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2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health anxiety is common, disabling and costly due to patients' extensive use of health care services. Internet-delivered treatment may overcome barriers of accessibility to specialized treatment. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT). METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial of iACT versus an internet-delivered discussion forum (iFORUM), performed in a Danish university hospital setting. Patients self-referred and underwent video-diagnostic assessment. Eligible patients (≥18 years) with health anxiety were randomized to 12 weeks of intervention. The randomization was blinded for the assessor. The primary outcome was between-group unadjusted mean differences in health anxiety symptoms measured by the Whiteley-7 Index (WI-7, range 0-100) from baseline to 6-month follow-up (6-MFU) using intention to treat and a linear mixed model. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02735434. RESULTS: A total of 151 patients self-referred, and 101 patients were randomized to iACT (n = 53) or iFORUM (n = 48). A mean difference in change over time of 19.0 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.8-27.2, p < 0.001] was shown on the WI-7, and a large standardized effect size of d = 0.80 (95% CI 0.38-1.23) at 6-MFU. The number needed to treat was 2.8 (95% CI 1.8-6.1, p < 0.001), and twice as many patients in iACT were no longer clinical cases (35% v. 16%; risk ratio 2.17, 95% CI 1.00-4.70, p = 0.050). Adverse events were few and insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: iACT for health anxiety led to sustained effects at 6-MFU. The study contributes to the development of easily accessible treatment options and deserves wider application.

3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(9): 915-924, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401286

RESUMO

Importance: Health anxiety is a common and often chronic mental health problem associated with distress, substantial costs, and frequent attendance throughout the health care system. Face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the criterion standard treatment, but access is limited. Objective: To test the hypothesis that internet-delivered CBT, which requires relatively little resources, is noninferior to face-to-face CBT in the treatment of health anxiety. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized noninferiority clinical trial with health economic analysis was based at a primary care clinic and included patients with a principal diagnosis of health anxiety who were self-referred or referred from routine care. Recruitment began in December 10, 2014, and the last treatment ended on July 23, 2017. Follow-up data were collected up to 12 months after treatment. Analysis began October 2017 and ended March 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomized (1:1) to 12 weeks of internet-delivered CBT or to individual face-to-face CBT. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in health anxiety symptoms from baseline to week 12. Analyses were conducted from intention-to-treat and per-protocol (completers only) perspectives, using the noninferiority margin of 2.25 points on the Health Anxiety Inventory, which has a theoretical range of 0 to 54. Results: Overall, 204 patients (mean [SD] age, 39 [12] years; 143 women [70%]) contributed with 2386 data points on the Health Anxiety Inventory over the treatment period. Of 204 patients, 102 (50%) were randomized to internet-delivered CBT, and 102 (50%) were randomized to face-to-face CBT. The 1-sided 95% CI upper limits for the internet-delivered CBT vs face-to-face CBT difference in change were within the noninferiority margin in the intention-to-treat analysis (B = 0.00; upper limit: 1.98; Cohen d = 0.00; upper limit: 0.23) and per-protocol analysis (B = 0.01; upper limit: 2.17; Cohen d = 0.00; upper limit: 0.25). The between-group effect was not moderated by initial symptom level, recruitment path, or patient treatment preference. Therapists spent 10.0 minutes per patient per week in the online treatment vs 45.6 minutes for face-to-face CBT. The net societal cost was lower in the online treatment (treatment period point difference: $3854). There was no significant group difference in the number of adverse events, and no serious adverse event was reported. Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, internet-delivered CBT appeared to be noninferior to face-to-face CBT for health anxiety, while incurring lower net societal costs. The online treatment format has potential to increase access to evidence-based treatment for health anxiety. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02314065.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive worry is a common phenomenon. Our research group has previously developed an online intervention for excessive worry based on operant principles of extinction (IbET; internet-based extinction therapy) and tested it against a waiting-list. The aim of this study was to evaluate IbET against an active control comparator (CTRL). METHODS: A 10-week parallel participant blind randomised controlled trial with health-economical evaluation and mediation analyses. Participants (N = 311) were randomised (ratio 4.5:4.5:1) to IbET, to CTRL (an internet-based stress-management training program) or to waiting-list. The nation-wide trial included self-referred adults with excessive worry. The primary outcome was change in worry assessed with the Penn State Worry Questionnaire from baseline to 10 weeks. RESULTS: IbET had greater reductions in worry compared to CTRL [-3.6 point difference, (95% CI -2.4 to -4.9)] and also a significantly larger degree of treatment responders [63% v. 51%; risk ratio = 1.24 (95% CI 1.01-1.53)]. Both IbET and CTRL made large reductions in worry compared to waiting-list and effects were sustained up to 1 year. Treatment credibility, therapist attention, compliance and working alliance were equal between IbET and CTRL. Data attrition was 4% at the primary endpoint. The effects of IbET were mediated by the hypothesized causal mechanism (reduced thought suppression) but not by competing mediators. Health-economical evaluation indicated that IbET had a 99% chance of being cost-effective compared to CTRL given societal willingness to pay of 1000€. CONCLUSIONS: IbET is more effective than active comparator to treat excessive worry. Replication and extensions to real-world setting are warranted.

