Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 38
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1321-1332, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the majority of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, most currently available therapies do not result in complete symptom control. Ligelizumab is a next-generation high-affinity humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. Data are limited regarding the dose-response relationship of ligelizumab and the efficacy and safety of ligelizumab as compared with omalizumab and placebo in patients who have moderate-to-severe chronic spontaneous urticaria that is inadequately controlled with H1-antihistamines at approved or increased doses, alone or in combination with H2-antihistamines or leukotriene-receptor antagonists. METHODS: In a phase 2b dose-finding trial, we randomly assigned patients to receive ligelizumab at a dose of 24 mg, 72 mg, or 240 mg, omalizumab at a dose of 300 mg, or placebo, administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks for a period of 20 weeks, or a single 120-mg dose of ligelizumab. Disease symptoms of hives, itch, and angioedema were monitored by means of weekly activity scores. The main objective was to determine a dose-response relationship for the complete control of hives (indicated by a weekly hives-severity score of 0, on a scale from 0 to 21, with higher scores indicating greater severity); the primary end point of this response was assessed at week 12. Complete symptom control was indicated by a weekly urticaria activity score of 0 (on a scale from 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating greater severity). Safety was analyzed throughout the trial. RESULTS: A total of 382 patients underwent randomization. At week 12, a total of 30%, 51%, and 42% of the patients treated with 24 mg, 72 mg, and 240 mg, respectively, of ligelizumab had complete control of hives, as compared with 26% of the patients in the omalizumab group and no patients in the placebo group. A dose-response relationship was established. At week 12, a total of 30%, 44%, and 40% of the patients treated with 24 mg, 72 mg, and 240 mg, respectively, of ligelizumab had complete control of symptoms, as compared with 26% of the patients in the omalizumab group and no patients in the placebo group. In this small and short trial, no safety concerns regarding ligelizumab or omalizumab emerged. CONCLUSIONS: A higher percentage of patients had complete control of symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria with ligelizumab therapy of 72 mg or 240 mg than with omalizumab or placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02477332.).

2.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 291, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We recently investigated the pathways of immunoreactive bradykinin (iBK) formation in fresh blood of normal volunteers and of patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency (HAE-1/-2). Herein, we adapted the techniques to small volumes (200 µl) of previously frozen citrated plasma and further analyzed the mechanisms of iBK formation with additional biotechnological inhibitors. RESULTS: Measurable iBK formation was observed under stimulation with tissue kallikrein (KLK-1, 10 nM), the particulate material Kontact-APTT (concentration reduced to 2% v/v) or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, 169 nM), with little background in unstimulated plasma incubated for up to 2 h. Plasma samples from HAE-1/-2 patients responded earlier to tPA than those from controls, as previously reported with whole blood. Lanadelumab inhibited iBK formation induced by Kontact-APTT and tPA. A highly specific plasmin inhibitor, DX-1000, abolished tPA-induced iBK formation in plasma but had no effect against Kontact-APTT, confirming the role of fibrinolysis in tPA-induced kinin formation. The anti-lanadelumab neutralizing antibody M293-D02 reversed the inhibitory effects of lanadelumab. Frozen plasma is a suitable material for measuring iBK formation kinetics, with possible applications such as investigating the effect of rare disease states on the kallikrein-kinin system and monitoring the effect of HAE prophylactic treatments.

