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J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105399, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254370


BACKGROUND: Limited real-world data are available on outcomes following non-cardioembolic minor ischemic stroke (IS) or high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA), particularly in the United States (US). We examined outcomes and Medicare payments following any severity IS or TIA as well as the subgroup with minor IS or high-risk TIA. METHODS: Medicare beneficiaries >65 years were identified using US nationwide Get with the Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke Registry linked to Medicare claims data. The cohort consisted of patients enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service plan, hospitalized with non-cardioembolic IS or TIA between 2011 and 2014, segmenting a subgroup with minor IS (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] ≤5) or high-risk TIA (ABCD2-score ≥6) compatible with the THALES clinical trial population. Outcomes included functional status at discharge, clinical outcomes (all-cause mortality, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, individually and as a composite), hospitalizations, and population average inpatient Medicare payments following non-cardioembolic IS or TIA. RESULTS: The THALES-compatible cohort included 62,518 patients from 1471 hospitals. At discharge, 37.0% were unable to ambulate without assistance, and 96.2% were prescribed antiplatelet therapy. Cumulative incidences at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year for the composite outcome were 3.7%, 7.6%, and 17.2% and 2.4%, 4.0%, and 7.3% for subsequent stroke. The mean Medicare payment for the index hospitalization was $7951. The cumulative all-cause inpatient Medicare spending per patient (with or without any subsequent admission) at 30 days and 1 year from discharge was $1451 and $8105, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of illness for minor IS/high-risk TIA patients indicates an important unmet need. Improved therapeutic options may offer a significant impact on both patient outcomes and Medicare spending.

J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e18548, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673242


BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major global health burden, and is associated with increased adverse outcomes, poor quality of life, and substantial health care costs. While there is an increasing need to build patient-centered pathways for improving CKD management in clinical care, data in this field are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand patient-reported experiences, symptoms, outcomes, and treatment journeys among patients with CKD through a retrospective and qualitative approach based on data available through PatientsLikeMe (PLM), an online community where patients can connect and share experiences. METHODS: Adult members (aged ≥18 years) with self-reported CKD within 30 days of enrollment, who were not on dialysis, and registered between 2011 and 2018 in the PLM community were eligible for the retrospective study. Patient demographics and disease characteristics/symptoms were collected from this retrospective data set. Qualitative data were collected prospectively through semistructured phone interviews in a subset of patients, and questions were oriented to better understand patients' experiences with CKD and its management. RESULTS: The retrospective data set included 1848 eligible patients with CKD, and median age was 56 years. The majority of patients were female (1217/1841, 66.11%) and most were US residents (1450/1661, 87.30%). Of the patients who reported comorbidities (n=1374), the most common were type 2 diabetes (783/1374, 56.99%), hypertension (664/1374, 48.33%), hypercholesterolemia (439/1374, 31.95%), and diabetic neuropathy (376/1374, 27.37%). The most commonly reported severe or moderate symptoms in patients reporting these symptoms were fatigue (347/484, 71.7%) and pain (278/476, 58.4%). In the qualitative study, 18 eligible patients (13 females) with a median age of 60 years and who were mainly US residents were interviewed. Three key concepts were identified by patients to be important to optimal care and management: listening to patient needs, coordinating health care across providers, and managing clinical care. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a unique source of real-world information on the patient experience of CKD and its management by utilizing the PLM network. The results reveal the challenges these patients face living with an array of symptoms, and report key concepts identified by patients that can be used to further improve clinical care and management and inform future CKD studies.

Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(7): 1157-1166, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115853


AIM: To investigate which metabolic pathways are targeted by the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin to explore the molecular processes involved in its renal protective effects. METHODS: An unbiased mass spectrometry plasma metabolomics assay was performed on baseline and follow-up (week 12) samples from the EFFECT II trial in patients with type 2 diabetes with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease receiving dapagliflozin 10 mg/day (n = 19) or placebo (n = 6). Transcriptomic signatures from tubular compartments were identified from kidney biopsies collected from patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 30) from the European Renal cDNA Biobank. Serum metabolites that significantly changed after 12 weeks of dapagliflozin were mapped to a metabolite-protein interaction network. These proteins were then linked with intra-renal transcripts that were associated with DKD or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The impacted metabolites and their protein-coding transcripts were analysed for enriched pathways. RESULTS: Of all measured (n = 812) metabolites, 108 changed (P < 0.05) during dapagliflozin treatment and 74 could be linked to 367 unique proteins/genes. Intra-renal mRNA expression analysis of the genes encoding the metabolite-associated proteins using kidney biopsies resulted in 105 genes that were significantly associated with eGFR in patients with DKD, and 135 genes that were differentially expressed between patients with DKD and controls. The combination of metabolites and transcripts identified four enriched pathways that were affected by dapagliflozin and associated with eGFR: glycine degradation (mitochondrial function), TCA cycle II (energy metabolism), L-carnitine biosynthesis (energy metabolism) and superpathway of citrulline metabolism (nitric oxide synthase and endothelial function). CONCLUSION: The observed molecular pathways targeted by dapagliflozin and associated with DKD suggest that modifying molecular processes related to energy metabolism, mitochondrial function and endothelial function may contribute to its renal protective effect.