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1.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(6): 704-716, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172578

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is a hallmark of complex traits, and genetic studies of such traits may focus on them as a single diagnostic entity or by analyzing specific components. For example, in orofacial clefting (OFC), three subtypes-cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP) have been studied separately and in combination. To further dissect the genetic architecture of OFCs and how a given associated locus may be contributing to distinct subtypes of a trait we developed a framework for quantifying and interpreting evidence of subtype-specific or shared genetic effects in complex traits. We applied this technique to create a "cleft map" of the association of 30 genetic loci with three OFC subtypes. In addition to new associations, we found loci with subtype-specific effects (e.g., GRHL3 [CP], WNT5A [CLP]), as well as loci associated with two or all three subtypes. We cross-referenced these results with mouse craniofacial gene expression datasets, which identified additional promising candidate genes. However, we found no strong correlation between OFC subtypes and expression patterns. In aggregate, the cleft map revealed that neither subtype-specific nor shared genetic effects operate in isolation in OFC architecture. Our approach can be easily applied to any complex trait with distinct phenotypic subgroups.

2.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(11): 659-665, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) is a common birth defect with multifactorial etiology. Genetic studies have identified numerous gene variants in association with NSCLP. IFT88 (intraflagellar transport 88) has been suggested to play a major role in craniofacial development, as Ift88 mutant mice exhibit cleft palate and mutations in IFT88 were identified in individuals with NSCLP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of IFT88 single nucleotide gene variants (SNVs) with NSCLP in a large family data set consisting of non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic families. METHODS: Nine SNVs in/nearby IFT88 were genotyped in 482 NHW families and 301 Hispanic NSCLP families. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan® chemistry. Single- and pairwise-SNV association analyses were performed for all families stratified by ethnicity and family history of NSCLP using the family-based association test (FBAT), and association in the presence of linkage (APL). Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple testing and p values ≤.0055 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Significant association was found between IFT88 rs9509311 and rs2497490 and NSCLP in NHW all families (p = .004 and .005, respectively), while nominal associations were found for rs7998361 and rs9509307 (p < .05). Pairwise association analyses also showed nominal associations between NSCLP in both NHW and Hispanic data sets (p < .05). No association was found between individual variants in IFT88 and NSCLP in Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variation in IFT88 may contribute to NSCLP risk, particularly in multiplex families from a non-Hispanic white population.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 467-474, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582786

RESUMO

Genome-wide scans have shown that common risk alleles for orofacial clefts (OFC) tend to be located in noncoding regulatory elements and cumulatively explain only part of the heritability of OFCs. Low-frequency variants may account for some of the "missing" heritability. Therefore, we scanned low-frequency variants located within putative craniofacial enhancers to identify novel OFC risk variants and implicate new regulatory elements in OFC pathogenesis. Analyses were performed in a multiethnic sample of 1,995 cases of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), 221 cases with cleft palate (CP) only, and 1,576 unaffected controls. One hundred and nineteen putative craniofacial enhancers identified from ChIP-Seq studies in craniofacial tissues or cell lines contained multiple low-frequency (0.01-1%) variants, which we genotyped in participants using a custom Illumina panel. Two complementary statistical approaches, sequence kernel association test and combined multivariate and collapsing, were used to test association of the aggregated low-frequency variants across each enhancer region with CL/P and CP. We discovered a significant association between CP and a branchial arch enhancer near FOXP1 (mm60; p-value = .0002). Additionally, we observed a suggestive association between CL/P and a forebrain enhancer near FOXE1 (hs1717; p-value = .001). These findings suggest that low-frequency variants in craniofacial enhancer regions contribute to the complex etiology of nonsyndromic OFCs.

4.
Am J Pathol ; 189(1): 132-146, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553437

RESUMO

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a large, multifunctional extracellular protein that, when mutated, is retained in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This retention elicits ER stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in dysfunction and death of growth plate chondrocytes. While identifying the cellular pathologic mechanisms underlying the murine mutant (MT)-COMP model of pseudoachondroplasia, increased midline-1 (MID1) expression and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling was found. This novel role for MID1/mTORC1 signaling was investigated since treatments shown to repress the pathology also reduced Mid1/mTORC1. Although ER stress-inducing drugs or tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in rat chondrosarcoma cells increased Mid1, oxidative stress did not, establishing that ER stress- or TNFα-driven inflammation alone is sufficient to elevate MID1 expression. Since MID1 ubiquitinates protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a negative regulator of mTORC1, PP2A was evaluated in MT-COMP growth plate chondrocytes. PP2A was decreased, indicating de-repression of mTORC1 signaling. Rapamycin treatment in MT-COMP mice reduced mTORC1 signaling and intracellular retention of COMP, and increased proliferation, but did not change inflammatory markers IL-16 and eosinophil peroxidase. Lastly, mRNA from tuberous sclerosis-1/2-null mice brain tissue exhibiting ER stress had increased Mid1 expression, confirming the relationship between ER stress and MID1/mTORC1 signaling. These findings suggest a mechanistic link between ER stress and MID1/mTORC1 signaling that has implications extending to other conditions involving ER stress.

