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1.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 56-70, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995719

RESUMO

Rhadinorhynchus hiansi Soota and Bhattacharya, 1981 , has remained unknown since its original incomplete description from 2 male specimens collected from the flat needlefish Ablennes hians Valenciennes (Belonidae) off Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Recent collections of fishes along the Pacific coast of Vietnam in 2016 and 2017 produced many specimens of the same species from the striped bonito Sarda orientalis Temminck and Schlegel (Scombridae) off the southern Pacific coast of Vietnam at Nha Trang. We describe females for the first time, assign a female allotype status, and provide an expanded description of males from a larger collection completing missing information on hooks and hook roots, receptacle, lemnisci, cement glands, Saefftigen's pouch, and trunk spines. Specimens of R. hiansi characteristically have no dorsal spines in the posterior field of trunk spines and a long proboscis with 36-48 dorso-ventrally differentiated proboscis hooks per row becoming progressively smaller posteriorly then increasing in size near the posterior end to a maximum at the posterior-most ring. Trunk, testes, and lemnisci in our specimens were considerably larger than those reported in the original description, but the proboscis was relatively smaller. The females had long reproductive system and corrugated elliptic eggs without polar prolongation of fertilization membrane. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) demonstrates high levels of calcium and phosphorus in large gallium cut hooks and high levels of sulfur in tip cuts of large and small hooks and in spines. This EDXA pattern is a characteristic fingerprint of R. hiansi. The molecular profile of R. hiansi is described from 18S rDNA and COI genes, and phylogenetic relationships with most closely related species are discussed.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Beloniformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Algoritmos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Peixes , Gálio , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária , Vietnã
2.
Parasite ; 26: 73, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855174

RESUMO

Heterosentis holospinus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2011 (Arhythmacanthidae) was first described from the striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Plotosidae) in Halong Bay, Vietnam. New morphological information, scanning electron microscope images, molecular analysis, and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) of hooks of specimens of H. holospinus from a new collection from the common ponyfish, Leiognathus equulus (Leiognathidae), in Quang Binh, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam are reported here for the first time. Additional details of the anterior trunk cone, proboscis hooks, wholly spined trunk, duck-bill-like spines with micropores, and micropore distribution, are described. The unique metal composition of hooks (EDXA) demonstrated a considerably higher level of calcium and phosphorus but lower level of sulfur at the hook basal arch than at the hook tip and edge. An analysis of our new sequences of cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) showed that H. holospinus had low genetic variation and two haplotypes.

3.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 662019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617498

RESUMO

Acanthocephalus balkanicus Batchvarov et Combes, 1974 was incompletely described from the northern crested newt, Triturus cristatus (Laurenti) (Amphibia: Salamandridae), a possible synonym of the Balkan crested newt, Triturus ivanbureschi Arntzen et Wielstra, from a pond in village of Pesnopoy, southern Bulgaria. We provide a full description of adult males and females of the same taxon from the olm, Proteus anguinus Laurenti (Amphibia: Proteidae), the only exclusively aquatic cave-dwelling vertebrate in Europe, captured in Postojna-Planina Cave System in Slovenia. Cystacanths were also collected from the cave ecomorph of Asellus aquaticus (Linnaeus) (Crustacea: Asellidae) in the same location. Molecular analysis of specimens from Slovenia revealed that they are genetically almost identical to those of Acanthocephalus anguillae (Müller, 1780), a common parasite of European freshwater fishes. We propose to recognise the morphological and host differences by describing A. balkanicus as a new subspecies of A. anguillae. Acanthocephalus anguillae balkanicus is rather small and cylindrical with cylindrical proboscis having 10 rows of 6 hooks with simple roots each, long neck, large balloon-shaped lemnisci, small spherical anterior testis, and 6 club-shaped cement glands in 3 pairs. SEM images reveal more morphological details and the X-ray scans of gallium cut hooks shows considerably higher levels of phosphorus and calcium in adult hooks than in cystacanth hooks, especially in basal areas. Sulfur levels were higher in the arch and basal area of cystacanth hooks than adult hooks. Considering that both definitive and intermediate hosts of the Slovenian population of this acanthocephalan are bound to cave life, it is possible that its entire life cycle is uniquely completed underground.

