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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766265

RESUMO

Bradykinin (BK)-mediated angioedema (AE) states are rare acquired or hereditary conditions involving localized edema of the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues. Citrated plasma from healthy volunteers or patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal level of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) was used to investigate pathways of BK formation and breakdown relevant to AE physiopathology. The half-life of BK (100 nM) added to normal plasma was 34 s, a value that was increased ~12-fold when the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalaprilat (130 nM) was added (enzyme immunoassay measurements). The BK half-life was similarly increased ~5-fold following 2 daily oral doses of enalapril maleate in healthy volunteers, finding of possible relevance for the most common form of drug-associated AE. We also addressed the kinetics of immunoreactive BK (iBK) formation and decline, spontaneous or under three standardized stimuli: tissue kallikrein (KLK-1), the particulate material Kontact-APTT™ and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Relative to controls, iBK production was rapid (10-20 min) and very intense in response to tPA in plasma of female heterozygotes for variants in gene F12 coding for factor XII (FXII) (p.Thr328Lys, 9 patients; p.Thr328Arg, one). An increased response to Kontact-APTT™ and an early tPA-induced cleavage of anomalous FXII (immunoblots) were also observed. Biotechnological inhibitors showed that the early response to tPA was dependent on plasmin, FXIIa and plasma kallikrein. Results from post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women with HAE-FXII were indistinguishable. The iBK production profiles in seven patients with the plasminogen p.Lys330Glu variant (HAE-PLG) did not significantly differ from those of controls, except for an unexpected, rapid and lanadelumab-resistant potentiation of KLK-1 effect. This enzyme did not cleave plasminogen or factor XII, suggesting a possible idiosyncratic interaction of the plasminogen pathogenic variant with KLK-1 activity. KLK-1 abounds in salivary glands and human saliva, hypothetically correlating with the clinical presentation of HAE-PLG that includes the swelling of the tongue, lips and contiguous throat tissues. Samples from HAE patients with normal C1-INH levels and F12 gene did not produce excessive iBK in response to stimuli. The ex vivo approach provides physiopathological insight into AE states and supports the heterogeneous physiopathology of HAE with normal C1-INH.

2.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 13(9)2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824891

RESUMO

Kinins (peptides related to bradykinin, BK) are formed from circulating substrates, the kininogens, by the action of two proteases, the kallikreins. The only clinical application of a BK receptor ligand, the B2 receptor antagonist icatibant, is the treatment of the rare hereditary angioedema (HAE) caused by the deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). Less common forms of HAE (genetic variants of factor XII, plasminogen, kininogen) are presumably mediated by increased BK formation. Acquired forms of BK-mediated angioedema, such as that associated with angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, are also known. Antibody-based analytical techniques are briefly reviewed, and support that kinins are extremely short-lived, prominently cleared by ACE. Despite evidence of continuous activation of the kallikrein-kinin system in HAE, patients are not symptomatic most of the time and their blood or plasma obtained during remission does not generate excessive immunoreactive BK (iBK), suggesting effective homeostatic mechanisms. HAE-C1-INH and HAE-FXII plasmas are both hyperresponsive to fibrinolysis activation. On another hand, we suggested a role for the alternate tissue kallikrein-kinin system in patients with a plasminogen mutation. The role of the BK B1 receptor is still uncertain in angioedema states. iBK profiles under in vitro stimulation provide fresh insight into the physiopathology of angioedema.

4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(7): 2372-2378.e5, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omalizumab shows greater clinical benefit with 300 mg dose than with the 150 mg dose. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcomes postwithdrawal, relapse, and re-treatment in omalizumab responders, and from stepping up to 300 mg after insufficient symptom control with 150 mg. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized (3:4), open-label, noncomparator study (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02161562). A total of 314 adult patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and symptomatic on H1-antihistamines were enrolled between August 1, 2014, and November 6, 2015. Patients received 150 mg/300 mg omalizumab, every 4 weeks for 24 weeks. Omalizumab 150 mg dose could be stepped up to 300 mg between week 8 and week 24, if the 7-day sum of the daily Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7) was more than 6. If patients relapsed after treatment withdrawal at week 24, they could be re-treated with the same dose on which omalizumab was started. Patients on 300 mg could extend treatment by 12 weeks if they did not achieve symptom control on 300 mg in the initial dosing phase. The primary end point was the proportion of well-controlled patients who relapsed postwithdrawal, and achieved symptom control at the end of re-treatment. Symptom control was assessed using UAS7 (UAS7 ≤ 6 = well controlled). RESULTS: Overall, 115 of 314 patients had adequate symptom control at week 24 (end of the initial dosing period) and 56 were re-treated after relapse postwithdrawal; 87.8% (95% CI, 78.6%-96.9%) regained symptomatic control (UAS7 ≤ 6). Most (141 of 178) patients initially treated with 150 mg required step-up to 300 mg, which resulted in a 9.5-point (95% CI, 7.6-11.3) improvement in UAS7 over the mean change observed initially on 150 mg. CONCLUSIONS: Step-up to 300 mg helps a greater proportion of patients achieve symptom control, and re-treatment with omalizumab is as effective as initial therapy.