3.
JAMA ; 321(10): 946-955, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794314

RESUMO

Importance: There are currently no approved treatments for peanut allergy. Objective: To assess the efficacy and adverse events of epicutaneous immunotherapy with a peanut patch among peanut-allergic children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 31 sites in 5 countries between January 8, 2016, and August 18, 2017. Participants included peanut-allergic children (aged 4-11 years [n = 356] without a history of a severe anaphylactic reaction) developing objective symptoms during a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge at an eliciting dose of 300 mg or less of peanut protein. Interventions: Daily treatment with peanut patch containing either 250 µg of peanut protein (n = 238) or placebo (n = 118) for 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the percentage difference in responders between the peanut patch and placebo patch based on eliciting dose (highest dose at which objective signs/symptoms of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction developed) determined by food challenges at baseline and month 12. Participants with baseline eliciting dose of 10 mg or less were responders if the posttreatment eliciting dose was 300 mg or more; participants with baseline eliciting dose greater than 10 to 300 mg were responders if the posttreatment eliciting dose was 1000 mg or more. A threshold of 15% or more on the lower bound of a 95% CI around responder rate difference was prespecified to determine a positive trial result. Adverse event evaluation included collection of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: Among 356 participants randomized (median age, 7 years; 61.2% male), 89.9% completed the trial; the mean treatment adherence was 98.5%. The responder rate was 35.3% with peanut-patch treatment vs 13.6% with placebo (difference, 21.7% [95% CI, 12.4%-29.8%; P < .001]). The prespecified lower bound of the CI threshold was not met. TEAEs, primarily patch application site reactions, occurred in 95.4% and 89% of active and placebo groups, respectively. The all-causes rate of discontinuation was 10.5% in the peanut-patch group vs 9.3% in the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among peanut-allergic children aged 4 to 11 years, the percentage difference in responders at 12 months with the 250-µg peanut-patch therapy vs placebo was 21.7% and was statistically significant, but did not meet the prespecified lower bound of the confidence interval criterion for a positive trial result. The clinical relevance of not meeting this lower bound of the confidence interval with respect to the treatment of peanut-allergic children with epicutaneous immunotherapy remains to be determined. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02636699.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Arachis/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/terapia , Adesivo Transdérmico , Administração Cutânea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/imunologia , Adesivo Transdérmico/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1793-1802.e2, 2019 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the prevention of attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE), the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA, CSL Behring) was established in the 16-week Clinical Study for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT). OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term safety, occurrence of angioedema attacks, and use of rescue medication with C1-INH(SC). METHODS: Open-label, randomized, parallel-arm extension of COMPACT across 11 countries. Patients with frequent angioedema attacks, either study treatment-naive or who had completed COMPACT, were randomly assigned (1:1) to 40 IU/kg or 60 IU/kg C1-INH(SC) twice per week, with conditional uptitration to optimize prophylaxis (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT02316353). RESULTS: A total of 126 patients with a monthly attack rate of 4.3 in 3 months before entry in COMPACT were enrolled and treated for a mean of 1.5 years; 44 patients (34.9%) had more than 2 years of exposure. Mean steady-state C1-INH functional activity increased to 66.6% with 60 IU/kg. Incidence of adverse events was low and similar in both dose groups (11.3 and 8.5 events per patient-year for 40 IU/kg and 60 IU/kg, respectively). For 40 IU/kg and 60 IU/kg, median annualized attack rates were 1.3 and 1.0, respectively, and median rescue medication use was 0.2 and 0.0 times per year, respectively. Of 23 patients receiving 60 IU/kg for more than 2 years, 19 (83%) were attack-free during months 25 to 30 of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with frequent HAE attacks, long-term replacement therapy with C1-INH(SC) is safe and exhibits a substantial and sustained prophylactic effect, with the vast majority of patients becoming free from debilitating disease symptoms.

