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1.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 31(6): 238-244, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602800

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup (hg) H has been reported as a susceptibility factor for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This was established in genetic association studies, however, the SNP or SNP's that are associated with the increased risk have not been identified. Hg H is the most frequent European mtDNA hg with greater than 80 subhaplogroups (subhgs) each defined by specific SNPs. We tested the hypothesis that the distribution of H subhgs might differ between HCM patients and controls. The subhg H distribution in 55 HCM index cases was compared to that of two Danish mtDNA hg H control groups (n = 170 and n = 908, respectively). In the HCM group, H and 12 different H subhgs were found. All these, except subhgs H73, were also found in both control groups. The HCM group was also characterized by a higher proportion of H3 compared to H2. In the HCM group the H3/H2 proportion was 1.7, whereas it was 0.45 and 0.54 in the control groups. This tendency was replicated in an independent group of Hg H HCM index cases (n = 39) from Queensland, Australia, where the H3/H2 ratio was 1.5. In conclusion, the H subhgs distribution differs between HCM cases and controls, but the difference is subtle, and the understanding of the pathogenic significance is hampered by the lack of functional studies on the subhgs of H.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pediatric obesity associates with both low-grade inflammation and cardiometabolic risk on the population level. Yet on an individual patient level, overweight/obesity does not always equal increased cardiometabolic risk. In this study, we examine whether low-grade inflammation associates with cardiometabolic risk in Danish children, independent of degree of adiposity. We further assess the value of integrating multiple inflammation markers to identify children with very-high cardiometabolic risk profiles. METHOD AND RESULTS: We studied 2192 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years from an obesity clinic cohort and a population-based cohort, in a cross-sectional study design. Anthropometry, blood pressure, pubertal stage and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were assessed, and biomarkers including fasting serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), white blood cells (WBC), resistin, lipid profile and glucose metabolism were measured. Adjusted correlation analysis and odds ratios were calculated. We found that, independent of degree of adiposity, having high-normal inflammation marker concentrations associated with increased cardiometabolic risk: for girls, hsCRP >0.57-9.98 mg/L (mid/upper tertile) associated with ~2-fold higher odds of dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis (vs. lower tertile). For both sexes, WBC >7.0-12.4 109/L (upper tertile) associated with 2.5-fold higher odds of insulin resistance. Lastly, children with multiple inflammation markers in the high-normal range exhibited the most severe cardiometabolic risk profile. CONCLUSION: Low-grade inflammation associates with cardiometabolic risk in children independent of degree of adiposity. The associations vary with sex and inflammation marker measured. Finally, integrating multiple low-grade inflammation markers identifies a very-high-risk subgroup of children with overweight/obesity and may have clinical value.

3.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(2): 194-202, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is imperative to develop markers for risk stratification and detection of cardiometabolic comorbidities in children with obesity. The adipokines leptin and adiponectin are both involved in fat mass regulation and the development of obesity-related disorders; furthermore, their ratio (leptin/adiponectin ratio) is suggested to be associated with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between fasting serum concentrations of the adipokines (total leptin and adiponectin as well as the L/A ratio) and cardiometabolic comorbidities in children with overweight/obesity. METHODS: A total of 2258 children with overweight/obesity or normal weight aged 6 to 18 years were studied. Differences in anthropometrics and adipokine concentrations were tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between the adipokines and cardiometabolic risk were tested using Spearman's correlation and logistic regression, adjusted for age and body mass index SD score (BMI-SDS). RESULTS: Compared to normal weight children; children with overweight/obesity exhibited higher leptin concentrations, lower adiponectin concentrations, and higher L/A ratios. After adjusting for age and degree of obesity, girls with overweight/obesity in the upper quartile range for the L/A ratio, when compared with girls in the lower quartile range, were more likely to have insulin resistance (odds ratio [OR]: 7.78 [95% confidence interval [CI], 3.78-16.65]), dysglycemia (OR: 3.08 [95% CI, 1.35-7.31]), and dyslipidemia (OR: 2.53 [95% CI, 1.18-5.59]); while boys were more likely to have insulin resistance (OR: 4.45 [95% CI, 2.03-10.10]). CONCLUSIONS: Independent of the degree of obesity, leptin, adiponectin, and the L/A ratio were associated with insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic comorbidities in children with overweight/obesity, but the L/A ratio exhibited stronger associations than the respective adipokines.