4.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(4): 779-796, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most (82%) of the 46 recognized species of Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) Verma and Datta, 1929 are known from Asian freshwater fishes. Only three species of Acanthosentis are known from marine or brackish water fishes from India and Pakistan. We have discovered another marine species of Acanthosentis in the Pacific Ocean, off Vietnam. PURPOSE: The purpose is to describe the new species morphologically and molecularly and provide new information of its evolutionally relationships with other species of the subgenus. METHODS: Standard methods of collection and examination of marine hosts, processing and illustrating of specimens, and taxonomic identification of parasites using the extensive collection of the lead author were used. Specimens were further studied using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and ion sectioning of hooks, SEM analysis, and molecular sequencing. Type specimens were deposited at the Harold W. Manter Lab. collection, Lincoln, Nebraska. RESULTS: Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) fusiformis n. sp. is described from the catfish, Arius sp. (Ariidae: Siluriformes) off the Pacific Coast of Vietnam at Bac Lieu in the Gulf of Thailand. The three other marine Indian species include A. (A.) arii Bilqees, 1971 which is also described from a similar catfish, Arius serratus Day off the Karachi coast in the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Our new species from Vietnam is distinguished from the other 46 species by a combination of characters including a small fusiform trunk, complete circles of small hollow spines covering the entire trunk, prominent double apical organs often extending posteriorly past posterior hooks, middle and posterior hooks of equal size slightly smaller than anterior hooks, large neck continuous with the outline of the proboscis without distinct separation, big drop-shaped cephalic ganglion, extension of the proboscis receptacle anteriorly past the base of the proboscis up to the insertion point of the posterior hooks, presence of two para-receptacle structures (PRSs), free unattached thick lemnisci, short female reproductive system with filamentous attachment of the distal end of the uterine bell to the ventral body wall, and small narrowly ellipsoid eggs with thickened polar ends. Partial sequences of the 18S and internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of ribosomal RNA were generated and used for phylogenetic analyses to confirm the taxonomic identity of Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) fusiformis n. sp. CONCLUSIONS: We describe unique morphological features of A. fusiformis never before known in the subgenus Acanthosentis. The uniqueness of A. fusiformis is further demonstrated by its EDXA fingerprint characterized by high levels of calcium and phosphorous in hooks. The zoogeography of species of Acanthosentis is elucidated in the Indian subcontinent, the Caribbean, China, and Africa. Molecular data have been available only in few species of Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) to date on GenBank database. For 18S, only two sequences from unknown Acanthosentis sp. from India are available, while for the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, only sequences of A. cheni from China and of two unidentified species from Malaysia are available. Additional studies of species of Acanthosentis based on morphological and molecular genetic data will be needed to reconstruct the evolutionary history and phylogenetic affinities of this group of acanthocephalans.

5.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(1): 195-204, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666546

RESUMO

Moniliformis cryptosaudi n. sp. (Moniliformidae) is an acanthocephalan described from the long-eared hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus (Gmelin) (Erinaceidae) in Iraq as an incipient cryptic species of Moniliformis saudi Amin, Heckmann, Mohammed, Evans, 2016 described from the desert hedgehog Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg) (Erinaceidae) in Saudi Arabia. Microscopical studies demonstrate that the two species are morphologically indistinguishable with practically identical measurements and counts but differed significantly in their energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) of metal composition of hooks. Hooks of specimens of the new species appeared to be of collagen material with very low levels of phosphorus and calcium unlike those of M. saudi and Moniliformis kalahariensis Meyer, 1931 that had high levels of calcium and phosphorus. Using 18S rDNA and cox1 genes, M. Saudi and M. kalahariensis were shown to be molecularly distinct but the molecular profiles of M. saudi and M. cryptosaudi were more similar. The molecular profile of M. kalahariensis collected from the South African hedgehog Atelerix frontalis Smith (Erinaceidae) in South Africa is reported for the first time and is studied only for comparative purposes. Moniliformis saudi and M. kalahariensis had comparable EDXA metal analysis that was distinct from that of M. cryptosaudi.