5.
Front Genet ; 9: 497, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405702

RESUMO

Many factors influence human facial morphology, including genetics, age, nutrition, biomechanical forces, and endocrine factors. Moreover, facial features clearly differ between males and females, and these differences are driven primarily by the influence of sex hormones during growth and development. Specific genetic variants are known to influence circulating sex hormone levels in humans, which we hypothesize, in turn, affect facial features. In this study, we investigated the effects of testosterone-related genetic variants on facial morphology. We tested 32 genetic variants across 22 candidate genes related to levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in three cohorts of healthy individuals for which 3D facial surface images were available (Pittsburgh 3DFN, Penn State and ALSPAC cohorts; total n = 7418). Facial shape was described using a recently developed extension of the dense-surface correspondence approach, in which the 3D facial surface was partitioned into a set of 63 hierarchically organized modules. Each variant was tested against each of the facial surface modules in a multivariate genetic association-testing framework and meta-analyzed. Additionally, the association between these candidate SNPs and five facial ratios was investigated in the Pittsburgh 3DFN cohort. Two significant associations involving intronic variants of SHBG were found: both rs12150660 (p = 1.07E-07) and rs1799941 (p = 6.15E-06) showed an effect on mandible shape. Rs8023580 (an intronic variant of NR2F2-AS1) showed an association with the total and upper facial width to height ratios (p = 9.61E-04 and p = 7.35E-04, respectively). These results indicate that testosterone-related genetic variants affect normal-range facial morphology, and in particular, facial features known to exhibit strong sexual dimorphism in humans.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276962

RESUMO

Sudden death and higher mortality are recognized in achondroplasia, with acute brainstem compression, a common cause of mortality in children <4 years and cardiovascular deaths being more prevalent in adults. Although, changes in clinical management have improved survival, mortality is still higher than in the general population. The aim of this multicenter clinic-based study was to assess the rate and causes of mortality in patients seen in clinic since 1986. Information was ascertained for achondroplasia patients clinically assessed in four skeletal dysplasia clinics. Data was sent to the National Death Index to identify vital status and cause of death. Standardized mortality rates (SMR) were calculated based on U.S. populations from 1975, 1995, and 2000. Eight hundred fifty-five patients were identified, contributing 12,117 person-years and a total of 12 deaths. One case died in infancy. In the 1-4 year age group, which had the highest age-adjusted SMR, three out of five deaths were because of cerebrovascular/cardiovascular events. Half the deaths in ages 5 through 24 were because of accidental events, including motor vehicle accidents. Decreased mortality in children with achondroplasia was noted, particularly in younger age groups. This improvement in childhood survival is outpaced by improved survival in the general population. Causes of death in these patients have shifted over the last 30 years, with fewer sudden death and deaths because of pneumonia or hydrocephalus countered by more cardiovascular or cerebrovascular and accidental deaths. Clinicians should be aware of the apparent increased risk of vehicular accidents and counsel patients accordingly.

7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(7): 664-672, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277614

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is the most common craniofacial birth defect in humans and is notable for its apparent sexual dimorphism where approximately twice as many males are affected as females. The sources of this disparity are largely unknown, but interactions between genetic and sex effects are likely contributors. We examined gene-by-sex (G × S) interactions in a worldwide sample of 2,142 NSCL/P cases and 1,700 controls recruited from 13 countries. First, we performed genome-wide joint tests of the genetic (G) and G × S effects genome-wide using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model and adjusting for 18 principal components of ancestry. We further interrogated loci with suggestive results from the joint test ( p < 1.00 × 10 -5 ) by examining the G × S effects from the same model. Out of the 133 loci with suggestive results ( p < 1.00 × 10 -5 ) for the joint test, we observed one genome-wide significant G × S effect in the 10q21 locus (rs72804706; p = 6.69 × 10 -9 ; OR = 2.62 CI [1.89, 3.62]) and 16 suggestive G × S effects. At the intergenic 10q21 locus, the risk of NSCL/P is estimated to increase with additional copies of the minor allele for females, but the opposite effect for males. Our observation that the impact of genetic variants on NSCL/P risk differs for males and females may further our understanding of the genetic architecture of NSCL/P and the sex differences underlying clefts and other birth defects.