5.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(2): 145-154, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129958

RESUMO

Introduction: Allergic conditions frequently require treatment with antihistamines. First-generation antihistamines can potentially interfere with restful sleep, cause "morning after" effects, impair learning and memory, and reduce work efficiency. Second-generation antihistamines, such as bilastine, have been demonstrated to decrease allergy symptoms effectively without causing night-time sleep disturbances and related adverse events. Method: A real-world case project was developed to help optimize patient care by recognizing the role bilastine can play for allergic conditions where antihistamine treatment is needed. The presented real-world patient cases conducted by the panel members are supported with evidence from the literature, where available. Any discussion concerning off-label use should be considered an expert opinion only. Results: The real-world cases presented here used bilastine in conditions such as perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, as well as urticarial vasculitis and pruritus associated with inflammatory skin conditions. The treated patients were between 9 and 76-years old providing information on a full spectrum of patients that require treatment with antihistamines. Conclusions: The presented real-world cases using the second-generation antihistamine, bilastine, demonstrated favorable outcomes for the treated patients. While effectively relieving symptoms, the antihistamine was reported to be safe and well-tolerated. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(2)145-154. doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.4835

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788005

RESUMO

This is an update to the 2014 Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Guideline with an expanded scope to include the management of hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients worldwide. It is a collaboration of Canadian and international HAE experts and patient groups led by the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network. The objective of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations, using the GRADE system, for the management of patients with HAE. This includes the treatment of attacks, short-term prophylaxis, long-term prophylaxis, and recommendations for self-administration, individualized therapy, quality of life, and comprehensive care. New to the 2019 version of this guideline are sections covering the diagnosis and recommended therapies for acute treatment in HAE patients with normal C1-INH, as well as sections on pregnant and paediatric patients, patient associations and an HAE registry. Hereditary angioedema results in random and often unpredictable attacks of painful swelling typically affecting the extremities, bowel mucosa, genitals, face and upper airway. Attacks are associated with significant functional impairment, decreased health-related quality of life, and mortality in the case of laryngeal attacks. Caring for patients with HAE can be challenging due to the complexity of this disease. The care of patients with HAE in Canada, as in many countries, continues to be neither optimal nor uniform. It lags behind some other countries where there are more organized models for HAE management, and greater availability of additional licensed therapeutic options. It is anticipated that providing this guideline to caregivers, policy makers, patients, and advocates will not only optimize the management of HAE, but also promote the importance of individualized care. The primary target users of this guideline are healthcare providers who are managing patients with HAE. Other healthcare providers who may use this guideline are emergency and intensive care physicians, primary care physicians, gastroenterologists, dentists, otolaryngologists, paediatricians, and gynaecologists who will encounter patients with HAE and need to be aware of this condition. Hospital administrators, insurers and policy makers may also find this guideline helpful.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1321-1332, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the majority of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, most currently available therapies do not result in complete symptom control. Ligelizumab is a next-generation high-affinity humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. Data are limited regarding the dose-response relationship of ligelizumab and the efficacy and safety of ligelizumab as compared with omalizumab and placebo in patients who have moderate-to-severe chronic spontaneous urticaria that is inadequately controlled with H1-antihistamines at approved or increased doses, alone or in combination with H2-antihistamines or leukotriene-receptor antagonists. METHODS: In a phase 2b dose-finding trial, we randomly assigned patients to receive ligelizumab at a dose of 24 mg, 72 mg, or 240 mg, omalizumab at a dose of 300 mg, or placebo, administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks for a period of 20 weeks, or a single 120-mg dose of ligelizumab. Disease symptoms of hives, itch, and angioedema were monitored by means of weekly activity scores. The main objective was to determine a dose-response relationship for the complete control of hives (indicated by a weekly hives-severity score of 0, on a scale from 0 to 21, with higher scores indicating greater severity); the primary end point of this response was assessed at week 12. Complete symptom control was indicated by a weekly urticaria activity score of 0 (on a scale from 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating greater severity). Safety was analyzed throughout the trial. RESULTS: A total of 382 patients underwent randomization. At week 12, a total of 30%, 51%, and 42% of the patients treated with 24 mg, 72 mg, and 240 mg, respectively, of ligelizumab had complete control of hives, as compared with 26% of the patients in the omalizumab group and no patients in the placebo group. A dose-response relationship was established. At week 12, a total of 30%, 44%, and 40% of the patients treated with 24 mg, 72 mg, and 240 mg, respectively, of ligelizumab had complete control of symptoms, as compared with 26% of the patients in the omalizumab group and no patients in the placebo group. In this small and short trial, no safety concerns regarding ligelizumab or omalizumab emerged. CONCLUSIONS: A higher percentage of patients had complete control of symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria with ligelizumab therapy of 72 mg or 240 mg than with omalizumab or placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02477332.).