5.
JAMA ; 320(20): 2108-2121, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480729

RESUMO

Importance: Current treatments for long-term prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema have limitations. Objective: To assess the efficacy of lanadelumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits active plasma kallikrein, in preventing hereditary angioedema attacks. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 41 sites in Canada, Europe, Jordan, and the United States. Patients were randomized between March 3, 2016, and September 9, 2016; last day of follow-up was April 13, 2017. Randomization was 2:1 lanadelumab to placebo; patients assigned to lanadelumab were further randomized 1:1:1 to 1 of the 3 dose regimens. Patients 12 years or older with hereditary angioedema type I or II underwent a 4-week run-in period and those with 1 or more hereditary angioedema attacks during run-in were randomized. Interventions: Twenty-six-week treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (n = 28), 300 mg every 4 weeks (n = 29), 300 mg every 2 weeks (n = 27), or placebo (n = 41). All patients received injections every 2 weeks, with those in the every-4-week group receiving placebo in between active treatments. Main Outcome and Measures: Primary efficacy end point was the number of investigator-confirmed attacks of hereditary angioedema over the treatment period. Results: Among 125 patients randomized (mean age, 40.7 years [SD, 14.7 years]; 88 females [70.4%]; 113 white [90.4%]), 113 (90.4%) completed the study. During the run-in period, the mean number of hereditary angioedema attacks per month in the placebo group was 4.0; for the lanadelumab groups, 3.2 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 3.7 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 3.5 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. During the treatment period, the mean number of attacks per month for the placebo group was 1.97; for the lanadelumab groups, 0.48 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 0.53 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 0.26 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. Compared with placebo, the mean differences in the attack rate per month were -1.49 (95% CI, -1.90 to -1.08; P < .001); -1.44 (95% CI, -1.84 to -1.04; P < .001); and -1.71 (95% CI, -2.09 to -1.33; P < .001). The most commonly occurring adverse events with greater frequency in the lanadelumab treatment groups were injection site reactions (34.1% placebo, 52.4% lanadelumab) and dizziness (0% placebo, 6.0% lanadelumab). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with hereditary angioedema type I or II, treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab for 26 weeks significantly reduced the attack rate compared with placebo. These findings support the use of lanadelumab as a prophylactic therapy for hereditary angioedema. Further research is needed to determine long-term safety and efficacy. Trial Registration: EudraCT Identifier: 2015-003943-20; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02586805.

6.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2183, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333824

RESUMO

Multiple pathways have been proposed to generate bradykinin (BK)-related peptides from blood. We applied various forms of activation to fresh blood obtained from 10 healthy subjects or 10 patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE-1 or -2 only) to investigate kinin formation. An enzyme immunoassay for BK was applied to extracts of citrated blood incubated at 37°C under gentle agitation for 0-2 h in the presence of activators and/or inhibitory agents. Biologically active kinins in extracts were corroborated by c-Fos accumulation in HEK 293a cells that express either recombinant human B2 or B1 receptors (B2R, B1R). Biological evidence of HAE diagnostic and blood cell activation was also obtained. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, without any effect per se, increased immunoreactive BK (iBK) concentration under active stimulation of blood. Tissue kallikrein (KLK-1) and Kontact-APTT, a particulate material that activates the contact system, rapidly (5 min) and intensely (>100 ng/mL) induced similar iBK generation in the blood of control or HAE subjects. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) slowly (≥1 h) induced iBK generation in control blood, but more rapidly and intensely so in that of HAE patients. Effects of biotechnological inhibitors indicate that tPA recruits factor XIIa (FXIIa) and plasma kallikrein to generate iBK. KLK-1, independent of the contact system, is the only stimulus leading to an inconsistent B1R stimulation. Stimulating neutrophils or platelets did not generate iBK. In the HAE patients observed during remission, iBK formation capability coupled to B2R stimulation appears largely intact. However, a selective hypersensitivity to tPA in the blood of HAE patients suggests a role of plasmin-activated FXIIa in the development of attacks. Proposed pathways of kinin formation dependent on blood cell activation were not corroborated.