Assuntos
Alelos , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Caracteres Sexuais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epistasia Genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(10): 1441-1450, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899370

RESUMO

Orofacial development is a multifaceted process involving tightly regulated genetic signaling networks, that when perturbed, lead to orofacial abnormalities including cleft lip and/or cleft palate. We and others have shown an association between the cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2) gene and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP). Further, we demonstrated that knockdown of Crispld2 in zebrafish alters neural crest cell migration patterns resulting in abnormal jaw and palate development. In this study, we performed RNA profiling in zebrafish embryos and identified 249 differentially expressed genes following knockdown of Crispld2. In silico pathway analysis identified a network of seven genes previously implicated in orofacial development for which differential expression was validated in three of the seven genes (CASP8, FOS, and MMP2). Single nucleotide variant (SNV) genotyping of these three genes revealed significant associations between NSCLP and FOS/rs1046117 (GRCh38 chr14:g.75746690 T > C, p = 0.0005) in our nonHispanic white (NHW) families and MMP2/rs243836 (GRCh38 chr16:g.55534236 G > A; p = 0.002) in our Hispanic families. Nominal association was found between NSCLP and CASP8/rs3769825 (GRCh38 chr2:g.202111380 C > A; p < 0.007). Overtransmission of MMP2 haplotypes were identified in the Hispanic families (p < 0.002). Significant gene-gene interactions were identified for FOS-MMP2 in the NHW families and for CASP8-FOS in the NHW simplex family subgroup (p < 0.004). Additional in silico analysis revealed a novel gene regulatory network including five of these newly identified and 23 previously reported NSCLP genes. Our results demonstrate that animal models of orofacial clefting can be powerful tools to identify novel candidate genes and gene regulatory networks underlying NSCLP.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8470, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855589

RESUMO

Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) occurs when the muscular soft palate (velum) and lateral pharyngeal walls are physically unable to separate the oral and nasal cavities during speech production leading to hypernasality and abnormal speech reduction. Because VPD is often associated with overt or submucous cleft palate, it could be present as a subclinical phenotype in families with a history of orofacial clefting. A key assumption to this model is that the overt and subclinical manifestations of the orofacial cleft phenotype exist on a continuum and therefore share common etiological factors. We performed a genome-wide association study in 976 unaffected relatives of isolated CP probands, 54 of whom had VPD. Five loci were significantly (p < 5 × 10-8) associated with VPD: 3q29, 9p21.1, 12q21.31, 16p12.3 and 16p13.3. An additional 15 loci showing suggestive evidence of association with VPD were observed. Several genes known to be involved in orofacial clefting and craniofacial development are located in these regions, such as TFRC, PCYT1A, BNC2 and FREM1. Although further research is necessary, this could be an indication for a potential shared genetic architecture between VPD and cleft palate, and supporting the hypothesis that VPD is a subclinical phenotype of orofacial clefting.

10.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(12): 1043-1048, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a debilitating condition that not only affects the individual, but the entire family. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes with NSCL/P. METHODS: Twelve polymorphisms in/nearby BRCA1 and BRCA2 were genotyped using Taqman chemistry. Our data set consisted of 3,473 individuals including 2,191 nonHispanic white (NHW) individuals (from 151 multiplex and 348 simplex families) and 1,282 Hispanic individuals (from 92 multiplex and 216 simplex families). Data analysis was performed using Family-Based Association Test (FBAT), stratified by ethnicity and family history of NSCL/P. RESULTS: Nominal associations were found between NSCL/P and BRCA1 in Hispanics and BRCA2 in NHW and Hispanics (p < .05). Significant haplotype associations were found between NSCL/P and both BRCA1 and BRCA2 (p ≤ .004). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a modest association between BRCA1 and BRCA2 and NSCL/P. Further studies in additional populations and functional studies are needed to elucidate the role of these genes in developmental processes and signaling pathways contributing to NSCL/P.