Assuntos
Ouriços-Cacheiros/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Moniliformis/classificação , Moniliformis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Arábia , Cálcio/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Iraque , Microscopia , Moniliformis/anatomia & histologia , Moniliformis/genética , Fósforo/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria por Raios X
6.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(1): 117-129, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523612

RESUMO

Two rhadinorhynchid acanthocephalans are described from marine fishes off the Pacific coast of Vietnam. Sclerocollum neorubrimaris n. sp. (Gorgorhynchinae Van Cleave & Lincicome, 1940) is described from the spine-foot rabbitfish Siganus guttatus (Bloch) (Siganidae) off Nha Trang. The new species is similar to the type-species, Sclerocollum rubrimaris Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 in most measurements and counts but has a posterior cephalic ganglion, a sub-ventral female gonopore, and one dorsal paravaginal filament bundle. In S. rubrimaris, the cephalic ganglion is near the middle of the receptacle, the female gonopore is terminal with two paravaginal filament bundles. The new species is distinguished from three other species of Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 in proboscis hook formulas and the position of the female gonopore and cephalic ganglion. The issue of the importance of the position of the cephalic ganglion at the generic and sub-generic levels in the Acanthocephala is discussed. Females of Australorhynchus multispinosus n. sp. (Gorgorhynchinae) are described from the red cornetfish Fistularia petimba Lacépède off Nha Trang in the Pacific south. It is distinguished from the only other species of the genus, Australorhynchus tetramorphacanthus Lebedev, 1967, by having more trunk spines extending beyond the level of the proboscis receptacle and a smaller proboscis with considerably fewer hooks.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/citologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Oceano Pacífico , Especificidade da Espécie , Vietnã
7.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(5): 463-475, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419732

RESUMO

The present study was performed to observe histopathological effects of Oculotrema hippopotami Stunkard, 1924 infection in the eye of Hippopotamus amphibius, as well as to reveal new details of morphology and structural features of this monogenean and its comparison between 2 age stages of the parasite. This was done using both light and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and histopathology. The presence of a mixture of different generations (adult and sub-adult) in one host individual is common for Oculotrema Stunkard, 1924 in contrast to Polystoma Zeder, 1800. New metrical and graphical information obtained for adults and sub-adults compared with the previous studies. Here we show the presence of genital papillae in adults, metrical data on the distal part of the vas deferens. SEM micrographs of sperm ejaculatory structures and information about the flattened dorsal side of the body provided for the first time. Histopathological changes, such as necrosis and hemorrhage in host tissues as a result of O. hippopotami attachment structures are described. Structural analysis of different body parts of O. hippopotami of both age groups are also included. We show qualitative differences in the presence of hardening ions (S, P, Ca) in attachment structures (oral and haptor suckers) that increase with the age of the worm. The presence of sub-adults and adults on the same host, together with high levels of infection without high pathogenicity may account for Oculotrema being one of the most successful parasites among the Monogenea.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/parasitologia , Olho/patologia , Olho/parasitologia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectrometria por Raios X , Trematódeos/patogenicidade , Trematódeos/ultraestrutura
8.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(3): 572-585, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975656

RESUMO

Three species of acanthocephalans are described from fishes caught in the Pacific coast off eastern Vietnam and from amphibians in the midlands in 2016: (1) Acanthocephalus parallelcementglandatus Amin, Heckmann, Ha, 2014 (Echinorhynchidae), described from 1 male specimen is now fully described from males and females collected from 2 species of amphibians, the similar frog Hylarana attigua Inger, Orlov, Darevsky and the odorous frog Odorrana sp. Fei, Ye, Huang (Ranidae) in Huong Thuy, Hue City and Chu Yang Sin Park, central Vietnam, respectively, as well as from the needlefish Tylosurus sp. Cocco (Belonidae) in Binh Thuân in the Pacific South. The allotype female is designated. Neoechinorhynchus (N.) pennahia Amin, Ha, Ha, 2011 described from 1 female specimen is now fully described from males and females collected from the Toli shad (Chinese herring), Tenualosa toli (Valenciennes) (Clupeidae) in the Pacific north coast off Haiphong. The allotype male is designated. One specimen of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longnucleatus Amin, Ha, Ha, 2011 is also reported from the common ponyfish, Leiognathus equulus (Forssskål) (Leiognathidae) in the Pacific south coast of Nha Trang and its ecology briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Beloniformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Ranidae/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Ecologia , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia de Força Atômica/veterinária , Oceano Pacífico , Vietnã
9.
Parasite ; 25: 35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040609