7.
J Asthma Allergy ; 11: 63-72, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670379

RESUMO

Background: Patients prefer at-home subcutaneous administration of biologics across different diseases, yet no biologic is approved for at-home use for severe, uncontrolled asthma. Objective: We assessed at-home functionality, reliability, and performance of an accessorized pre-filled syringe (APFS) for subcutaneous benralizumab administration, an anti-eosinophil monoclonal antibody indicated for add-on maintenance treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Materials and methods: Patients (N=116) with severe, uncontrolled asthma despite receiving medium- or high-dosage inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting ß2-agonists received up to 5 APFS-administered subcutaneous doses (Weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16) of benralizumab 30 mg. The first 3 doses were administered at the study sites. The patient/caregiver administered the last 2 doses at home. Endpoints included the percentage of dispensed APFS that were used successfully blood eosinophil counts, Asthma Control Questionnaire 6, and safety. Results: Nearly all dispensed APFS were successfully used in the clinic and at home (Week 0: 116/116, 100%; Week 4: 116/117, 99%; Week 8: 115/115, 100%; Week 12: 112/114, 98%; Week 16: 108/109, 99%). Only 1 APFS malfunctioned out of 573 dispensed. Two at-home administrations were unsuccessful because of patient-use error. One unreturned APFS was recorded as nonfunctional. Mean Asthma Control Questionnaire 6 scores decreased from baseline through all post-baseline time points, and nearly complete depletion of eosinophils was observed at the end of treatment. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, and sinusitis. Five patients (4%) experienced transient mild or moderate injection-site reactions. Conclusion: The APFS was functional, reliable, and performed equally well in the clinic and at home.