11.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196148, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698431

RESUMO

The shape of the cranial vault, a region comprising interlocking flat bones surrounding the cerebral cortex, varies considerably in humans. Strongly influenced by brain size and shape, cranial vault morphology has both clinical and evolutionary relevance. However, little is known about the genetic basis of normal vault shape in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on three vault measures (maximum cranial width [MCW], maximum cranial length [MCL], and cephalic index [CI]) in a sample of 4419 healthy individuals of European ancestry. All measures were adjusted by sex, age, and body size, then tested for association with genetic variants spanning the genome. GWAS results for the two cohorts were combined via meta-analysis. Significant associations were observed at two loci: 15p11.2 (lead SNP rs2924767, p = 2.107 × 10-8) for MCW and 17q11.2 (lead SNP rs72841279, p = 5.29 × 10-9) for MCL. Additionally, 32 suggestive loci (p < 5x10-6) were observed. Several candidate genes were located in these loci, such as NLK, MEF2A, SOX9 and SOX11. Genome-wide linkage analysis of cranial vault shape in mice (N = 433) was performed to follow-up the associated candidate loci identified in the human GWAS. Two loci, 17q11.2 (c11.loc44 in mice) and 17q25.1 (c11.loc74 in mice), associated with cranial vault size in humans, were also linked with cranial vault size in mice (LOD scores: 3.37 and 3.79 respectively). These results provide further insight into genetic pathways and mechanisms underlying normal variation in human craniofacial morphology.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Crânio/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1296-1303, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663709

RESUMO

The biological relatives of offspring with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have been shown to exhibit distinctive facial features, including excess asymmetry, which are hypothesized to indicate the presence of genetic risk factors. The significance of excess soft tissue nasal asymmetry in at-risk relatives is unclear and was examined in the present study. Our sample included 164 unaffected parents from families with a history of orofacial clefting and 243 adult controls. Geometric morphometric methods were used to analyze the coordinates of 15 nasal landmarks collected from three-dimensional facial surface images. Following generalized Procrustes analysis, Procrustes ANOVA and MANOVA tests were applied to determine the type and magnitude of nasal asymmetry present in each group. Group differences in mean nasal asymmetry were also assessed via permutation testing. We found that nasal asymmetry in both parents and controls was directional in nature, although the magnitude of the asymmetry was greater in parents. This was confirmed with permutation testing, where the mean nasal asymmetry was significantly different (p < .0001) between parents and controls. The asymmetry was greatest for midline structures and the nostrils. When subsets of parents were subsequently analyzed and compared (parents with bilateral vs. unilateral offspring; parents with left vs. right unilateral offspring), each group showed a similar pattern of asymmetry and could not be distinguished statistically. Thus, the side of the unilateral cleft (right vs. left) in offspring was not associated with the direction of the nasal asymmetry in parents.

13.
Matrix Biol ; 71-72: 161-173, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530484

RESUMO

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a large pentameric glycoprotein that interacts with multiple extracellular matrix proteins in cartilage and other tissues. While, COMP is known to play a role in collagen secretion and fibrillogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation and mechanical strength of tendons, the complete range of COMP functions remains to be defined. COMPopathies describe pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED), two skeletal dysplasias caused by autosomal dominant COMP mutations. The majority of the mutations are in the calcium binding domains and compromise protein folding. COMPopathies are ER storage disorders in which the retention of COMP in the chondrocyte ER stimulates overwhelming cellular stress. The retention causes oxidative and inflammation processes leading to chondrocyte death and loss of long bone growth. In contrast, dysregulation of wild-type COMP expression is found in numerous diseases including: fibrosis, cardiomyopathy and breast and prostate cancers. The most exciting clinical application is the use of COMP as a biomarker for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cartilage degeneration associated osteoarthritis and rheumatoid and, as a prognostic marker for joint injury. The ever expanding roles of COMP in single gene disorders and multifactorial diseases will lead to a better understanding of its functions in ECM and tissue homeostasis towards the goal of developing new therapeutic avenues.