5.
J Anxiety Disord ; 71: 102208, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172210

RESUMO

Health anxiety can be defined as a multifaceted trait that is primarily characterised by a fear of, or preoccupation with, serious illness. Whereas low levels of health anxiety can be helpful, clinically significant levels are associated with personal suffering and substantial societal costs. As general anxiety is probably on the rise, and the Internet has increased access to health-related information, it is commonly speculated that health anxiety has increased over the past decades. We tested this hypothesis based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of birth cohort mean health anxiety in Western university student samples from 1985 to 2017. Sixty-eight studies with 22 413 student participants were included. The primary analysis indicated that the mean score on the Illness Attitudes Scales had increased by 4.61 points (95 % CI: 1.02, 8.20) from 1985 to 2017. The percentage of general population Internet users in the study year of data collection was not predictive of student mean health anxiety. In conclusion, this study corroborates the hypothesis of an increase in health anxiety, at least in the student population, over the past decades. However, this increase could not be linked to the introduction of the Internet.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Universidades
6.
Psychosomatics ; 61(3): 268-276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is characterized by a persistent and distressing psychological reaction to somatic symptoms. In pain disorders, the preoccupation with physical symptoms is associated with poor long-term outcomes. SSD may therefore be of use to identify and help chronic pain patients with particular needs. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that in fibromyalgia, SSD is associated with higher anxiety sensitivity, health anxiety, and reactivity to pain, in addition to lower nonreactivity to inner experiences. In addition, to investigate if individuals with SSD report a larger impact of fibromyalgia core symptoms, more somatic symptoms, and higher psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: Using data from a clinical trial involving self-referred individuals with fibromyalgia, we compared participants with SSD to participants without SSD using t-tests and logistic regression. RESULTS: Forty-nine out of 140 participants (35%) had SSD. Most findings corroborate that individuals with fibromyalgia who also meet criteria for SSD are worse off in terms of traits previously found to be predictive of a poor course in pain disorders. Post hoc analyses indicated that this could not be explained merely by a higher level of fibromyalgia core symptoms. CONCLUSION: SSD appears to be associated with a higher symptom burden in fibromyalgia, but further research is needed to draw firm conclusions regarding the reliability, acceptability, and utility of the SSD diagnosis in the clinic.

7.
Scand J Psychol ; 61(2): 281-289, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691305

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate specific effects for patients with adjustment or exhaustion disorder, the Stress subgroup (n = 152), regarding symptom severity and sick leave after CBT, a return-to-work intervention (RTW-I), and a combination of them (COMBO), using data from a randomized trial. In the original study, primary care patients on sick leave (N = 211) were randomized to CBT (n = 64), RTW-I (n = 67), or COMBO (n = 80). Blinded Clinician Severity Rating (CSR) of symptoms and sick leave registry data were primary outcomes. Subgroup analyses showed that for the Stress subgroup, CBT led to greater reduction of symptoms than RTW-I posttreatment, but COMBO did not differ from CBT or RTW-I. Regarding sick leave, there was no difference between treatments in the Stress subgroup. An exploratory analysis of the treatment effects in a subgroup of patients with depression, anxiety or insomnia indicates that RTW-I reduced sick leave faster than CBT. We conclude that CBT may be promising as an effective treatment of stress and exhaustion disorder.