8.
JAMA ; 318(18): 1798-1809, 2017 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136445

RESUMO

Importance: Epicutaneous immunotherapy may have potential for treating peanut allergy but has been assessed only in preclinical and early human trials. Objective: To determine the optimal dose, adverse events (AEs), and efficacy of a peanut patch for peanut allergy treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 2b double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of a peanut patch in peanut-allergic patients (6-55 years) from 22 centers, with a 2-year, open-label extension (July 31, 2012-July 31, 2014; extension completed September 29, 2016). Patients (n = 221) had peanut sensitivity and positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges to an eliciting dose of 300 mg or less of peanut protein. Interventions: Randomly assigned patients (1:1:1:1) received an epicutaneous peanut patch containing 50 µg (n = 53), 100 µg (n = 56), or 250 µg (n = 56) of peanut protein or a placebo patch (n = 56). Following daily patch application for 12 months, patients underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to establish changes in eliciting dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy end point was percentage of treatment responders (eliciting dose: ≥10-times increase and/or reaching ≥1000 mg of peanut protein) in each group vs placebo patch after 12 months. Secondary end points included percentage of responders by age strata and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: Of 221 patients randomized (median age, 11 years [quartile 1, quartile 3: 8, 16]; 37.6% female), 93.7% completed the trial. A significant absolute difference in response rates was observed at month 12 between the 250-µg (n = 28; 50.0%) and placebo (n = 14; 25.0%) patches (difference, 25.0%; 95% CI, 7.7%-42.3%; P = .01). No significant difference was seen between the placebo patch vs the 100-µg patch. Because of statistical testing hierarchical rules, the 50-µg patch was not compared with placebo. Interaction by age group was only significant for the 250-µg patch (P = .04). In the 6- to 11-year stratum, the response rate difference between the 250-µg (n = 15; 53.6%) and placebo (n = 6; 19.4%) patches was 34.2% (95% CI, 11.1%-57.3%; P = .008); adolescents/adults showed no difference between the 250-µg (n = 13; 46.4%) and placebo (n = 8; 32.0%) patches: 14.4% (95% CI, -11.6% to 40.4%; P = .40). No dose-related serious AEs were observed. The percentage of patients with 1 or more TEAEs (largely local skin reactions) was similar across all groups in year 1: 50-µg patch = 100%, 100-µg patch = 98.2%, 250-µg patch = 100%, and placebo patch = 92.9%. The overall median adherence was 97.6% after 1 year; the dropout rate for treatment-related AEs was 0.9%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this dose-ranging trial of peanut-allergic patients, the 250-µg peanut patch resulted in significant treatment response vs placebo patch following 12 months of therapy. These findings warrant a phase 3 trial. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01675882.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Arachis/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/terapia , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183869, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omalizumab is a non-steroidal medication indicated for the treatment of poorly controlled moderate-to-severe allergic asthmatics. This observational study examines the "real world" effectiveness of omalizumab in this population. METHODS: This is a one year open-label observational study that compared clinical outcomes including total oral corticosteroid use, exacerbation history, measures of quality of life and inflammation in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma, who were prescribed omalizumab as part of their treatment with the year prior to therapy. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients were enrolled at 25 sites in Canada. During the study period, the mean total annual OCS dose was reduced from 2301.5 mg (prednisone equivalents) in the year prior to omalizumab to 1130.0 mg (p<0.0001). There was a 71% reduction in asthma exacerbations and 56% of patients on omalizumab remained exacerbation free when compared to the year prior to study entry. Associated with this was reduced health care utilization. There were significant improvements in the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire (AQLQ) Patients with an elevated FeNO at baseline showed a better response to treatment. No new safety issues were identified during the study period. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that in "real world" clinical practice, after initiating omalizumab, there is a reduction in total OCS use and exacerbation frequency in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma. Patients on treatment reported improved asthma control and quality of life. FeNO may be a useful biomarker to identify patients who may benefit with omalizumab treatment.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/fisiopatologia , Asma/psicologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Expiração , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
N Engl J Med ; 376(12): 1131-1140, 2017 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is a disabling, potentially fatal condition caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein. In a phase 2 trial, the use of CSL830, a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor preparation that is suitable for subcutaneous injection, resulted in functional levels of C1 inhibitor activity that would be expected to provide effective prophylaxis of attacks. METHODS: We conducted an international, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered subcutaneous CSL830 in patients with type I or type II hereditary angioedema who had had four or more attacks in a consecutive 2-month period within 3 months before screening. We randomly assigned the patients to one of four treatment sequences in a crossover design, each involving two 16-week treatment periods: either 40 IU or 60 IU of CSL830 per kilogram of body weight twice weekly followed by placebo, or vice versa. The primary efficacy end point was the number of attacks of angioedema. Secondary efficacy end points were the proportion of patients who had a response (≥50% reduction in the number of attacks with CSL830 as compared with placebo) and the number of times that rescue medication was used. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients who underwent randomization, 79 completed the trial. Both doses of CSL830, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema (mean difference with 40 IU, -2.42 attacks per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.38 to -1.46; and mean difference with 60 IU, -3.51 attacks per month; 95% CI, -4.21 to -2.81; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Response rates were 76% (95% CI, 62 to 87) in the 40-IU group and 90% (95% CI, 77 to 96) in the 60-IU group. The need for rescue medication was reduced from 5.55 uses per month in the placebo group to 1.13 uses per month in the 40-IU group and from 3.89 uses in the placebo group to 0.32 uses per month in the 60-IU group. Adverse events (most commonly mild and transient local site reactions) occurred in similar proportions of patients who received CSL830 and those who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with hereditary angioedema, the prophylactic use of a subcutaneous C1 inhibitor twice weekly significantly reduced the frequency of acute attacks. (Funded by CSL Behring; COMPACT EudraCT number, 2013-000916-10 , and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01912456 .).