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Omalizumab/administração & dosagem , Urticária/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antialérgicos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omalizumab/efeitos adversos , Gravidade do Paciente , Indução de Remissão , Urticária/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 291, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We recently investigated the pathways of immunoreactive bradykinin (iBK) formation in fresh blood of normal volunteers and of patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency (HAE-1/-2). Herein, we adapted the techniques to small volumes (200 µl) of previously frozen citrated plasma and further analyzed the mechanisms of iBK formation with additional biotechnological inhibitors. RESULTS: Measurable iBK formation was observed under stimulation with tissue kallikrein (KLK-1, 10 nM), the particulate material Kontact-APTT (concentration reduced to 2% v/v) or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, 169 nM), with little background in unstimulated plasma incubated for up to 2 h. Plasma samples from HAE-1/-2 patients responded earlier to tPA than those from controls, as previously reported with whole blood. Lanadelumab inhibited iBK formation induced by Kontact-APTT and tPA. A highly specific plasmin inhibitor, DX-1000, abolished tPA-induced iBK formation in plasma but had no effect against Kontact-APTT, confirming the role of fibrinolysis in tPA-induced kinin formation. The anti-lanadelumab neutralizing antibody M293-D02 reversed the inhibitory effects of lanadelumab. Frozen plasma is a suitable material for measuring iBK formation kinetics, with possible applications such as investigating the effect of rare disease states on the kallikrein-kinin system and monitoring the effect of HAE prophylactic treatments.


Assuntos
Bradicinina/biossíntese , Fibrinólise/fisiologia , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/sangue , Calicreínas/química , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/química , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Antifibrinolíticos/química , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Bradicinina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fibrinolisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fibrinolisina/metabolismo , Congelamento , Humanos , Masculino , Plasma/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/química
9.
JAMA ; 321(10): 946-955, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794314