4.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(12): 1351-1358, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714888

RESUMO

Background The association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations and blood pressure is well described in adults, but only studied to a limited extent in children and adolescents and almost entirely in population-based cohorts. The present study investigates the association between TSH and blood pressure, and the influence of leptin and adiponectin, in a cohort of children and adolescents enrolled in obesity treatment compared with a population-based cohort. Methods We studied 4154 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years from an obesity clinic cohort and a population-based cohort from The Danish Childhood Obesity Data- and Biobank. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and biochemical markers, including TSH, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, were collected. Adjusted correlation and interaction analyses were performed. Results Patients from the obesity clinic cohort exhibited higher concentrations of TSH and higher blood pressure than participants from the population-based cohort. TSH standard deviation scores (SDS) were significantly associated with all blood pressure-related variables in the population-based cohort, but only with systolic blood pressure SDS and hypertension in the obesity clinic cohort. The interaction between TSH SDS and adiponectin was found to be independently associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension in the population-based cohort only. Conclusions The significant associations between TSH, adiponectin and blood pressure, observed in children and adolescents from a population-based cohort, are attenuated or absent in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity, suggesting that childhood obesity distorts the healthy interplay between the thyroid axis, thyroid-adipokine interaction and blood pressure.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico
5.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 174, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the mutation yield and clinical applicability of "molecular autopsy" following sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) by validating and utilizing low-cost high-throughput technologies: Fluidigm Access Array PCR-enrichment with Illumina HiSeq 2000 next generation sequencing (NGS). METHODS: We validated and optimized the NGS platform with a subset of 46 patients by comparison with Sanger sequencing of coding exons of major arrhythmia risk-genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, KCNE2, RYR2). A combined large multi-ethnic international SADS cohort was sequenced utilizing the NGS platform to determine overall molecular yield; rare variants identified by NGS were subsequently reconfirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The NGS platform demonstrated 100% sensitivity for pathogenic variants as well as 87.20% sensitivity and 99.99% specificity for all substitutions (optimization subset, n = 46). The positive predictive value (PPV) for NGS for rare substitutions was 16.0% (27 confirmed rare variants of 169 positive NGS calls in 151 additional cases). The overall molecular yield in 197 multi-ethnic SADS cases (mean age 22.6 ± 14.4 years, 68% male) was 5.1% (95% confidence interval 2.0-8.1%), representing 10 cases carrying pathogenic or likely pathogenic risk-mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular autopsy with Fluidigm Access Array and Illumina HiSeq NGS utilizing a selected panel of LQTS/BrS and CPVT risk-genes offers moderate diagnostic yield, albeit requiring confirmatory Sanger-sequencing of mutational variants.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Autopsia/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Mutação , Patologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Adolescente , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Austrália , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Linhagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(5): 538-548, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in glucose metabolism that lead to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease may begin already in childhood. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to generate pediatric age and sex-specific reference values for fasting concentrations of glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Danish/North-European white children and adolescents from a population-based cohort and to compare values from children and adolescents with overweight/obesity with this reference. METHODS: The population- and obesity clinic-based cohorts consisted of 2451 and 1935 children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were obtained and percentile curves were calculated. RESULTS: In the population-based cohort, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR values increased before the expected onset of puberty (P < .05). Thereafter, all variables decreased in girls (P < .05) and HbA1c decreased in boys (P < .05). Concentrations of all measured markers of glucose metabolism were higher in the obesity clinic-based cohort than the population-based cohort (both sexes P < .001). Specifically, insulin and HOMA-IR continued to increase to 18 years in the clinic-based cohort, particularly among boys. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR change during childhood, making pediatric reference values essential for timely identification of derangements in glucose metabolism. Children and adolescents with obesity exhibit increased concentrations of these biomarkers.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Peptídeo C/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/terapia , Valores de Referência
7.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 15: 78-83, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious complication of pregnancy, the pathogenesis of which is largely unknown. We hypothesize that adipocytokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of PE, particularly in obese women, and evaluate leptin and adiponectin as potential first trimester markers for predicting PE. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of 2503 pregnancies, containing 93 PE pregnancies, was divided into women with normal weight, moderate, or severe obesity. All pregnancies had serum adiponectin and leptin measured in first trimester. Logistic regression was used to model PE with maternal characteristics and concentrations of the biomarkers. RESULTS: In obese women a lower concentration of adiponectin was found in PE pregnancies; the concentration was lowest in the severely obese (p = 0.005). No association was found in normal weight women (p = 0.72). Leptin concentration had no association with PE in normal weight and moderately obese (p = 0.175-0.072), however in women with severe obesity a lower level of leptin was found (p = 0.049). The AUC was 0.73 for the ROC curve of combined maternal characteristics and adiponectin. Using adiponectin in women with moderate to severe obesity the sensitivity was 72.9% and the specificity was 49%. CONCLUSIONS: In severely obese women, PE is associated with low serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations in first trimester. This indicates that the inability of adipokine regulation to adapt to severe obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of PE. Adipocytokines may contribute in identification of risk pregnancies among severe obese.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Obesidade/complicações , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208828, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532134

RESUMO

Mitochondria play a significant role in human diseases. However, disease associations with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) SNPs have proven difficult to replicate. An analysis of eight schizophrenia-associated mtDNA SNPs, in 23,743 Danes without a psychiatric diagnosis and 2,538 schizophrenia patients, revealed marked inter-allelic differences in mitochondrial haplogroup affiliation and nuclear ancestry. This bi-genomic dependence could entail population stratification. Only two mitochondrial SNPs, m.15043A and m.15218G, were significantly associated with schizophrenia. However, these associations disappeared when corrected for haplogroup affiliation and nuclear ancestry. The extensive bi-genomic dependence documented here is a major concern when interpreting historic, as well as designing future, mtDNA association studies.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208829, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543675

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (hgs) are evolutionarily conserved sets of mtDNA SNP-haplotypes with characteristic geographical distribution. Associations of hgs with disease and physiological characteristics have been reported, but have frequently not been reproducible. Using 418 mtDNA SNPs on the PsychChip (Illumina), we assessed the spatio-temporal distribution of mtDNA hgs in Denmark from DNA isolated from 24,642 geographically un-biased dried blood spots (DBS), collected from 1981 to 2005 through the Danish National Neonatal Screening program. ADMIXTURE was used to establish the genomic ancestry of all samples using a reference of 100K+ autosomal SNPs in 2,248 individuals from nine populations. Median-joining analysis determined that the hgs were highly variable, despite being typically Northern European in origin, suggesting multiple founder events. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity and variation in nuclear genomic ancestry was observed. Thus, individuals with hg H exhibited 95%, and U hgs 38.2% - 92.5%, Danish ancestry. Significant clines between geographical regions and rural and metropolitan populations were found. Over 25 years, macro-hg L increased from 0.2% to 1.2% (p = 1.1*E-10), and M from 1% to 2.4% (p = 3.7*E-8). Hg U increased among the R macro-hg from 14.1% to 16.5% (p = 1.9*E-3). Genomic ancestry, geographical skewedness, and sub-hg distribution suggested that the L, M and U increases are due to immigration. The complex spatio-temporal dynamics and genomic ancestry of mtDNA in the Danish population reflect repeated migratory events and, in later years, net immigration. Such complexity may explain the often contradictory and population-specific reports of mito-genomic association with disease.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Dinamarca , Genética Populacional , Humanos
11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 83(9): 780-789, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic risk factors of schizophrenia (SCZ), a severe psychiatric disorder, are not yet fully understood. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in SCZ, but comprehensive association studies are lacking. We hypothesized that variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence susceptibility to SCZ. METHODS: We conducted gene-based and gene-set analyses using summary association results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia Phase 2 (PGC-SCZ2) genome-wide association study comprising 35,476 cases and 46,839 control subjects. We applied the MAGMA method to three sets of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes: oxidative phosphorylation genes, other nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, and genes involved in nucleus-mitochondria crosstalk. Furthermore, we conducted a replication study using the iPSYCH SCZ sample of 2290 cases and 21,621 control subjects. RESULTS: In the PGC-SCZ2 sample, 1186 mitochondrial genes were analyzed, among which 159 had p values < .05 and 19 remained significant after multiple testing correction. A meta-analysis of 818 genes combining the PGC-SCZ2 and iPSYCH samples resulted in 104 nominally significant and nine significant genes, suggesting a polygenic model for the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Gene-set analysis, however, did not show significant results. In an in silico protein-protein interaction network analysis, 14 mitochondrial genes interacted directly with 158 SCZ risk genes identified in PGC-SCZ2 (permutation p = .02), and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways appeared to be overrepresented in this network of mitochondrial and SCZ risk genes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that specific aspects of mitochondrial function may play a role in SCZ, but we did not observe its broad involvement even using a large sample.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 96(12): 1453-1459, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Both women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and women with twin pregnancies have increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of PCOS and maternal androgen levels on the outcome of dichorionic twin pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 360 women with dichorionic twin pregnancies: 72 women with PCOS from a fertility clinic (years 1997-2010) and 288 women without PCOS from a hospital cohort (years 2005-2007). The obstetrical outcome was extracted from Danish National registers and supplemented by patient file data. In all, 65% of the PCOS group had a registered prepregnancy androgen level and these were stratified into normoandrogenic and hyperandrogenic women. The groups were compared by multiple regression analysis adjusting for mode of conception and prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: We found no overall impact of PCOS on the pregnancy outcome; the risks of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm delivery were comparable within the groups. However, five deliveries in the PCOS group compared with two in the control group occurred before gestational week 28. No difference in the obstetrical outcome between hyperandrogenic and normoandrogenic women was found. The body mass index in the PCOS population was lower than in the non-PCOS, possibly reflecting a higher socioeconomic status and a healthier lifestyle, which may underestimate the impact of a PCOS diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Neither PCOS nor maternal androgen levels confer additional risks to the outcome of dichorionic twin pregnancies of normal weight women.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Adulto , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 56(1): 65-74, 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placental protein-13 (PP13) is involved in placental invasion and has been suggested as a maternal serum marker of preeclampsia (PE) development. However, the discriminatory ability of PP13 in first trimester has not been completely clarified. METHODS: PP13 was measured in first trimester (week 10+3-13+6) maternal serum from 120 PE pregnancies and 267 control pregnancies and was correlated with clinical parameters. The population screening performance of PP13 in combination with the PE markers pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) and free leptin index (fLI) was assessed by Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: In severe PE (including HELLP) cases (n=26) the median PP13 concentration was 35.8 pg/mL (range: 17.8-85.5 pg/mL) and in PE pregnancies (n=10) with birth prior to week 34, the median PP13 concentration was 30.6 pg/mL (13.1-50.1 pg/mL), compared to controls with a median of 54.8 pg/mL (range: 15.4-142.6 pg/mL) (p<0.04). The population screening detection rate (DR) for a false-positive rate of 10% for severe PE and HELLP was 26% for PP13, 28% for PP13+PAPP-A, 33% for PP13+fLI, and 40% for PP13+PAPP-A+fLI. CONCLUSIONS: PP13 is a marker of severe PE and HELLP syndrome. The screening performance of PP13 can be markedly improved by combining it with fLI and PAPP-A.


Assuntos
Galectinas/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
14.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 77(5): 352-357, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537443

RESUMO

Risk stratification and patient management in heart failure (HF) is difficult due to the unpredictable progression of the disease, necessitating the development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers to facilitate decision-making in clinical practice. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a marker of arteriosclerotic heart disease. PAPP-A is a serum protease, which is involved in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis where it is inhibited by the proform of the eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP). In this study, we evaluated serum PAPP-A and proMBP as long-term prognostic biomarkers of all-cause mortality in HF. Serum PAPP-A and proMBP concentrations were determined in 683 patients with NYHA III-IV HF recruited in the EchoCardiography and Heart Study (ECHOS) in Denmark. The mean age of the patients (73% male) was 70 at admission. During 7 years of follow-up, 516 patients died. In univariate analysis, both PAPP-A and proMBP, divided into quartiles, showed significant association with mortality. Using a Cox proportional hazard model, hazard ratios for continuous values of PAPP-A and proMBP were HR = 1.42 (CI = 1.23-1.64, p < 0.0001) and HR = 1.36 (CI = 1.22-1.51, p <0.0001), respectively. However, neither PAPP-A nor proMBP were significant independent predictors when the model included age, gender, brain-type natriuretic peptide, medical history of HF, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, high levels of PAPP-A and proMBP are associated with increased risk of death from all causes in HF and are potential prognostic markers of adverse outcomes in HF patients.


Assuntos
Proteína Básica Maior de Eosinófilos/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Heart ; 103(2): 154-158, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27496822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obese persons have low circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. It has been proposed that this 'natriuretic handicap' could play a role in obesity-related hypertension. The normal physiological response of the NP system to an increase in blood pressure (BP) is an increase in NP secretion with concomitant higher circulating NP concentrations. In this study, we investigated whether higher BP would also be related to higher circulating NP concentrations in obese men; furthermore, we verified that BP had affected the hearts of our study participants, by determining left ventricular mass (LVM). METHODS: We examined 103 obese healthy medication-free men. We measured 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP). LVM was calculated using the Cornell voltage-duration product method. Fasting serum concentrations of midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP), a surrogate for active ANP, were measured. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate age-adjusted standardised regression coefficients (ß). RESULTS: LVM and BP increased across systolic ABP quartiles (mean LVM±SD: 1599.1±387.2 mm ms in first vs 2188.5±551.3 mm ms in fourth quartile, p<0.001; mean systolic ABP±SD: 114.5±4.2 mm Hg in first vs 149.0±7.7 mm Hg in fourth quartile, p<0.001). Systolic ABP was robustly associated with LVM (ß=0.48, p<0.001). Despite evidence of BP-related increases in LVM, serum MR-proANP was negatively associated with systolic ABP (ß=-0.32, p=0.004) and with diastolic ABP (ß=-0.45, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to known physiological BP responses, MR-proANP was negatively associated with ABP in our study. This suggests that a low amount of circulating NPs could play a role in the early stage of obesity-related hypertension.


Assuntos
Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
16.
OMICS ; 20(7): 433-41, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27315016

RESUMO

Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major global health problem. We assessed the association of mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency and vertical transmission of HIV. Novel diagnostics would be a major breakthrough in this regard. MBL is a liver-derived protein and a key component of the innate immune system. MBL levels may be classified as normal, intermediate, or deficient in the plasma and can use MBL2 haplotypes as a proxy. These haplotypes comprise polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene and promoter region and are known to result in varying levels of MBL deficiency. MBL deficiency can be defined as presence of A/O and O/O genotypes in the mothers and their children. MBL deficiency leads to defective opsonization activities of the innate immune system and increased susceptibility to several infections, including HIV-1. We determined the prevalence of MBL deficiency, using MBL2 haplotypes among 622 HIV-positive Zimbabwean mothers and their children aged 9-18 months old, in relation to the HIV-1 vertical transmission risk. The median age of the mothers was 30 (26-34, interquartile range [IQR]) years, and the babies' median age was 13 (11-15, IQR) months old at the time of enrollment. From the sample of 622 mothers who were HIV-1 infected, 574 babies were HIV negative and 48 were HIV-1-positive babies, giving a transmission rate of 7.7%. MBL2 normal structural allele A and variants B (codon 5 A>G), C (codon 57 A>G), and promoter region SNPs -550(H/L) and -221(X/Y) were detected. Prevalence of haplotype-predicted MBL deficiency was 34% among the mothers and 32% among the children. We found no association between maternal MBL2 deficiency and HIV-1 transmission to their children. We found no difference in the distribution of HIV-1 infected and uninfected children between the MBL2 genotypes of the mothers and those of the children. Taken together, the present study in a large sample of mother-infant pairs in Zimbabwe adds to the emerging literature and the hypothesis that MBL2 variation as predicted by haplotypes does not influence the vertical transmission risk for HIV. Research from other populations from the African continent is called for to test this hypothesis further.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/deficiência , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; 34(4): 422-433, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26636480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether resistin levels in first trimester maternal serum are associated with insulin resistance or preeclampsia (PE). METHODS: A case-control study of maternal serum resistin concentration conducted using 285 normal pregnancies and 123 PE pregnancies matched for gestational age, parity and maternal age. Samples were taken in gestational weeks 10+0-13+6. RESULTS: There was a negative correlation between resistin and clinical severity of PE, but no correlation with IS, TNF-α, body mass index, birth weight and pregnancy length. CONCLUSIONS: Resistin is reduced in first trimester of PE pregnancies, particularly in severe PE. Inflammation and IS cannot explain this phenomenon.

19.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 75(8): 699-709, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26403377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a hereditary cardiac channelopathy characterized by delayed ventricular repolarization, syncope, torsades de pointes and sudden cardiac death. Thirty-three members of five apparently 'unrelated' Danish families carry the KCNH2:c.87C> A; p.F29L founder mutation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Linkage disequilibrium mapping with microsatellites around KCNH2 enabled us to estimate the age of the founder mutation to be approximately 22 generations, corresponding to around 550 years. Neighbouring-Joining analysis disclosed one early and three later nodes. The median QTc time of the carriers was 490 ms (range: 415-589 ms) and no difference was seen between the different branches of the family. The mutation is malignant with a penetrance of 73%. Ten F29L carriers received implantable defibrillators (ICDs) (median age at implant 20 years), and of those four individuals experienced eight appropriate shocks. Patch-clamp analysis in HEK 293 cells, performed at 34°C disclosed a loss-of-function phenotype with fast deactivation, reduced steady-state inactivation current density and a positive voltage shift in inactivation. Western blotting of HEK 293 cells transfected with KCNH2:WT and KCNH2:c.87C> A revealed a reduced fraction of fully glycosylated hERG:p.F29L suggesting that this mutation results in defective trafficking. CONCLUSION: The altered channel gating kinetics in combination with defective trafficking of mutated channels is expected to result in reduced repolarizing current density and, thus, a LQTS phenotype.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/genética , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Dinamarca , Canal de Potássio ERG1 , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/fisiologia , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Estudos de Associação Genética , Células HEK293 , Haplótipos , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Cinética , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transporte Proteico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0124540, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25923817

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic cardiac disease primarily caused by mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins. A molecular-genetic etiology can be established in ~60% of cases. Evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are susceptibility factors for HCM. Several polymorphic mtDNA variants are associated with a variety of late-onset degenerative diseases and affect mitochondrial function. We examined the role of private, non-haplogroup associated, mitochondrial variants in the etiology of HCM. In 87 Danish HCM patients, full mtDNA sequencing revealed 446 variants. After elimination of 312 (69.9%) non-coding and synonymous variants, a further 109 (24.4%) with a global prevalence > 0.1%, three (0.7%) haplogroup associated and 19 (2.0%) variants with a low predicted in silico likelihood of pathogenicity, three variants: MT-TC: m.5772G>A, MT-TF: m.644A>G, and MT-CYB: m.15024G>A, p.C93Y remained. A detailed analysis of these variants indicated that none of them are likely to cause HCM. In conclusion, private mtDNA mutations are frequent, but they are rarely, if ever, associated with HCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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