Assuntos
Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/administração & dosagem , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/classificação , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Risco , Autoadministração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 32: 53-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25956072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects on 24-h lung function and lung volume of a once-daily fixed-dose combination (FDC) of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium and the long-acting ß2-agonist olodaterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III trial with an incomplete crossover design. Patients received four of the following six treatment options for 6 weeks each: placebo, olodaterol 5 µg, tiotropium 2.5 µg, tiotropium 5 µg, tiotropium + olodaterol FDC 2.5/5 µg and tiotropium + olodaterol FDC 5/5 µg, all delivered via the Respimat(®) inhaler. The primary end point was forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) response after 6 weeks of treatment; key secondary end points were FEV1 AUC from 0 to 12 h and AUC from 12 to 24 h, and further end points included lung-volume parameters measured using body plethysmography (subset of patients), measures of peak and trough FEV1, and incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: A significant improvement in FEV1 AUC0-24 response was observed with tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 µg and 2.5/5 µg versus placebo and monotherapies after 6 weeks of treatment; mean response with tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 µg versus placebo was 0.280 L (p < 0.0001). Differences to monotherapies with tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 µg were 0.115 L versus olodaterol 5 µg, 0.127 L versus tiotropium 2.5 µg and 0.110 L versus tiotropium 5 µg (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Secondary end points supported these data. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study demonstrated improvements in lung function over 24 h with an FDC of tiotropium + olodaterol over tiotropium or olodaterol alone, with no observed difference in tolerability. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01559116.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Tempo , Brometo de Tiotrópio/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25705232

RESUMO

In the past few years there have been significant advances which have changed the face of chronic urticaria. In this review, we aim to update physicians about clinically relevant advances in the classification, diagnosis and management of chronic urticaria that have occurred in recent years. These include clarification of the terminology used to describe and classify urticaria. We also detail the development and validation of instruments to assess urticaria and understand the impairment on quality-of-life and the morbidity caused by this disease. Additionally, the approach to management of chronic urticaria now focuses on evidence-based use of non-impairing, non-sedating H1-antihistamines given initially in standard doses and if this is not effective, in up to 4-fold doses. For urticaria refractory to H1-antihistamines, omalizumab treatment has emerged as an effective, safe option.

15.
Eur Respir J ; 45(4): 969-79, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25573406

RESUMO

Efficacy and safety of tiotropium+olodaterol fixed-dose combination (FDC) compared with the mono-components was evaluated in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in two replicate, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre, phase III trials. Patients received tiotropium+olodaterol FDC 2.5/5 µg or 5/5 µg, tiotropium 2.5 µg or 5 µg, or olodaterol 5 µg delivered once-daily via Respimat inhaler over 52 weeks. Primary end points were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) area under the curve from 0 to 3 h (AUC0-3) response, trough FEV1 response and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score at 24 weeks. In total, 5162 patients (2624 in Study 1237.5 and 2538 in Study 1237.6) received treatment. Both FDCs significantly improved FEV1 AUC0-3 and trough FEV1 response versus the mono-components in both studies. Statistically significant improvements in SGRQ total score versus the mono-components were only seen for tiotropium+olodaterol FDC 5/5 µg. Incidence of adverse events was comparable between the FDCs and the mono-components. These studies demonstrated significant improvements in lung function and health-related quality of life with once-daily tiotropium+olodaterol FDC versus mono-components over 1 year in patients with moderate to very severe COPD.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espirometria , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25352908

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a disease which is associated with random and often unpredictable attacks of painful swelling typically affecting the extremities, bowel mucosa, genitals, face and upper airway. Attacks are associated with significant functional impairment, decreased Health Related Quality of Life, and mortality in the case of laryngeal attacks. Caring for patients with HAE can be challenging due to the complexity of this disease. The care of patients with HAE in Canada is neither optimal nor uniform across the country. It lags behind other countries where there are more organized models for HAE management, and where additional therapeutic options are licensed and available for use. The objective of this guideline is to provide graded recommendations for the management of patients in Canada with HAE. This includes the treatment of attacks, short-term prophylaxis, long-term prophylaxis, and recommendations for self-administration, individualized therapy, quality of life, and comprehensive care. It is anticipated that by providing this guideline to caregivers, policy makers, patients and their advocates, that there will be an improved understanding of the current recommendations regarding management of HAE and the factors that need to be considered when choosing therapies and treatment plans for individual patients. The primary target users of this guideline are healthcare providers who are managing patients with HAE. Other healthcare providers who may use this guideline are emergency physicians, gastroenterologists, dentists and otolaryngologists, who will encounter patients with HAE and need to be aware of this condition. Hospital administrators, insurers and policy makers may also find this guideline helpful.