14.
Matrix Biol ; 67: 75-89, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309831

RESUMO

Mutations in COMP (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein) cause severe long bone shortening in mice and humans. Previously, we showed that massive accumulation of misfolded COMP in the ER of growth plate chondrocytes in our MT-COMP mouse model of pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) causes premature chondrocyte death and loss of linear growth. Premature chondrocyte death results from activation of oxidative stress and inflammation through the CHOP-ER pathway and is reduced by removing CHOP or by anti-inflammatory or antioxidant therapies. Although the mutant COMP chondrocyte pathologic mechanism is now recognized, the effect of mutant COMP on bone quality and joint health (laxity) is largely unknown. Applying multiple analytic approaches, we describe a novel mechanism by which the deleterious consequences of mutant COMP retention results in upregulation of miR-223 disturbing the adipogenesis - osteogenesis balance. This results in reduction in bone mineral density, bone quality, mechanical strength and subchondral bone thickness. These, in addition to abnormal patterns of ossification at the ends of the femoral bones likely contribute to precocious osteoarthritis (OA) of the hips and knees in the MT-COMP mouse and PSACH. Moreover, joint laxity is compromised by abnormally thin ligaments. Altogether, these novel findings align with the PSACH phenotype of delayed ossification and bone age, extreme joint laxity and joint erosion, and extend our understanding of the underlying processes that affect bone in PSACH. These results introduce a novel finding that miR-223 is involved in the ossification defect in MT-COMP mice making it a therapeutic target.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 913-924, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198719

RESUMO

The genetic basis of earlobe attachment has been a matter of debate since the early 20th century, such that geneticists argue both for and against polygenic inheritance. Recent genetic studies have identified a few loci associated with the trait, but large-scale analyses are still lacking. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of lobe attachment in a multiethnic sample of 74,660 individuals from four cohorts (three with the trait scored by an expert rater and one with the trait self-reported). Meta-analysis of the three expert-rater-scored cohorts revealed six associated loci harboring numerous candidate genes, including EDAR, SP5, MRPS22, ADGRG6 (GPR126), KIAA1217, and PAX9. The large self-reported 23andMe cohort recapitulated each of these six loci. Moreover, meta-analysis across all four cohorts revealed a total of 49 significant (p < 5 × 10-8) loci. Annotation and enrichment analyses of these 49 loci showed strong evidence of genes involved in ear development and syndromes with auricular phenotypes. RNA sequencing data from both human fetal ear and mouse second branchial arch tissue confirmed that genes located among associated loci showed evidence of expression. These results provide strong evidence for the polygenic nature of earlobe attachment and offer insights into the biological basis of normal and abnormal ear development.


Assuntos
Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Região Branquial/anatomia & histologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Receptor Edar/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX9/genética , Proteínas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(6): 730-741, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oligodontia is a severe form of tooth agenesis characterized by the absence of six or more permanent teeth. Oligodontia has complex etiology and variations in numerous genes have been suggested as causal for the condition. METHODS: We applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify the cause of oligodontia in a 9-year-old girl missing 11 permanent teeth. Protein modeling and functional analysis in zebrafish were also performed to understand the impact of identified variants on the phenotype. RESULTS: We identified a novel compound heterozygous missense mutation in WNT10A (c.637G>A:p.Gly213Ser and c.1070C>T:p.Thr357Ile) as the likely cause of autosomal recessive oligodontia in the child. Affected residues are located in conserved regions and variants are predicted to be highly deleterious for potentially destabilizing the protein fold and inhibiting normal protein function. Functional studies in zebrafish embryos showed that wnt10a is expressed in the craniofacies at critical time points for tooth development, and that perturbations of wnt10a expression impaired normal tooth development and arrested tooth development at 5 days postfertilization (dpf). Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of additional tooth development genes were directly correlated with wnt10a expression; expression of msx1, dlx2b, eda, and axin2 was decreased upon wnt10a knockdown, and increased upon wnt10a overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal a novel compound heterozygous variant in WNT10A as pathogenic for oligodontia, and demonstrate that perturbations of wnt10a expression in zebrafish may directly and/or indirectly affect tooth development recapitulating the agenesis phenotype observed in humans.


Assuntos
Anodontia/genética , Dente/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Anodontia/diagnóstico , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Dentição Permanente , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Morfolinos/genética , Morfolinos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Dente/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas Wnt/química , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
17.
Genet Epidemiol ; 41(8): 887-897, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124805

RESUMO

Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are common, complex birth defects with extremely heterogeneous phenotypic presentations. Two common subtypes-cleft lip alone (CL) and CL plus cleft palate (CLP)-are typically grouped into a single phenotype for genetic analysis (i.e., CL with or without cleft palate, CL/P). However, mounting evidence suggests there may be unique underlying pathophysiology and/or genetic modifiers influencing expression of these two phenotypes. To this end, we performed a genome-wide scan for genetic modifiers by directly comparing 450 CL cases with 1,692 CLP cases from 18 recruitment sites across 13 countries from North America, Central or South America, Asia, Europe, and Africa. We identified a region on 16q21 that is strongly associated with different cleft type (P = 5.611 × 10-8 ). We also identified significant evidence of gene-gene interactions between this modifier locus and two recognized CL/P risk loci: 8q21 and 9q22 (FOXE1) (P = 0.012 and 0.023, respectively). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the 16q21 modifier locus demonstrated significant association with CL over CLP. The marker alleles on 16q21 that increased risk for CL were found at highest frequencies among individuals with a family history of CL (P = 0.003). Our results demonstrate the existence of modifiers for which type of OFC develops and suggest plausible elements responsible for phenotypic heterogeneity, further elucidating the complex genetic architecture of OFCs.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Alelos , Encéfalo/patologia , Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(6): 1531-1538, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28425186

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a group of common human birth defects with complex etiology. Although genome-wide association studies have successfully identified a number of risk loci, these loci only account for about 20% of the heritability of orofacial clefts. The "missing" heritability may be found in rare variants, copy number variants, or interactions. In this study, we investigated the role of low-frequency variants genotyped in 1995 cases and 1626 controls on the Illumina HumanCore + Exome chip. We performed two statistical tests, Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT) and Combined Multivariate and Collapsing (CMC) method using two minor allele frequency cutoffs (1% and 5%). We found that a burden of low-frequency coding variants in N4BP2, CDSN, PRTG, and AHRR were associated with increased risk of NSCL/P. Low-frequency variants in other genes were associated with decreased risk of NSCL/P. These results demonstrate that low-frequency variants contribute to the genetic etiology of NSCL/P.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Alelos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Fenda Labial/fisiopatologia , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Exoma/genética , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
19.
Bone ; 102: 60-68, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28336490

RESUMO

Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), a severe short-limbed dwarfing condition, is associated with life-long joint pain and early onset osteoarthritis. PSACH is caused by mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a pentameric matricellular protein expressed primarily in cartilage and other musculoskeletal tissues. Mutations in COMP diminish calcium binding and as a result perturb protein folding and export to the extracellular matrix. Mutant COMP is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of growth plate chondrocytes resulting in massive intracellular COMP retention. COMP trapped in the ER builds an intracellular matrix network that may prevent the normal cellular clearance mechanisms. We have shown that accumulation of intracellular matrix in mutant-COMP (MT-COMP) mice stimulates intense unrelenting ER stress, inflammation and oxidative stress. This cytotoxic stress triggers premature death of growth plate chondrocytes limiting long-bone growth. Here, we review the mutant COMP pathologic mechanisms and anti-inflammatory/antioxidant therapeutic approaches to reduce ER stress. In MT-COMP mice, aspirin and resveratrol both dampen the mutant COMP chondrocyte phenotype by decreasing intracellular accumulation, chondrocyte death and inflammatory marker expression. This reduction in chondrocyte stress translates into an improvement in long-bone growth in the MT-COMP mice. Our efforts now move to translational studies targeted at reducing the clinical consequences of MT-COMP and painful sequelae associated with PSACH.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/terapia , Acondroplasia/genética , Acondroplasia/patologia , Animais , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Condrócitos/patologia , Humanos , Mutação/genética
20.
Mol Ther ; 25(3): 705-714, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28162960

RESUMO

Mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein cause pseudoachondroplasia, a severe disproportionate short stature disorder. Mutant cartilage oligomeric matrix protein produces massive intracellular retention of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, stimulating ER and oxidative stresses and inflammation, culminating in post-natal loss of growth plate chondrocytes, which compromises linear bone growth. Treatments for pseudoachondroplasia are limited because cartilage is relatively avascular and considered inaccessible. Here we report successful delivery and treatment using antisense oligonucleotide technology in our transgenic pseudoachondroplasia mouse model. We demonstrate delivery of human cartilage oligomeric matrix protein-specific antisense oligonucleotides to cartilage and reduction of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein expression, which largely alleviates pseudoachondroplasia growth plate chondrocyte pathology. One antisense oligonucleotide reduced steady-state levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein mRNA and dampened intracellular retention of mutant cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, leading to a reduction of inflammatory markers and cell death and partial restoration of proliferation. This novel and exciting work demonstrates that antisense-based therapy is a viable approach for treating pseudoachondroplasia and other human cartilage disorders.


Assuntos
Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento/metabolismo , Mutação , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso , Animais , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/metabolismo , Condrócitos/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Lâmina de Crescimento/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/administração & dosagem
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