RESUMO

Importance: There are currently no approved treatments for peanut allergy. Objective: To assess the efficacy and adverse events of epicutaneous immunotherapy with a peanut patch among peanut-allergic children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 31 sites in 5 countries between January 8, 2016, and August 18, 2017. Participants included peanut-allergic children (aged 4-11 years [n = 356] without a history of a severe anaphylactic reaction) developing objective symptoms during a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge at an eliciting dose of 300 mg or less of peanut protein. Interventions: Daily treatment with peanut patch containing either 250 µg of peanut protein (n = 238) or placebo (n = 118) for 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the percentage difference in responders between the peanut patch and placebo patch based on eliciting dose (highest dose at which objective signs/symptoms of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction developed) determined by food challenges at baseline and month 12. Participants with baseline eliciting dose of 10 mg or less were responders if the posttreatment eliciting dose was 300 mg or more; participants with baseline eliciting dose greater than 10 to 300 mg were responders if the posttreatment eliciting dose was 1000 mg or more. A threshold of 15% or more on the lower bound of a 95% CI around responder rate difference was prespecified to determine a positive trial result. Adverse event evaluation included collection of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: Among 356 participants randomized (median age, 7 years; 61.2% male), 89.9% completed the trial; the mean treatment adherence was 98.5%. The responder rate was 35.3% with peanut-patch treatment vs 13.6% with placebo (difference, 21.7% [95% CI, 12.4%-29.8%; P < .001]). The prespecified lower bound of the CI threshold was not met. TEAEs, primarily patch application site reactions, occurred in 95.4% and 89% of active and placebo groups, respectively. The all-causes rate of discontinuation was 10.5% in the peanut-patch group vs 9.3% in the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among peanut-allergic children aged 4 to 11 years, the percentage difference in responders at 12 months with the 250-µg peanut-patch therapy vs placebo was 21.7% and was statistically significant, but did not meet the prespecified lower bound of the confidence interval criterion for a positive trial result. The clinical relevance of not meeting this lower bound of the confidence interval with respect to the treatment of peanut-allergic children with epicutaneous immunotherapy remains to be determined. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02636699.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Arachis/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/terapia , Adesivo Transdérmico , Administração Cutânea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/imunologia , Adesivo Transdérmico/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1793-1802.e2, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the prevention of attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE), the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA, CSL Behring) was established in the 16-week Clinical Study for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT). OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term safety, occurrence of angioedema attacks, and use of rescue medication with C1-INH(SC). METHODS: Open-label, randomized, parallel-arm extension of COMPACT across 11 countries. Patients with frequent angioedema attacks, either study treatment-naive or who had completed COMPACT, were randomly assigned (1:1) to 40 IU/kg or 60 IU/kg C1-INH(SC) twice per week, with conditional uptitration to optimize prophylaxis (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT02316353). RESULTS: A total of 126 patients with a monthly attack rate of 4.3 in 3 months before entry in COMPACT were enrolled and treated for a mean of 1.5 years; 44 patients (34.9%) had more than 2 years of exposure. Mean steady-state C1-INH functional activity increased to 66.6% with 60 IU/kg. Incidence of adverse events was low and similar in both dose groups (11.3 and 8.5 events per patient-year for 40 IU/kg and 60 IU/kg, respectively). For 40 IU/kg and 60 IU/kg, median annualized attack rates were 1.3 and 1.0, respectively, and median rescue medication use was 0.2 and 0.0 times per year, respectively. Of 23 patients receiving 60 IU/kg for more than 2 years, 19 (83%) were attack-free during months 25 to 30 of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with frequent HAE attacks, long-term replacement therapy with C1-INH(SC) is safe and exhibits a substantial and sustained prophylactic effect, with the vast majority of patients becoming free from debilitating disease symptoms.

11.
JAMA ; 320(20): 2108-2121, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480729

RESUMO

Importance: Current treatments for long-term prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema have limitations. Objective: To assess the efficacy of lanadelumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits active plasma kallikrein, in preventing hereditary angioedema attacks. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 41 sites in Canada, Europe, Jordan, and the United States. Patients were randomized between March 3, 2016, and September 9, 2016; last day of follow-up was April 13, 2017. Randomization was 2:1 lanadelumab to placebo; patients assigned to lanadelumab were further randomized 1:1:1 to 1 of the 3 dose regimens. Patients 12 years or older with hereditary angioedema type I or II underwent a 4-week run-in period and those with 1 or more hereditary angioedema attacks during run-in were randomized. Interventions: Twenty-six-week treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (n = 28), 300 mg every 4 weeks (n = 29), 300 mg every 2 weeks (n = 27), or placebo (n = 41). All patients received injections every 2 weeks, with those in the every-4-week group receiving placebo in between active treatments. Main Outcome and Measures: Primary efficacy end point was the number of investigator-confirmed attacks of hereditary angioedema over the treatment period. Results: Among 125 patients randomized (mean age, 40.7 years [SD, 14.7 years]; 88 females [70.4%]; 113 white [90.4%]), 113 (90.4%) completed the study. During the run-in period, the mean number of hereditary angioedema attacks per month in the placebo group was 4.0; for the lanadelumab groups, 3.2 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 3.7 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 3.5 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. During the treatment period, the mean number of attacks per month for the placebo group was 1.97; for the lanadelumab groups, 0.48 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 0.53 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 0.26 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. Compared with placebo, the mean differences in the attack rate per month were -1.49 (95% CI, -1.90 to -1.08; P < .001); -1.44 (95% CI, -1.84 to -1.04; P < .001); and -1.71 (95% CI, -2.09 to -1.33; P < .001). The most commonly occurring adverse events with greater frequency in the lanadelumab treatment groups were injection site reactions (34.1% placebo, 52.4% lanadelumab) and dizziness (0% placebo, 6.0% lanadelumab). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with hereditary angioedema type I or II, treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab for 26 weeks significantly reduced the attack rate compared with placebo. These findings support the use of lanadelumab as a prophylactic therapy for hereditary angioedema. Further research is needed to determine long-term safety and efficacy. Trial Registration: EudraCT Identifier: 2015-003943-20; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02586805.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/prevenção & controle , Calicreína Plasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/classificação , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2183, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333824

RESUMO

Multiple pathways have been proposed to generate bradykinin (BK)-related peptides from blood. We applied various forms of activation to fresh blood obtained from 10 healthy subjects or 10 patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE-1 or -2 only) to investigate kinin formation. An enzyme immunoassay for BK was applied to extracts of citrated blood incubated at 37°C under gentle agitation for 0-2 h in the presence of activators and/or inhibitory agents. Biologically active kinins in extracts were corroborated by c-Fos accumulation in HEK 293a cells that express either recombinant human B2 or B1 receptors (B2R, B1R). Biological evidence of HAE diagnostic and blood cell activation was also obtained. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, without any effect per se, increased immunoreactive BK (iBK) concentration under active stimulation of blood. Tissue kallikrein (KLK-1) and Kontact-APTT, a particulate material that activates the contact system, rapidly (5 min) and intensely (>100 ng/mL) induced similar iBK generation in the blood of control or HAE subjects. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) slowly (≥1 h) induced iBK generation in control blood, but more rapidly and intensely so in that of HAE patients. Effects of biotechnological inhibitors indicate that tPA recruits factor XIIa (FXIIa) and plasma kallikrein to generate iBK. KLK-1, independent of the contact system, is the only stimulus leading to an inconsistent B1R stimulation. Stimulating neutrophils or platelets did not generate iBK. In the HAE patients observed during remission, iBK formation capability coupled to B2R stimulation appears largely intact. However, a selective hypersensitivity to tPA in the blood of HAE patients suggests a role of plasmin-activated FXIIa in the development of attacks. Proposed pathways of kinin formation dependent on blood cell activation were not corroborated.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários , Bradicinina , Fator XIIa , Calicreínas Teciduais , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angioedemas Hereditários/sangue , Angioedemas Hereditários/imunologia , Angioedemas Hereditários/patologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/patologia , Bradicinina/sangue , Bradicinina/imunologia , Fator XIIa/imunologia , Fator XIIa/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Calicreínas Teciduais/sangue , Calicreínas Teciduais/imunologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/sangue , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/imunologia
13.
J Asthma Allergy ; 11: 63-72, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670379

RESUMO

Background: Patients prefer at-home subcutaneous administration of biologics across different diseases, yet no biologic is approved for at-home use for severe, uncontrolled asthma. Objective: We assessed at-home functionality, reliability, and performance of an accessorized pre-filled syringe (APFS) for subcutaneous benralizumab administration, an anti-eosinophil monoclonal antibody indicated for add-on maintenance treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Materials and methods: Patients (N=116) with severe, uncontrolled asthma despite receiving medium- or high-dosage inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting ß2-agonists received up to 5 APFS-administered subcutaneous doses (Weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16) of benralizumab 30 mg. The first 3 doses were administered at the study sites. The patient/caregiver administered the last 2 doses at home. Endpoints included the percentage of dispensed APFS that were used successfully blood eosinophil counts, Asthma Control Questionnaire 6, and safety. Results: Nearly all dispensed APFS were successfully used in the clinic and at home (Week 0: 116/116, 100%; Week 4: 116/117, 99%; Week 8: 115/115, 100%; Week 12: 112/114, 98%; Week 16: 108/109, 99%). Only 1 APFS malfunctioned out of 573 dispensed. Two at-home administrations were unsuccessful because of patient-use error. One unreturned APFS was recorded as nonfunctional. Mean Asthma Control Questionnaire 6 scores decreased from baseline through all post-baseline time points, and nearly complete depletion of eosinophils was observed at the end of treatment. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, and sinusitis. Five patients (4%) experienced transient mild or moderate injection-site reactions. Conclusion: The APFS was functional, reliable, and performed equally well in the clinic and at home.

14.
JAMA ; 318(18): 1798-1809, 2017 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136445

RESUMO

Importance: Epicutaneous immunotherapy may have potential for treating peanut allergy but has been assessed only in preclinical and early human trials. Objective: To determine the optimal dose, adverse events (AEs), and efficacy of a peanut patch for peanut allergy treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 2b double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of a peanut patch in peanut-allergic patients (6-55 years) from 22 centers, with a 2-year, open-label extension (July 31, 2012-July 31, 2014; extension completed September 29, 2016). Patients (n = 221) had peanut sensitivity and positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges to an eliciting dose of 300 mg or less of peanut protein. Interventions: Randomly assigned patients (1:1:1:1) received an epicutaneous peanut patch containing 50 µg (n = 53), 100 µg (n = 56), or 250 µg (n = 56) of peanut protein or a placebo patch (n = 56). Following daily patch application for 12 months, patients underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to establish changes in eliciting dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy end point was percentage of treatment responders (eliciting dose: ≥10-times increase and/or reaching ≥1000 mg of peanut protein) in each group vs placebo patch after 12 months. Secondary end points included percentage of responders by age strata and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: Of 221 patients randomized (median age, 11 years [quartile 1, quartile 3: 8, 16]; 37.6% female), 93.7% completed the trial. A significant absolute difference in response rates was observed at month 12 between the 250-µg (n = 28; 50.0%) and placebo (n = 14; 25.0%) patches (difference, 25.0%; 95% CI, 7.7%-42.3%; P = .01). No significant difference was seen between the placebo patch vs the 100-µg patch. Because of statistical testing hierarchical rules, the 50-µg patch was not compared with placebo. Interaction by age group was only significant for the 250-µg patch (P = .04). In the 6- to 11-year stratum, the response rate difference between the 250-µg (n = 15; 53.6%) and placebo (n = 6; 19.4%) patches was 34.2% (95% CI, 11.1%-57.3%; P = .008); adolescents/adults showed no difference between the 250-µg (n = 13; 46.4%) and placebo (n = 8; 32.0%) patches: 14.4% (95% CI, -11.6% to 40.4%; P = .40). No dose-related serious AEs were observed. The percentage of patients with 1 or more TEAEs (largely local skin reactions) was similar across all groups in year 1: 50-µg patch = 100%, 100-µg patch = 98.2%, 250-µg patch = 100%, and placebo patch = 92.9%. The overall median adherence was 97.6% after 1 year; the dropout rate for treatment-related AEs was 0.9%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this dose-ranging trial of peanut-allergic patients, the 250-µg peanut patch resulted in significant treatment response vs placebo patch following 12 months of therapy. These findings warrant a phase 3 trial. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01675882.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Arachis/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/terapia , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183869, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omalizumab is a non-steroidal medication indicated for the treatment of poorly controlled moderate-to-severe allergic asthmatics. This observational study examines the "real world" effectiveness of omalizumab in this population. METHODS: This is a one year open-label observational study that compared clinical outcomes including total oral corticosteroid use, exacerbation history, measures of quality of life and inflammation in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma, who were prescribed omalizumab as part of their treatment with the year prior to therapy. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients were enrolled at 25 sites in Canada. During the study period, the mean total annual OCS dose was reduced from 2301.5 mg (prednisone equivalents) in the year prior to omalizumab to 1130.0 mg (p<0.0001). There was a 71% reduction in asthma exacerbations and 56% of patients on omalizumab remained exacerbation free when compared to the year prior to study entry. Associated with this was reduced health care utilization. There were significant improvements in the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire (AQLQ) Patients with an elevated FeNO at baseline showed a better response to treatment. No new safety issues were identified during the study period. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that in "real world" clinical practice, after initiating omalizumab, there is a reduction in total OCS use and exacerbation frequency in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma. Patients on treatment reported improved asthma control and quality of life. FeNO may be a useful biomarker to identify patients who may benefit with omalizumab treatment.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/fisiopatologia , Asma/psicologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Expiração , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
N Engl J Med ; 376(12): 1131-1140, 2017 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is a disabling, potentially fatal condition caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein. In a phase 2 trial, the use of CSL830, a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor preparation that is suitable for subcutaneous injection, resulted in functional levels of C1 inhibitor activity that would be expected to provide effective prophylaxis of attacks. METHODS: We conducted an international, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered subcutaneous CSL830 in patients with type I or type II hereditary angioedema who had had four or more attacks in a consecutive 2-month period within 3 months before screening. We randomly assigned the patients to one of four treatment sequences in a crossover design, each involving two 16-week treatment periods: either 40 IU or 60 IU of CSL830 per kilogram of body weight twice weekly followed by placebo, or vice versa. The primary efficacy end point was the number of attacks of angioedema. Secondary efficacy end points were the proportion of patients who had a response (≥50% reduction in the number of attacks with CSL830 as compared with placebo) and the number of times that rescue medication was used. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients who underwent randomization, 79 completed the trial. Both doses of CSL830, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema (mean difference with 40 IU, -2.42 attacks per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.38 to -1.46; and mean difference with 60 IU, -3.51 attacks per month; 95% CI, -4.21 to -2.81; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Response rates were 76% (95% CI, 62 to 87) in the 40-IU group and 90% (95% CI, 77 to 96) in the 60-IU group. The need for rescue medication was reduced from 5.55 uses per month in the placebo group to 1.13 uses per month in the 40-IU group and from 3.89 uses in the placebo group to 0.32 uses per month in the 60-IU group. Adverse events (most commonly mild and transient local site reactions) occurred in similar proportions of patients who received CSL830 and those who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with hereditary angioedema, the prophylactic use of a subcutaneous C1 inhibitor twice weekly significantly reduced the frequency of acute attacks. (Funded by CSL Behring; COMPACT EudraCT number, 2013-000916-10 , and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01912456 .).