17.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 113(1): 93-100.e3, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24836393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MK-3641 is a short ragweed sublingual tablet under investigation for immunotherapy of ragweed pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the safety and tolerability of a ragweed sublingual tablet (Merck/ALK-Abelló) in ragweed-allergic adults with or without conjunctivitis. METHODS: Data from 4 randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials of MK-3641 (2 28-day and 2 52-week trials) were evaluated. Pooled analyses examined short-term safety over 28 days from all 4 trials and long-term safety from the 52-week trials. RESULTS: Across all studies, 757, 198, 454, and 1,058 subjects were randomized to placebo or 1.5, 6, or 12 Amb a 1-U of MK-3641, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events were more frequent in the 6- and 12-Amb a 1-U MK-3641 groups than in the placebo group and were primarily local application-site reactions occurring in the first few days of treatment. There was no treatment-associated loss of asthma control or worsening of asthma associated with treatment. No swellings led to airway obstruction or respiratory compromise. No treatment-related anaphylactic shock, life-threatening, or serious treatment-related adverse events were reported for any MK-3641 dose. Of the 1,707 MK-3641-treated subjects, 1 systemic (anaphylactic) reaction was reported (0.06%). The 52-week long-term assessment was generally similar to the safety profile based on the 28-day assessment. CONCLUSION: MK-3641 doses up to and including 12 Amb a 1-U were well tolerated, with no unexpected safety findings. Sublingual immunotherapy risks such as worsening asthma or airway swellings that could cause airway obstruction were not observed. Systemic reactions and use of epinephrine were uncommon. In these studies, after the first dose was administered in a health care setting, self-administration was well tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01469182, NCT00783198, NCT00770315, and NCT00978029.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Conjuntivite Alérgica/terapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia , Imunoterapia Sublingual/métodos , Administração Sublingual , Adulto , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/análise , Conjuntivite Alérgica/complicações , Conjuntivite Alérgica/imunologia , Conjuntivite Alérgica/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/complicações , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia , Comprimidos
18.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 112(2): 146-153.e2, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24468255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In North America, few studies have evaluated sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis (AR/C); pediatric data are sparse. The authors report findings from the largest published immunotherapy trial yet conducted in adults and children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet (MK-7243) treatment in subjects with AR/C. METHODS: North American subjects (5-65 years old) with grass allergy were randomized 1:1 to once-daily MK-7243 (2,800 BAU Phleum pratense) or placebo. The first dose was given at the investigator's office; subsequent doses were self-administered at home. The primary end point was total combined score (TCS; rhinoconjunctivitis daily symptom score [DSS] plus daily medication score [DMS]) over the entire grass pollen season (GPS). Key secondary end points included entire-season DSS, DMS, peak-season TCS, and rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaire scores. Safety outcomes included adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: One thousand five hundred one subjects were randomized (85% polysensitized, 25% had asthma). MK-7243 yielded improvements vs placebo of 23% in entire-season TCS (median difference -0.98, P < .001), 29% in peak-season TCS (median difference -1.33, P < .001), 20% in entire-season DSS (median difference -0.64, P = .001), 35% in entire-season DMS (mean difference -0.48, P < .001), and 12% in peak-season rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaire (median difference -0.13, P = .027). Efficacy between children and adults was similar. Most AEs were transient local application-site reactions, with no serious treatment-related AEs or anaphylactic shock. Three subjects (1 placebo, 2 MK-7243) had moderate systemic allergic reactions. CONCLUSION: MK-7243 was effective in polysensitized grass-allergic North American children and adults with AR/C in this large trial, confirming previous research.