RESUMO

Males of Cathayacanthus spinitruncatus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2014 (Rhadinorhynchinae Lühe, 1912) are described for the first time from Leiognathus equulus in Hai Phong and Nha Trang and from pony fish Nuchequula flavaxilla in Quang Ninh in the Pacific waters of Vietnam. The male allotype status is designated. Males of C. spinitruncatus are smaller and have fewer and smaller proboscis hooks and trunk spines than females. The male reproductive structures are in the posterior fifth of the trunk and with 6 club-shaped cement glands gradually merging into 6 independent cement gland ducts. The proboscis receptacle is more than half as long as the trunk and with a cephalic ganglion at its anterior end. In females, the receptacle is only about one fifth the length of the trunk. Specimens described as Cathayacanthus bagarii Moravec & Sey, 1989 were shown to have been wrongly assigned to Cathayacanthus. Pararhadinorhynchus magnus n. sp. (Diplosentidae) is described from Scatophagus argus off Hai Phong in the Gulf of Tonkin. It is the third species of the genus and is readily distinguished from the Australian species by having a considerably larger trunk and male reproductive structures, and more proboscis hooks. X-ray microanalysis (EDAX) of intact and gallium-cut hooks of P. magnus showed high calcium and phosphate mainly in the central core. Specimens of Heterosentis holospinus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2011 (Arhythmacanthidae) are also reported from L. equulus off Quang Binh, new host and locality records.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Reprodução , Vietnã/epidemiologia
10.
J Parasitol ; 104(5): 486-495, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846128

RESUMO

Two species of acanthocephalans are described from fishes caught along the Pacific coast off eastern Vietnam in 2016: (1) Neorhadinorhynchus nudum ( Harada, 1938 ) Yamaguti, 1939 (Cavisomidae) from the frigate tuna Auxis thazard (Lacépède) (Scombridae) in Nha Trang, Pacific south Vietnam, and (2) Heterosentis paraholospinus n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) from 3 species of fish: the common ponyfish Leiognathus equulus (Forsskål) (Leiognathidae) and the torpedo scad Megalaspis cordyla (Linn.) (Carangidae) off Nha Trang and Binh Thuân, respectively, and the yellowspotted ponyfish Nuchequula flavaxilla Kimura, Kimura, and Ikejima (Leiognathidae) at Quang Ninh in Pacific waters of Vietnam. Females of N. nudum are fully described for the first time in the Pacific Ocean. Heterosentis paraholospinus n. sp. is similar to Heterosentis holospinus Amin, Heckmann, and Ha, 2011, in having an unspined anterior trunk cone, nucleated pouch at the posterior end of the receptacle, and spines covering the entire trunk, but it differs in having a long cylindrical trunk, lemnisci much longer than the receptacle, more and different-sized proboscis hooks, and subterminal female gonopore. Biogeographical notes are discussed for both genera.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Feminino , Peixes , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Oceano Pacífico , Filogeografia , Atum/parasitologia , Vietnã
11.
Parasite ; 25: 5, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424340

RESUMO

Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927) Van Cleave, 1931 was originally described from a sea bass, Serranus sp. and spotted surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Perciformes) off Sri Lanka before its more recent redescription from milkfish in the Philippines in 1995. These reports were based on only light infections of their host fishes. Of the few flathead grey mullets, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), that we examined in the Arabian Gulf, one fish was infected with 1,450 worms. One milkfish, Chanos chanos (Chanidae), from the same location in the Arabian Gulf, was also heavily infected with specimens of C. magnum. The descriptions of this unique large worm are revised and for the first time, we provide SEM images, new systematic observations, metal analysis of hooks showing extremely high levels of sulfur, and histopathology in the mullet intestinal tissue. Adjustments and corrections of previous descriptive accounts are made. The histopathology studies show extensive damage to the host intestinal tissue including epithelial necrosis, hemorrhaging and worm encapsulation. There is an extensive amount of host connective tissue surrounding the worm. Results of x-ray analysis displayed high levels of sulfur in proboscis hooks, especially at the tips and edges of these attachment structures.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Metais/análise , Água do Mar/parasitologia , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/química , Acantocéfalos/genética , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Cálcio/análise , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/patologia , Oceano Índico , Intestinos/parasitologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fósforo/análise , Enxofre/análise
12.
Syst Parasitol ; 95(1): 91-103, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181688

RESUMO

The occurrence of the copepod Lamproglena cleopatra Humes, 1957, parasitising freshwater fishes in the Limpopo River System is presented, along with new morphological data. This crustacean was originally described parasitising a cyprinid (Labeo forskalii Rüppell) from the River Nile, Egypt. During 2014-2015 crustacean samples were collected from the gills of three cyprinid fish species, Labeo rosae Steindachner from Flag Boshielo Dam, Labeo molybdinus Du Plessis from Nwanedi-Luphephe Dam in South Africa, and Labeo ruddi Boulenger from the River Bubye in Zimbabwe. The specimens from the present study were morphologically similar regardless of the host, but exhibited some morphometric intraspecific differences in comparison with the type-specimen from Egypt. A description of L. cleopatra copepodid III stage and a taxonomic key to Lamproglena spp. is provided.


Assuntos
Copépodes/classificação , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Animais , Copépodes/anatomia & histologia , Egito , Brânquias/parasitologia , África do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie , Zimbábue
13.
J Parasitol ; 104(1): 39-50, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893140

RESUMO

The acanthocephalan Paratrajectura longcementglandatus n. gen., n. sp. (Transvenidae) is described from specimens of 2 perciform fish species, Nemipterus japonicus Bloch (Nemipteridae) and Otolithes ruber Bloch and Schneider, collected in the marine territorial waters of Iraq and Iran in the Arabian Gulf. Metal analysis of hook tip, middle, and base is also described using energy disruptive analysis for X-ray. The new genus is distinguished from the closely related genus Trajectura Pichelin and Cribb, 2001 described from wrasses (Labridae) (Perciformes) in the Pacific off Australia and Japan by having a proboscis with apical epidermal cone, long rhadinorhynchid-like tubular cement glands, relatively short and lobulated lemnisci, all proboscis hooks with prominent roots, females with subterminal gonopore and a rounded projection on the antero-dorsal end of the trunk, and males with elongate pre-equatorial testes reaching proboscis receptacle. In Trajectura, the proboscis lacks apical epidermal cone, the cement glands are pyriform or ovoid, the lemnisci are digitiform and considerably longer than the receptacle, the posterior proboscis hooks are rootless, the females have prominent finger-like trunk projection and terminal gonopore, and males with equatorial testes that may not be elongate and may be distant from the receptacle. The importance of cement glands in the diagnosis of genera and families in acanthocephalan taxonomy is stressed. Other features especially the type and arrangement of hooks on the proboscis, but not hook roots, are comparable in the 2 genera. Diagnosis of the family Transvenidae is emended.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Perciformes/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica/veterinária , Feminino , Oceano Índico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Iraque , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária
14.
Parasite ; 24: 40, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072573

RESUMO

The cystacanths of Neoandracantha peruensis n. gen. n. sp. are described from the ghost crab Ocypode gaudichaudii collected from the Pacific coast of Peru. While it is uncommon to describe acanthocephalan taxa from immature stages, the presence of clear-cut distinguishing features separating the present material from its nearest congeneric taxa, and the absence of adults, justifies the erection N. peruensis. The new genus is distinguished by having three separate fields of trunk spines. Specimens of N. peruensis have a slender trunk with two anterior swellings, 3 separate fields of spines on the foretrunk swelling, and no genital spines on the hindtrunk. The proboscis of the new species is heavily armored with 21-22 longitudinal rows of 22 hooks each. Hook no. 14 is more robust ventrally than dorsally. Cystacanths of N. peruensis also have a long tubular hindtrunk and the males have diagonal testes in the midtrunk swelling. Specimens of the closely related Andracantha Schmidt, 1975 have anteriorly enlarged pear-shaped Corynosoma-like trunks, only two fields of anterior trunk spines with occasional genital spines, and bilateral or tandem testes. Proboscides of species of Andracantha have considerably fewer hooks that gradually decrease in size posteriorly. The taxonomic component of this work is amplified by metal analysis of hooks and spines that shows a marked amount of magnesium (Mg) in hooks but not in spines. The highest level of sulfur (S) was found in the outer layer of hooks and anterior spines. The metal footprint of hooks and spines varies in different species of acanthocephalans and has an interspecific diagnostic value.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Braquiúros/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/química , Acantocéfalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Cálcio/análise , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica , Feminino , Magnésio/análise , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oceano Pacífico , Peru , Fósforo/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X , Enxofre/análise
15.
J Parasitol ; 103(5): 458-470, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589837

RESUMO

Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) kashmirensis n. sp. is described from recently collected acanthocephalan specimens in the Jhelum River in northern Kashmir that are conspecific with Neoechinorhynchus kashmirensis Fotedar and Dhar, 1977 originally described in a Ph.D. thesis in 1972 from 4 species of cyprinid fishes: Tor tor Hamilton, Bangana diplostoma (Heckel) (syn. Labeo diplostoma Heckel), Labeo rohita Hamilton, and Ptychobarbus sp. Steindachner. The poor unpublished diagnosis was followed by 1 uninformative abstract in a scientific meeting in 1977. The acanthocephalan was later designated as invalid because of the lack of a formal published description and absence of information on deposited type or voucher specimens. Recent collections of specimens of the same species were made from 2 other cyprinid species of cyprinid fishes, Schizothorax plagiostomus Heckel and Schizothorax labiatus (McClelland) from the Sandran River, a tributary of the Jhelum River, in southern Kashmir. It is now possible to provide a full description of these specimens and reassign them in the subgenus Acanthosentis Verma and Datta, 1929 based on the finding of circles of vestigial spines at the anterior end of the trunk of male and female specimens. These vestigial spines are barely visible and easy to miss with optical microscopy. The new species is also characterized by having (1) a para-receptacle structure in males and females, (2) unique double Saefftigen's pouches, (3) large round single-nucleated cells in the proboscis, and (4) the lemnisci being either equal or distinctly unequal with no intermediate states. A key to the species of Acanthosentis of the Indian subcontinent is provided. Histopathological sections show extensive damage to the host intestine with subsequent blood loss, cell necrosis, and attempted encapsulation. Results of the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) study show hollow hooks high in sulfur but with limited calcium ions. Hooks of most acanthocephalans studied with X-ray scans are solid with high calcium and low sulfur ions.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/química , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica/veterinária , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Índia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Rios
16.
Parasite ; 24: 19, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28593837

RESUMO

Specimens of a new species of Rhadinorhynchus Lühe, 1911 are described from the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (Scombridae) and the Chilean Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (Carangidae) (possibly a subspecies of Trachurus symmetricus) from the Pacific Ocean off the Peruvian coast at the Port of Chicama, La Libertad. Specimens of Rhadinorhynchus oligospinosus n. sp. are somewhat small having 11-14 rows of alternating proboscis hooks with 20-22 hooks each with posteriormost hooks in a continuous ring. Ventral hooks are robust with prominent roots but dorsal hooks are slender and shorter with discoid roots. Trunk spines are in two zones separated by a non-spiny region. Anterior trunk spines are in 2-3 complete circles but posterior spines are only ventral and lateral, and do not extend posterior to the level of the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle in both sexes. The new species is closest to Rhadinorhynchus seriolae (Yamaguti, 1963) Golvan, 1969 found in Japanese and Australian waters, but not as close to 19 other species found in the same Pacific waters off Australia, Japan, and Vietnam. In R. seriolae, posterior trunk spines extend well past the receptacle in females, among other diagnostic differences. Proboscis hooks of the new species were analyzed for chemical elements using X-ray in conjunction with EDAX (energy-dispersive analysis for X-ray) software; sulfur had a higher concentration at the edge than the middle of cut hooks.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/química , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Cálcio/análise , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Oceano Pacífico , Peru , Fósforo/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária , Enxofre/análise
17.
J Parasitol ; 103(3): 251-256, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28335683

RESUMO

Pallisentis indica Mital and Lal, 1976 was originally described from Channa gachua Hamilton (Channidae) in Kali Nadi River, Aligarh, India. The parasite was later placed in the subgenus Brevitritospinus Amin, Heckmann, Ha, Luc, and Doanh, 2000 . Our collection from the spotted snakehead Channa punctatus Bloch & Schneider in another locality of the same stream in Aligarh produced many specimens with variable traits, revealing new structures that have never before been described in the Acanthocephala, especially relating to the ducted trunk spines. The proboscis has 4 circles of 10 hooks each, with hooks in the anterior 2 circles being considerably larger than those in the posterior 2 circles. Y-shaped trunk spines are ducted in 2 regions separated by a spineless zone. The anterior collar spines are in complete rings of 9-17 circles of crowded spines and the larger posterior trunk spines are in 1 (posterior) to 41 (anterior) circles extending to level of cement glands in males posteriorly. Considerable variations from the original description and new structures are reported for the first time.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Peixes , Índia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Rios , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária
18.
Parasite ; 23: 56, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27991414

RESUMO

A population of Echinorhynchus baeri Kostylew, 1928 with 18-24 rows of 8-10 proboscis hooks each and long fusiform eggs measuring 95-110 × 18-22 µm collected from Salmo trutta (Salmonidae) in a branch of the Murat River in Turkey is described and specimens are designated as neotype. Specimens of two similar populations of E. baeri (E. baeri Kostylew, 1928 and E. sevani Dinnik, 1932) were previously described from Salmo ischchan in Lake Sevan, Armenia. Waters of Lake Sevan and the Murat River were previously joined during the Middle Miocene-Pliocene. The two populations from Lake Sevan and ours from Turkey had identical morphology and size eggs. The proboscis armature and eggs, among other features of our Turkish specimens, proved intermediate between E. baeri and E. sevani, thus eliminating the significance of the described differences between these two species and confirming their synonymy with priority to Echinorhynchus baeri (junior synonym: Echinorhynchus sevani Dinnik, 1932). Echinorhynchus baeri is apparently a highly variable species. The two descriptions from Lake Sevan did not include features or illustrations of females, except for references to trunk and egg size but the eggs were illustrated. Complete morphometric comparisons are made and females of the Turkish material are described for the first time. DNA sequencing (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene; nuclear 18S rRNA gene) results from two available E. baeri individuals were equivocal. New features to the Acanthocephala include the presence of rootless uncalcified apical proboscis hooks studied with X-ray microanalysis.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Truta/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Rios/parasitologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
19.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 632016 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189420

RESUMO

A new acanthocepohalan species, Moniliformis saudi sp. n. is described from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg), in central Saudi Arabia. Fourteen other valid species of Moniliformis Travassos, 1915 are recognised. The new species of Moniliformis is distinguished by having a small proboscis (315-520 µm long and 130-208 µm wide) with two apical pores, 14 rows of 8 hooks each and small hooks, thre largest being 25-31 µm long anteriorly. Distinguishing features are incorporated in a dichotomous key to the species of Moniliformis. The description is augmented by scanning electron microscopical (SEM) observation and DNA analysis of nuclear (18S rRNA) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1; cox1) gene sequences. Attached worms cause extensive damage to the immediate area of attachment in the host intestine. This includes tissue necrosis and blood loss due to damage to capillary beds. Worms also obstruct essential absorbing surfaces.


Assuntos
Ouriços-Cacheiros/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Moniliformis/classificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Helmintíase/patologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Moniliformis/anatomia & histologia , Moniliformis/genética , Moniliformis/ultraestrutura , Arábia Saudita , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Syst Parasitol ; 93(4): 321-35, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095662

RESUMO

An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam.


Assuntos
Perciformes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Brânquias/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Vietnã
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