Assuntos
Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/administração & dosagem , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/classificação , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Risco , Autoadministração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 32: 53-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25956072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects on 24-h lung function and lung volume of a once-daily fixed-dose combination (FDC) of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium and the long-acting ß2-agonist olodaterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III trial with an incomplete crossover design. Patients received four of the following six treatment options for 6 weeks each: placebo, olodaterol 5 µg, tiotropium 2.5 µg, tiotropium 5 µg, tiotropium + olodaterol FDC 2.5/5 µg and tiotropium + olodaterol FDC 5/5 µg, all delivered via the Respimat(®) inhaler. The primary end point was forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) response after 6 weeks of treatment; key secondary end points were FEV1 AUC from 0 to 12 h and AUC from 12 to 24 h, and further end points included lung-volume parameters measured using body plethysmography (subset of patients), measures of peak and trough FEV1, and incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: A significant improvement in FEV1 AUC0-24 response was observed with tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 µg and 2.5/5 µg versus placebo and monotherapies after 6 weeks of treatment; mean response with tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 µg versus placebo was 0.280 L (p < 0.0001). Differences to monotherapies with tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 µg were 0.115 L versus olodaterol 5 µg, 0.127 L versus tiotropium 2.5 µg and 0.110 L versus tiotropium 5 µg (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Secondary end points supported these data. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study demonstrated improvements in lung function over 24 h with an FDC of tiotropium + olodaterol over tiotropium or olodaterol alone, with no observed difference in tolerability. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01559116.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Tempo , Brometo de Tiotrópio/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25705232

RESUMO

In the past few years there have been significant advances which have changed the face of chronic urticaria. In this review, we aim to update physicians about clinically relevant advances in the classification, diagnosis and management of chronic urticaria that have occurred in recent years. These include clarification of the terminology used to describe and classify urticaria. We also detail the development and validation of instruments to assess urticaria and understand the impairment on quality-of-life and the morbidity caused by this disease. Additionally, the approach to management of chronic urticaria now focuses on evidence-based use of non-impairing, non-sedating H1-antihistamines given initially in standard doses and if this is not effective, in up to 4-fold doses. For urticaria refractory to H1-antihistamines, omalizumab treatment has emerged as an effective, safe option.

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