8.
J Anxiety Disord ; 69: 102172, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864217

RESUMO

Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is efficacious for severe health anxiety, but little is known about mechanisms. We analysed putative mediators of change based on 13 weekly assessments in a randomised controlled trial (N = 132) of exposure-based minimal-contact CBT (guided Internet-delivered CBT, unguided Internet-delivered CBT and bibliotherapy) vs. a waitlist control for severe health anxiety. We hypothesised that the effect of CBT on health anxiety would be mediated by non-reactivity to inner experiences, health anxiety behaviours and perceived competence. We also explored somatosensory amplification. In parallel process growth models, non-reactivity, health anxiety behaviours and perceived competence - but not somatosensory amplification - were influenced by CBT and associated with health anxiety. Random intercepts cross-lagged panel models were used to study within-individual ordering of change. None of the putative mediators systematically predicted subsequent changes in health anxiety. Rather, changes in health anxiety predicted subsequent changes in all putative mediators. In summary, CBT influenced health anxiety behaviours, non-reactivity to inner experiences and perceived competence, and these variables were associated with the outcome. However, their role as mediators was not corroborated because we found no evidence that changes in these variables predicted subsequent changes in health anxiety. We encourage further research into mediators of CBT for health anxiety.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 340, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852887

RESUMO

Telomere attrition is a hallmark of cellular aging and shorter telomeres have been reported in mood and anxiety disorders. Telomere shortening is counteracted by the enzyme telomerase and cellular protection is also provided by the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Here, telomerase, GPx, and telomeres were investigated in 46 social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients in a within-subject design with repeated measures before and after cognitive behavioral therapy. Treatment outcome was assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (self-report), administered three times before treatment to control for time and regression artifacts, and posttreatment. Venipunctures were performed twice before treatment, separated by 9 weeks, and once posttreatment. Telomerase activity and telomere length were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and GPx activity in plasma. All patients contributed with complete data. Results showed that social anxiety symptom severity was significantly reduced from pretreatment to posttreatment (Cohen's d = 1.46). There were no significant alterations in telomeres or cellular protection markers before treatment onset. Telomere length and telomerase activity did not change significantly after treatment, but an increase in telomerase over treatment was associated with reduced social anxiety. Also, lower pretreatment telomerase activity predicted subsequent symptom improvement. GPx activity increased significantly during treatment, and increases were significantly associated with symptom improvement. The relationships between symptom improvement and putative protective enzymes remained significant also after controlling for body mass index, sex, duration of SAD, smoking, concurrent psychotropic medication, and the proportion of lymphocytes to monocytes. Thus, indices of cellular protection may be involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of psychological treatment for anxiety.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fobia Social/sangue , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Fobia Social/terapia , Telomerase/sangue , Telômero/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
10.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(6): 663-676, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859542

RESUMO

Introduction: Health anxiety, also known as 'hypochondriasis', is a common, distressing and costly condition that responds to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) but evidence pertaining to response and remission rates, treatment in routine care, therapist-guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and health economics has not been systematically reviewed.Areas covered: In this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and OATD (17/06/2019) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CBT to non-CBT controls for health anxiety. Based on 19 RCTs, the pooled between-group effect on health anxiety was moderate to large (g = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.57-1.01; adjusted for publication bias: g = 0.62), with small to moderate effects on secondary symptoms and effects largely sustained 12-18 months after treatment. Moderators were control condition and recruitment path, but not treatment setting. The pooled CBT response rate was 66%, and the remission rate 48%. ICBT had effects comparable to face-to-face CBT. CBT for health anxiety is probably cost-effective, but with limited effect on the quality of life.Expert opinion: CBT is a highly efficacious and probably cost-effective treatment for health anxiety. We recommend that ICBT is implemented more widely, and that health economic outcomes and ways of increasing response and remission rates are explored further.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Hipocondríase/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia Médica , Humanos , Hipocondríase/economia , Internet , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cogn Behav Ther ; : 1-20, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638472