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite/imunologia , Conjuntivite/terapia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Poaceae/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólen/envenenamento , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Comprimidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 112(2): 170-4, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24468258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown that omalizumab, a subcutaneous anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is highly effective for the treatment of chronic urticaria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate omalizumab 150 mg/month in severe, difficult-to-treat, chronic urticaria in a real-life setting. METHODS: This prospective open-label study evaluated of 150 mg of omalizumab in severe urticaria defined by a 7-day urticaria activity score (UAS-7) higher than 30, a history of oral glucocorticoid use, and by suboptimal response to previous treatments. Two subgroups of patients at different centers (Toronto and Quebec City, Canada) were included. The primary efficacy evaluation was a change in UAS-7 from baseline. A quantitative medication score assessed the use of other anti-urticarial medications. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were included: 61 with chronic spontaneous urticaria, 6 with cold urticaria, and 1 with urticarial vasculitis. Patients were followed for up to 25 months. In Toronto, mean UAS-7 decreased from 32.2 at baseline to 5.7 after the last omalizumab treatment. Seventy-nine percent achieved complete remission during omalizumab therapy (UAS-7 0) and 6 (18%) showed improvement but never achieved complete remission. The most common maintenance dosing intervals were 1 to 3 months. In Quebec City, from baseline to 18 months, mean UAS-7 decreased from 24.4 to 2.2 and the quantitative medication score decreased from 13.3 to 3.0. All 6 patients with cold urticaria became symptom free, with a significant decrease of their cold stimulation tolerance test. CONCLUSION: Omalizumab 150 mg was effective in difficult to treat patients with severe, chronic urticaria refractory to recommended treatments who usually required prednisone. Omalizumab induced a long-lasting positive response and was well tolerated without side effects.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Urticária/tratamento farmacológico , Urticária/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omalizumab , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Urticária/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25685162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of sublingual Timothy grass immunotherapy tablet 2800 BAU (grass SLIT-T) has been evaluated in three North American trials in adults and children who have allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis (AR/C). This paper examines the effects of grass SLIT-T in Canadians. METHODS: Data for grass-allergic Canadians in three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials were analyzed post hoc: 1) adults ≥18 y, grass-pollen season [GPS] 2009; 2) children 5- <18 y, 2009; and 3) adults 18-65 y and children 5- <18 y, GPS 2012. Data from the GPS 2009 trials were pooled to provide a more precise estimate of treatment effects than the individual studies would provide. In every trial, participants received once-daily grass SLIT-T or placebo approximately 12 weeks before and continuing throughout the GPS. Participants used daily electronic diaries to record AR/C symptoms and medication use for treatment of symptoms. The therapeutic effect of grass SLIT-T was measured as a total combined score (TCS = daily symptom score + daily medication score) averaged over the entire GPS. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: In the three trials, 386 Canadian participants were randomized; the overall population had 2284 participants. Canadian participants treated with grass SLIT-T in the pooled adult-pediatric 2009 trials showed a 38% mean TCS reduction relative to placebo (-2.06 difference [95% CI: -3.72, -0.39]; 3.32 vs. 5.37). Participants treated with grass SLIT-T in the adult-pediatric 2012 trial showed a 37% median TCS reduction relative to placebo (-1.53 difference [95% CI: -2.1, -0.3]; 2.58 vs. 4.11). Similar efficacy findings were observed over the peak GPS. Approximately 90% of treatment-related AEs were mild or moderate in severity. Two Canadian participants had moderate systemic allergic reactions (skin, respiratory, abdominal symptoms) to grass SLIT-T; symptoms resolved within 1 hour without medical intervention or treatment. No serious or life-threatening treatment-related AEs occurred. CONCLUSION: The 2800 BAU Timothy grass SLIT-T significantly improved AR/C induced by Timothy grass pollen in adults and children ≥5 y in Canadians, which was consistent with the robust efficacy observed in the overall trial population. The treatment was generally well tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers NCT00562159, NCT00550550, NCT01385371.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA