.7%) were not recommended for use. The lowest scoring domains were 'rigour of development', 'stakeholder involvement' and 'applicability'. A significant minority of unit guidelines omitted recommendations from national guidelines. The majority of staff believed that clinical practice guidelines standardised and improved the quality of care but over 30% had insufficient time to use them and 24% stated they were unable to implement recommendations. CONCLUSION: To successfully implement initiatives such as the SBLCB change is needed to local clinical practice guidelines to reduce variation in quality and to ensure they are consistent with national recommendations . In addition, to improve clinical practice, adequate time and resources need to be in place to deliver and evaluate care recommended in the SBLCB.

5.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167381

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Women with diabetes have increased stillbirth risk. Although the underlying pathophysiological processes are poorly understood, stillbirth is frequently related to abnormal placental structure and function. OBJECTIVE.­: To investigate placental morphology and cellular characteristics in the placentas of women with diabetes who had stillbirths and stillbirths of unexplained cause. DESIGN.­: Placentas from women with uncomplicated live births, livebirths in women with diabetes, unexplained stillbirths, and stillbirths related to diabetes (n = 10/group) underwent clinical histopathologic assessment and were also investigated using immunohistochemical staining to quantify syncytial nuclear aggregates, proliferation, trophoblast area, vascularization, T cells, placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells), and the receptor for advanced glycation end products. RESULTS.­: Ki67+ cells were decreased in unexplained stillbirths compared with live births in women with diabetes. Both stillbirth groups had increased cytokeratin 7+/nuclear area compared with controls. Blood vessels/villi were decreased in unexplained stillbirth compared with live births from women with diabetes. Compared with uncomplicated controls, CD163+ macrophages were increased in live births in women with diabetes and unexplained stillbirths, and further increased in stillbirths related to diabetes. There was no change in CD3+ T cells or syncytial nuclear aggregates. Receptor for advanced glycation end products-positive cells were decreased in both stillbirth groups compared with diabetes-related live births. Co-localization of receptor for advanced glycation end products in macrophages was increased in both stillbirth groups compared with live birth groups. CONCLUSIONS.­: Stillbirths related to diabetes exhibit placental phenotypic differences compared with live births. Further investigation of these parameters may provide understanding of the pathologic mechanisms of stillbirth and aid the development of stillbirth prevention strategies.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) affects up to one third of women during late pregnancy and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including hypertension, diabetes, impaired fetal growth, and preterm birth. However, it is unclear if SDB is associated with late stillbirth (≥28 weeks' gestation). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of SDB and late stillbirth. METHODS: Data were obtained from five case-control studies (cases 851, controls 2257) from New Zealand (2 studies), Australia, the United Kingdom, and an international study. This was a secondary analysis of an individual participant data meta-analysis that investigated maternal going-to-sleep position and late stillbirth, with a one-stage approach stratified by study and site. Inclusion criteria: singleton, non-anomalous pregnancy, ≥28 weeks' gestation. Sleep data ('any' snoring, habitual snoring ≥3 nights per week, the Berlin Questionnaire [BQ], sleep quality, sleep duration, restless sleep, daytime sleepiness, and daytime naps) were collected by self-report for the month before stillbirth. Multivariable analysis adjusted for known major risk factors for stillbirth, including maternal age, body mass index (BMI kg/m2), ethnicity, parity, education, marital status, pre-existing hypertension and diabetes, smoking, recreational drug use, baby birthweight centile, fetal movement, supine going-to-sleep position, getting up to use the toilet, measures of SDB and maternal sleep patterns significant in univariable analysis (habitual snoring, the BQ, sleep duration, restless sleep, and daytime naps). Registration number: PROSPERO, CRD42017047703. RESULTS: In the last month, a positive BQ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.04), sleep duration >9 hours (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90), daily daytime naps (aOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02-2.28) and restless sleep greater than average (aOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88) were independently related to the odds of late stillbirth. 'Any' snoring, habitual snoring, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and a positive BQ excluding the BMI criterion, were not associated. CONCLUSION: A positive BQ, long sleep duration >9 hours, and daily daytime naps last month were associated with increased odds of late stillbirth, while sleep that is more restless than average was associated with reduced odds. Pregnant women may be reassured that the commonly reported restless sleep of late pregnancy may be physiological and associated with a reduced risk of late stillbirth.


Assuntos
Mães , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Sono , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos
8.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 47(1): 183-196, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008668

RESUMO

Because of the critical role that placental structure and function plays during pregnancy, abnormal placental structure and function is closely related to stillbirth: when an infant dies before birth. However, understanding the role of the placental and specific lesions is incomplete, in part because of the variation in definitions of lesions and in classifying causes of stillbirths. Nevertheless, placental abnormalities are seen more frequently in stillbirths than live births, with placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, and maternal vascular malperfusion most commonly reported. Critically, some placental lesions affect the management of subsequent pregnancies. Histopathological examination of the placenta is recommended following stillbirth.

9.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(7): 865-874, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943128

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Late-gestation adverse pregnancy outcome is associated with reduced placental villous vascularity but rarely with a frankly abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveform. The clinical utility of umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry in late gestation is limited by poor understanding of what aspect(s) of placental structure and function the impedance reflects. We hypothesized that placental arterial circulation impedance reflects placental vascularity and arterial function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data from the FEMINA2 study, a study of pregnancy outcome after reduced fetal movement. Forty-three pregnancies that delivered within 7 days of ultrasound assessment were examined. Impedance was quantified by pulsatility index (PI) from umbilical, chorionic plate arteries, and intra-placental arteries. Site-specific PI was compared with villous vascularity (CD31 immunostaining) and placental arterial function (wire myography) by regression analysis (P < .01) where factor analysis suggested potential co-variance (Eigen value > 2). RESULTS: Pulsatility index decreased with proximity to the placental microvasculature (P < .0001). Intra-placental artery PI correlated significantly with vessel number (R2  = 0.40, P = .0007). No significant relations between umbilical or chorionic plate artery PI and villous vascularity were found (P ≥ .11 and P ≥ .042). No significant co-variance was suggested between PI at any Doppler sampling site and ex vivo placental arterial function indices. Measurement reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) was highest in the umbilical artery (PI 0.75 and 0.50 for intra- and interoperator reliability, respectively) and lowest in the intra-placental arteries (PI 0.55 and 0.41, respectively). Systematic bias in umbilical artery PI was observed between observers, but not at other Doppler sampling sites. CONCLUSIONS: More vascular placentas ex vivo are associated with reduced intra-placental artery Doppler impedance in utero. Although umbilical (but not intra-placental) artery Doppler PI is associated with adverse outcome after reduced fetal movement, this predictive ability does not appear to be through assessment of placental vascularity or chorionic plate arterial function. The inferior reliability of intra-placental artery Doppler, although similar to previously published reliability of umbilical artery Doppler, impairs its ability to detect subtle differences in placental vascularity, and must be significantly improved before it could be considered a clinically useful test.

10.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(3): 364-373, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596942

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Birthweight is a critical predictor of survival in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction (diagnosed pre-28 weeks' gestation, with abnormal umbilical/uterine artery Doppler waveforms), therefore accurate fetal weight estimation is a crucial component of antenatal management. Currently available sonographic fetal weight estimation models were predominantly developed in populations of mixed gestational age and varying fetal weights, but not specifically tested within the context of extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and precision of fetal weight estimation in this population and investigate whether model performance is affected by other factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases where a growth scan was performed within 48 hours of delivery (n = 65) were identified from a cohort of extremely early-onset fetal growth-restricted pregnancies at a single tertiary maternity center (n = 159). Fetal biometry measurements were used to calculate estimated fetal weight using 21 previously published models. Systematic and random errors were calculated for each model and used to identify the best performing model, which in turn was used to explore the relationship between error and gestation, estimated fetal weight, fetal presentation, fetal asymmetry and amniotic fluid volume. RESULTS: Both systematic (median 8.2%; range -44.1 to 49.5%) and random error (median 11.6%; range 9.7-23.8%) varied widely across models. The best performing model was Hadlock head circumference-abdominal circumference-femur length (HC-AC-FL), regardless of gestational age, fetal size, fetal presentation or asymmetry, with an overall systematic error of 1.5% and random error of 9.7%. Despite this, it only calculated the estimated fetal weight within 10% of birthweight in 64.6% of cases. There was a weak negative relation between mean percentage error with Hadlock HC-AC-FL and amniotic fluid volume, suggesting fetal weight is overestimated at lower liquor volumes and underestimated at higher liquor volumes (P = 0.002, adjusted R2  = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Hadlock HC-AC-FL is the most accurate model currently available to estimate fetal weight in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction independent of gestation or fetal size, asymmetry or presentation. However, for 35.4% of cases in this study, estimated fetal weight calculated using this model deviates by more than 10% from birthweight, highlighting a need for an improved model.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912614, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577362

RESUMO

Importance: Supine maternal position in the third trimester is associated with reduced uterine blood flow and increased risk of late stillbirth. As reduced uterine blood flow is also associated with fetal growth restriction, this study explored the association between the position in which pregnant women went to sleep and infant birth weight. Objective: To examine the association between supine position when going to sleep in women after 28 weeks of pregnancy and lower birth weight and birth weight centiles. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prespecified subgroup analysis using data from controls in an individual participant data meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies investigating sleep and stillbirth in New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Participants were women with ongoing pregnancies at 28 weeks' gestation or more at interview. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was adjusted mean difference (aMD) in birth weight. Secondary outcomes were birth weight centiles (INTERGROWTH-21st and customized) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for birth weight less than 50th and less than 10th centile (small for gestational age) for supine vs nonsupine going-to-sleep position in the last 1 to 4 weeks, adjusted for variables known to be associated with birth size. Results: Of 1760 women (mean [SD] age, 30.25 [5.46] years), 57 (3.2%) reported they usually went to sleep supine during the previous 1 to 4 weeks. Adjusted mean (SE) birth weight was 3410 (112) g among women who reported supine position and 3554 (98) g among women who reported nonsupine position (aMD, 144 g; 95% CI, -253 to -36 g; P = .009), representing an approximate 10-percentile reduction in adjusted mean INTERGROWTH-21st (48.5 vs 58.6; aMD, -10.1; 95% CI, -17.1 to -3.1) and customized (40.7 vs 49.7; aMD, -9.0; 95% CI, -16.6 to -1.4) centiles. There was a nonsignificant increase in birth weight at less than the 50th INTERGROWTH-21st centile (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.83-4.34) and a 2-fold increase in birth weight at less than the 50th customized centile (aOR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.20-3.76). Going to sleep supine was associated with a 3-fold increase in small for gestational age birth weight by INTERGROWTH-21st standards (aOR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.37-7.59) and a nonsignificant increase in small for gestational age birth weight customized standards (aOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.77-3.44). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that going to sleep in a supine position in late pregnancy was independently associated with reduced birth weight and birth weight centile. This novel association is biologically plausible and likely modifiable. Public health campaigns that encourage women in the third trimester of pregnancy to settle to sleep on their side have potential to optimize birth weight.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14114, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575970

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy can result in fetal overgrowth, likely due to placental dysfunction, which has health consequences for the infant. Here we test our prediction from previous work using a placental cell line that high glucose concentrations affect placental lipid metabolism. Placentas from women with type 1 (n = 13), type 2 (n = 6) or gestational (n = 12) DM, BMI-matched to mothers without DM (n = 18), were analysed for lipase and fatty acid transport proteins and fatty acid and triglyceride content. Explants from uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 6) cultured in physiological or high glucose were similarly analysed. High glucose levels did not alter placental lipase or transporter expression or the profile and abundance of fatty acids, but triglyceride levels were higher (p < 0.05), suggesting reduced ß- oxidation. DM did not affect placental protein expression or fatty acid profile. Triglyceride levels of placentas from mothers with pre-existing DM were similar to controls, but higher in obese women with gestational DM. Maternal hyperglycemia may not affect placental fatty acid uptake and transport. However, placental ß-oxidation is affected by high glucose and reduced in a subset of women with DM. Abnormal placental lipid metabolism could contribute to increased maternal-fetal lipid transfer and excess fetal growth in some DM pregnancies.

15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 10: 49-57, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193832

RESUMO

Background: Maternal supine going-to-sleep position has been associated with increased risk of late stillbirth (≥ 28 weeks), but it is unknown if the risk differs between right and left side, and if some pregnancies are more vulnerable. Methods: Systematic searches were undertaken for an individual-level participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of case-control studies, prospective cohort studies and randomised trials undertaken up until 26 Jan, 2018, that reported data on maternal going-to-sleep position and stillbirth. Participant inclusion criteria included gestation ≥ 28 weeks', non-anomalous, singleton pregnancies. The primary outcome was stillbirth. A one-stage approach stratified by study and site was used for the meta-analysis. The interaction between supine going-to-sleep position and fetal vulnerability was assessed by bi-variable regression. The multivariable model was adjusted for a priori confounders. Registration number: PROSPERO, CRD42017047703. Findings: Six case-control studies were identified, with data obtained from five (cases, n = 851; controls, n = 2257). No data was provided by a sixth study (cases, n = 100; controls, n = 200). Supine going-to-sleep position was associated with increased odds of late stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.63, 95% CI 1.72-4.04, p < 0.0001) compared with left side. Right side had similar odds to left (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.83-1.31, p = 0.75). There were no significant interactions between supine going-to-sleep position and assessed indicators of fetal vulnerability, including small-for-gestational-age infants (p = 0.32), maternal obesity (p = 0.08), and smoking (p = 0.86). The population attributable risk for supine going-to-sleep position was 5.8% (3.2-9.2). Interpretation: This IPD meta-analysis confirms that supine going-to-sleep position is independently associated with late stillbirth. Going-to-sleep on left or right side appears equally safe. No significant interactions with our assessed indicators of fetal vulnerability were identified, therefore, supine going-to-sleep position can be considered a contributing factor for late stillbirth in all pregnancies. This finding could reduce late stillbirth by 5.8% if every pregnant woman ≥ 28 weeks' gestation settled to sleep on her side.

16.
Reprod Toxicol ; 87: 50-59, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082466

RESUMO

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a toll like receptor (TLR) 7 and 9 antagonist, is used during pregnancy for inflammatory conditions with limited understanding of its placental toxicology. We hypothesized that HCQ does not have toxic effects on the placenta and can modulate cytokine release in response to TLR7/9 activation. A systematic review was conducted and no studies of HCQ on multicellular human placental tissue were identified. Accordingly, placental villous explants were cultured for 7 days with HCQ +/- TLR7/9 agonists. HCQ did not affect cell turnover, nutrient transport or cytokine release but increased IL-10 (anti-inflammatory) secretion and promoted syncytiotrophoblast regeneration. Cytokine release stimulated by TLR7/9 agonists was unaffected by HCQ. In conclusion, HCQ did not adversely affect placental tissue and may have a protective anti-inflammatory function. Further research is needed to determine the mechanisms of HCQ actions on human placenta and whether they could be utilized to improve pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
18.
Neonatology ; 115(4): 341-345, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the UK, rates of neonatal postmortem (PM) are low. Consent for PM is required, and all parents should have the opportunity to discuss whether to have a post-mortem examination of their baby. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore neonatal healthcare professionals' experiences, knowledge, and views regarding the consent process for post-mortem examination after neonatal death. METHOD: An online survey of neonatal healthcare providers in the UK was conducted. Responses from 103 healthcare professionals were analysed, 84 of whom were doctors. The response rate of the British Association of Perinatal Medicine (BAPM) members was 11.7%. RESULTS: Perceived barriers to PM included cultural and religious practices of parents as well as a lack of rapport between parents and professionals. Of the respondents, 69.4% had observed a PM; these professionals had improved satisfaction with their training and confidence in counselling (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001) but not knowledge of the procedure (p = 0.77). Healthcare professionals reported conservative estimates of the likelihood that a PM would identify significant information regarding the cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: Confidence of neonatal staff in counselling could be improved by observing a PM. Training for staff in developing a rapport with parents and addressing emotional distress may also overcome significant barriers to consent for PM.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Morte Perinatal , Prática Profissional , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Morte Perinatal/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
19.
Birth ; 46(2): 344-354, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late stillbirth, which occurs ≥28 weeks' gestation, affects 1.3-8.8 per 1000 births in high-income countries. Of concern, most occur in women without established risk factors. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors that relate to maternal behaviors remains a priority in stillbirth prevention research. This study aimed to investigate, in an international cohort, whether maternal sleep practices are related to late stillbirth. METHODS: An Internet-based case-control study of women who had a stillbirth ≥28 weeks' gestation within 30 days before completing the survey (n = 153) and women with an ongoing third-trimester pregnancy or who had delivered a live born child within 30 days (n = 480). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and aOR, respectively) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for stillbirth. RESULTS: Sleeping >9 hours per night in the previous month was associated with stillbirth (aOR 1.75 [95% CI 1.10-2.79]), as was waking on the right side (2.27 [1.31-3.92]). Nonrestless sleep in the last month was also found to be associated with stillbirth (1.73 [1.03-2.99]), with good sleep quality in the last month approaching significance (1.64 [0.98-2.75]). On the last night of pregnancy, not waking more than one time was associated with stillbirth (2.03 [1.24-3.34]). No relationship was found with going to sleep position during pregnancy, although very few women reported settling in the supine position (2.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Long periods of undisturbed sleep are associated with late stillbirth. Physiological studies of how the neuroendocrine and autonomic system pathways are regulated during sleep in the context of late pregnancy are warranted.


Assuntos
Sono , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Decúbito Dorsal/fisiologia
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