RESUMO

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can effectively treat common mental disorders (CMDs), but access to treatment is insufficient. Guided self-help (GSH) CBT has shown effects comparable to face-to-face CBT and may be a resource-efficient treatment alternative. However, not all patients respond to GSH. Learning more about predictors of outcome may increase knowledge regarding which patients respond to GSH. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of outcome for GSH CBT for patients with CMDs in primary care. Consecutive patients (N = 396) with a principal disorder of depression, anxiety, insomnia or stress-related disorders were included. All patients received GSH CBT. Outcomes were remission status, reliable change and post-treatment depression ratings. Predictors investigated were clinical, demographic and therapy-related variables. Analyses were conducted using logistic and linear regression. Higher educational level predicted remission, higher quality of life ratings predicted remission and decreased depression, and higher age at onset predicted reliable change. Therapy-related variables, i.e. patient adherence to treatment and patients' and clinicians' estimation of treatment response, were all related to outcome. More large-scale studies are needed, but the present study points at the importance of therapy-related variables such as monitoring and supporting treatment adherence for an increased chance of remission.

12.
Behav Res Ther ; 122: 103478, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585343

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent chronic pain disorder associated with large suffering and substantial societal costs. Pain-related avoidance behaviour and hypervigilance to bodily symptoms are common in FM and contribute in maintaining and exacerbating the disorder. Exposure therapy targeting avoidance behaviours and hypervigilance has shown promise in the treatment of FM. The present study investigated mediators of treatment outcome in exposure therapy for FM. We used data from a randomised trial, where 140 participants were allocated to 10-week internet-delivered exposure therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. The main outcome variable (FM symptoms) and the hypothesized mediators (FM-related avoidance behaviour, mindful non-reactivity and FM-related worry) were measured weekly throughout treatment. Mediation analyses were conducted using linear mixed effects models with bootstrap replication and time-lagged analysis. Results indicated that all three process variables were significant mediators of FM severity. However, in the time-lagged analyses, only FM-related avoidance behaviour displayed a unidirectional relationship over time with FM symptoms, suggesting a causal effect. Thus, results illustrate that changes in avoidance behaviour mediate the outcome of exposure on FM symptoms, which implies that avoidance behaviour is an important treatment target in exposure therapy.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(9): e14675, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress-related disorders are associated with significant suffering, functional impairment, and high societal costs. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a promising treatment for stress-related disorders but has so far not been subjected to health economic evaluation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of ICBT for patients with stress-related disorders in the form of adjustment disorder (AD) or exhaustion disorder (ED). We hypothesized that ICBT, compared with a waitlist control (WLC) group, would generate improvements at low net costs, thereby making it cost-effective. METHODS: Health economic data were obtained in tandem with a randomized controlled trial of a 12-week ICBT in which patients (N=100) were randomized to an ICBT (n=50) or a WLC (n=50) group. Health outcomes and costs were surveyed pre- and posttreatment. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) based on remission rates and incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) based on health-related quality of life. Bootstrap sampling was used to assess the uncertainty of our results. RESULTS: The ICER indicated that the most likely scenario was that ICBT led to higher remission rates compared with the WLC and was associated with slightly larger reductions in costs from pre- to posttreatment. ICBT had a 60% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness to pay (WTP) of US $0 and a 96% probability of being cost-effective at a WTP of US $1000. The ICUR indicated that ICBT also led to improvements in quality of life at no net societal cost. Sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of our results. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that ICBT is a cost-effective treatment for patients suffering from AD or ED. Compared with no treatment, ICBT for these patients yields large effects at no or minimal societal net costs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02540317; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02540317.

14.
J Anxiety Disord ; 67: 102118, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487573

RESUMO

Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder, little is known about the processes during treatment that bring about change. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the proposed processes of change according to the cognitive model of social anxiety disorder predicted subsequent symptom reduction in CBT delivered as therapist-guided bibliotherapy. We analyzed data from patients with social anxiety disorder (N = 61) who participated in an effectiveness trial of CBT in primary care. Seven putative processes and outcome (i.e., social anxiety) were assessed on a weekly basis throughout treatment. We used linear mixed models to analyze within-person relations between processes and outcome. The results showed a unidirectional effect of reduced avoidance on subsequent decrease in social anxiety. Further, we found support for reciprocal influences between four of the proposed processes (i.e., estimated probability and cost of adverse outcome, self-focused attention, and safety behaviors) and social anxiety. The remaining two processes, (i.e., anticipatory and post-event processing) did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but were predicted by prior symptom reduction. The findings support that several of the change processes according to the cognitive model of social anxiety disorder are involved in symptom improvement.

15.
BJPsych Open ; 5(5): e80, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe health anxiety is a chronic and costly disorder if untreated. Patient self-referral may lower barriers to treatment and decrease diagnostic delay. AIMS: This study evaluated the accuracy of self-referral for severe health anxiety and compared characteristics of patients self-referred to internet-delivered treatment with patients referred by a clinician to face-to-face treatment. METHOD: Two trials in the same clinic employed different referral methods for health anxiety, namely self-referral and clinician-referral (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01158430 and NCT02735434). The trials were conducted at different time points but with largely comparable eligibility criteria. The accuracy of the recruitment methods was compared by looking at the number of eligible patients in the two trials. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire and subsequently underwent a diagnostic interview by experienced clinicians. Mean differences in self-report and clinical data explored between-group demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 101/151 (67%) self-referred patients were eligible compared with 126/254 (50%) clinician-referred patients (P = 0.001). Self-referred patients were 3.4 years older (P = 0.008) and had a somewhat higher educational level (P = 0.030). Patients who self-referred reported significantly higher levels of health anxiety, emotional distress and somatic symptoms compared with clinician-referred patients. Yet, they had less clinician-assessed comorbid anxiety disorders (P<0.001) and better physical health-related quality of life (P<0.001) suggesting a more distinct symptom profile. CONCLUSIONS: Self-referral was found to be an accurate method to recruit highly relevant patients with treatment-demanding health anxiety. Thus, both self-referral and clinician-referral seem feasible and valid referral methods, but they may recruit patients with slightly different characteristics. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None.

16.
Behav Ther ; 50(3): 475-488, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030867

RESUMO

Evidence supporting the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for stress-related illness is growing, but little is known about its mechanisms of change. The aim of this study was to investigate potential mediators of CBT for severe stress in form of clinical burnout, using an active psychological treatment as comparator. We used linear mixed models to analyze data from patients (N = 82) with clinical burnout who received either CBT or another psychological treatment in a randomized controlled trial. Potential mediators (i.e., sleep quality, behavioral activation, perceived competence, and therapeutic alliance) and outcome (i.e., symptoms of burnout) were assessed weekly during treatment. The results showed that the positive treatment effects on symptoms of burnout favoring CBT (estimated between-group d = 0.93) were mediated by improvements in sleep quality, ab = -0.017, 95% CIasymmetric [-0.037, -0.002], and increase in perceived competence, ab = -0.037, 95% CIasymmetric [-0.070, -0.010]. Behavioral activation, ab = -0.004 [-0.016, 0.007], and therapeutic alliance, ab = 0.002 [-0.006, 0.011], did not significantly mediate the difference in effects between the treatments. Improving sleep quality and increasing perceived competence may thus constitute important process goals in order to attain symptom reduction in CBT for clinical burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Autorrelato , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMJ ; 364: l774, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862624
18.
Psychol Med ; 49(8): 1266-1274, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688184

RESUMO

Depression is common in primary care, and most patients prefer psychological treatment over pharmacotherapy. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment, but there are gaps in current knowledge about CBT in the primary care context, especially with regard to long-term effects and the efficacy of specific delivery formats. This is an obstacle to the integration of primary care and specialist psychiatry. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of CBT for primary care patients with depression to investigate the effect of CBT for patients with depression in primary care. A total of 34 studies, with 2543 patients in CBT and 2815 patients in control conditions, were included. CBT was more effective than the control conditions [g = 0.22 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.30)], and the effect was sustained at follow-up [g = 0.17 (95% CI 0.10-0.24)]. CBT also led to a higher response rate [odds ratio (OR) = 2.47 (95% CI 1.60-3.80)] and remission rate [OR = 1.56 (95% CI 1.15-2.14)] than the control conditions. Heterogeneity was moderate. The controlled effect of CBT was significant regardless of whether patients met diagnostic criteria for depression, scored above a validated cut-off for depression, or merely had depressive symptoms. CBT also had a controlled effect regardless of whether the treatment was delivered as individual therapy, group therapy or therapist-guided self-help. We conclude that CBT appears to be effective for patients with depression in primary care, and recommend that patients with mild to moderate depression be offered CBT in primary care.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Behav Ther ; 50(1): 177-188, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661558

RESUMO

Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and functional dyspepsia (FD) are common in adolescents and associated with low quality of life. Exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficient for adult and adolescent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but has never been evaluated for adolescent FAP/FD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel disorder-specific Internet-delivered CBT (Internet-CBT) for adolescents with FAP or FD, using an uncontrolled open pilot including 31 adolescents. The Internet-CBT consisted of 10 weekly online modules, which focused mainly on exposure to abdominal symptoms. Parents received modules to help them reduce unhelpful parental behaviors. Participants reported the treatment to be credible, and an overall satisfaction with the treatment. Data attrition rate was low (7%) and adherence to treatment was acceptable. We saw a significant and large effect on the primary outcome, pain intensity, at posttreatment (d = 1.20, p < .001) that was further improved after 6 months (d = 1.69, p < .001). Participants also made significant and large improvements on gastrointestinal symptoms (d = 0.84, p < .001) and quality of life (d = 0.84, p < .001) that were sustained or further improved at follow-up 6 months after treatment. This study demonstrated that exposure-based Internet-CBT, tailored for adolescents with FAP or FD, is a feasible treatment that potentially improves pain intensity, gastrointestinal symptoms, and quality of life.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/terapia , Comportamento do Adolescente , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dispepsia/terapia , Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Internet , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 60(3): 295-304, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-harm is common and there is a need for studies that investigate the relevance of this behavior in clinical samples to inform risk assessment and treatment. The objectives in the current studies were to compare clinical and psychosocial correlates and subsequent adverse outcomes in youth who present to child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) with self-harm only (SH), self-harm with suicidality (SH+SU), with those without any indication of SH or SH+SU. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study and a longitudinal cohort study using data from a regional clinical care register, and Swedish national registers. The case-control study included all patients (5-17 years) between 2011 and 2015 (N = 25,161). SH and SH+SU cases were compared with controls (patients without SH) regarding a range of correlates. The longitudinal study included former CAMHS patients (N = 6,120) who were followed for a median time of 2.8 years after termination of CAMHS contact regarding outcomes such as clinical care consumption, social welfare recipiency, and crime conviction. RESULTS: In the case-control study, both the SH and SH+SU groups received more clinical care, had lower global functioning, and higher odds of having mental disorders compared to controls. In most comparisons, the SH+SU group had more problems than the SH group. In the longitudinal study, the same pattern emerged for most outcomes; for example, the adjusted hazard ratio for recurrent care due to self-harm was 23.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.0-31.4) in the SH+SU group compared to 3.9 (95% CI, 2.3-6.7) in the SH group. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent patients presenting with self-harm have higher risks for adverse outcomes than patients without self-harm. Suicidality in addition to self-harm is associated with more severe outcomes, importantly recurrent episodes of care for self-harm.

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