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1.
J Anxiety Disord ; 69: 102172, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864217

RESUMO

Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is efficacious for severe health anxiety, but little is known about mechanisms. We analysed putative mediators of change based on 13 weekly assessments in a randomised controlled trial (N = 132) of exposure-based minimal-contact CBT (guided Internet-delivered CBT, unguided Internet-delivered CBT and bibliotherapy) vs. a waitlist control for severe health anxiety. We hypothesised that the effect of CBT on health anxiety would be mediated by non-reactivity to inner experiences, health anxiety behaviours and perceived competence. We also explored somatosensory amplification. In parallel process growth models, non-reactivity, health anxiety behaviours and perceived competence - but not somatosensory amplification - were influenced by CBT and associated with health anxiety. Random intercepts cross-lagged panel models were used to study within-individual ordering of change. None of the putative mediators systematically predicted subsequent changes in health anxiety. Rather, changes in health anxiety predicted subsequent changes in all putative mediators. In summary, CBT influenced health anxiety behaviours, non-reactivity to inner experiences and perceived competence, and these variables were associated with the outcome. However, their role as mediators was not corroborated because we found no evidence that changes in these variables predicted subsequent changes in health anxiety. We encourage further research into mediators of CBT for health anxiety.

2.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(6): 663-676, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859542

RESUMO

Introduction: Health anxiety, also known as 'hypochondriasis', is a common, distressing and costly condition that responds to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) but evidence pertaining to response and remission rates, treatment in routine care, therapist-guided Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) and health economics has not been systematically reviewed.Areas covered: In this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and OATD (17/06/2019) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CBT to non-CBT controls for health anxiety. Based on 19 RCTs, the pooled between-group effect on health anxiety was moderate to large (g = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.57-1.01; adjusted for publication bias: g = 0.62), with small to moderate effects on secondary symptoms and effects largely sustained 12-18 months after treatment. Moderators were control condition and recruitment path, but not treatment setting. The pooled CBT response rate was 66%, and the remission rate 48%. ICBT had effects comparable to face-to-face CBT. CBT for health anxiety is probably cost-effective, but with limited effect on the quality of life.Expert opinion: CBT is a highly efficacious and probably cost-effective treatment for health anxiety. We recommend that ICBT is implemented more widely, and that health economic outcomes and ways of increasing response and remission rates are explored further.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Hipocondríase/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia Médica , Humanos , Hipocondríase/economia , Internet , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 340, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852887

RESUMO

Telomere attrition is a hallmark of cellular aging and shorter telomeres have been reported in mood and anxiety disorders. Telomere shortening is counteracted by the enzyme telomerase and cellular protection is also provided by the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Here, telomerase, GPx, and telomeres were investigated in 46 social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients in a within-subject design with repeated measures before and after cognitive behavioral therapy. Treatment outcome was assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (self-report), administered three times before treatment to control for time and regression artifacts, and posttreatment. Venipunctures were performed twice before treatment, separated by 9 weeks, and once posttreatment. Telomerase activity and telomere length were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and GPx activity in plasma. All patients contributed with complete data. Results showed that social anxiety symptom severity was significantly reduced from pretreatment to posttreatment (Cohen's d = 1.46). There were no significant alterations in telomeres or cellular protection markers before treatment onset. Telomere length and telomerase activity did not change significantly after treatment, but an increase in telomerase over treatment was associated with reduced social anxiety. Also, lower pretreatment telomerase activity predicted subsequent symptom improvement. GPx activity increased significantly during treatment, and increases were significantly associated with symptom improvement. The relationships between symptom improvement and putative protective enzymes remained significant also after controlling for body mass index, sex, duration of SAD, smoking, concurrent psychotropic medication, and the proportion of lymphocytes to monocytes. Thus, indices of cellular protection may be involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of psychological treatment for anxiety.

4.
Scand J Psychol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691305

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate specific effects for patients with adjustment or exhaustion disorder, the Stress subgroup (n = 152), regarding symptom severity and sick leave after CBT, a return-to-work intervention (RTW-I), and a combination of them (COMBO), using data from a randomized trial. In the original study, primary care patients on sick leave (N = 211) were randomized to CBT (n = 64), RTW-I (n = 67), or COMBO (n = 80). Blinded Clinician Severity Rating (CSR) of symptoms and sick leave registry data were primary outcomes. Subgroup analyses showed that for the Stress subgroup, CBT led to greater reduction of symptoms than RTW-I posttreatment, but COMBO did not differ from CBT or RTW-I. Regarding sick leave, there was no difference between treatments in the Stress subgroup. An exploratory analysis of the treatment effects in a subgroup of patients with depression, anxiety or insomnia indicates that RTW-I reduced sick leave faster than CBT. We conclude that CBT may be promising as an effective treatment of stress and exhaustion disorder.

5.
Cogn Behav Ther ; : 1-20, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638472

RESUMO

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can effectively treat common mental disorders (CMDs), but access to treatment is insufficient. Guided self-help (GSH) CBT has shown effects comparable to face-to-face CBT and may be a resource-efficient treatment alternative. However, not all patients respond to GSH. Learning more about predictors of outcome may increase knowledge regarding which patients respond to GSH. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of outcome for GSH CBT for patients with CMDs in primary care. Consecutive patients (N = 396) with a principal disorder of depression, anxiety, insomnia or stress-related disorders were included. All patients received GSH CBT. Outcomes were remission status, reliable change and post-treatment depression ratings. Predictors investigated were clinical, demographic and therapy-related variables. Analyses were conducted using logistic and linear regression. Higher educational level predicted remission, higher quality of life ratings predicted remission and decreased depression, and higher age at onset predicted reliable change. Therapy-related variables, i.e. patient adherence to treatment and patients' and clinicians' estimation of treatment response, were all related to outcome. More large-scale studies are needed, but the present study points at the importance of therapy-related variables such as monitoring and supporting treatment adherence for an increased chance of remission.

6.
Behav Res Ther ; 122: 103478, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585343

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent chronic pain disorder associated with large suffering and substantial societal costs. Pain-related avoidance behaviour and hypervigilance to bodily symptoms are common in FM and contribute in maintaining and exacerbating the disorder. Exposure therapy targeting avoidance behaviours and hypervigilance has shown promise in the treatment of FM. The present study investigated mediators of treatment outcome in exposure therapy for FM. We used data from a randomised trial, where 140 participants were allocated to 10-week internet-delivered exposure therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. The main outcome variable (FM symptoms) and the hypothesized mediators (FM-related avoidance behaviour, mindful non-reactivity and FM-related worry) were measured weekly throughout treatment. Mediation analyses were conducted using linear mixed effects models with bootstrap replication and time-lagged analysis. Results indicated that all three process variables were significant mediators of FM severity. However, in the time-lagged analyses, only FM-related avoidance behaviour displayed a unidirectional relationship over time with FM symptoms, suggesting a causal effect. Thus, results illustrate that changes in avoidance behaviour mediate the outcome of exposure on FM symptoms, which implies that avoidance behaviour is an important treatment target in exposure therapy.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(9): e14675, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress-related disorders are associated with significant suffering, functional impairment, and high societal costs. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a promising treatment for stress-related disorders but has so far not been subjected to health economic evaluation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of ICBT for patients with stress-related disorders in the form of adjustment disorder (AD) or exhaustion disorder (ED). We hypothesized that ICBT, compared with a waitlist control (WLC) group, would generate improvements at low net costs, thereby making it cost-effective. METHODS: Health economic data were obtained in tandem with a randomized controlled trial of a 12-week ICBT in which patients (N=100) were randomized to an ICBT (n=50) or a WLC (n=50) group. Health outcomes and costs were surveyed pre- and posttreatment. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) based on remission rates and incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) based on health-related quality of life. Bootstrap sampling was used to assess the uncertainty of our results. RESULTS: The ICER indicated that the most likely scenario was that ICBT led to higher remission rates compared with the WLC and was associated with slightly larger reductions in costs from pre- to posttreatment. ICBT had a 60% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness to pay (WTP) of US $0 and a 96% probability of being cost-effective at a WTP of US $1000. The ICUR indicated that ICBT also led to improvements in quality of life at no net societal cost. Sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of our results. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that ICBT is a cost-effective treatment for patients suffering from AD or ED. Compared with no treatment, ICBT for these patients yields large effects at no or minimal societal net costs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02540317; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02540317.

8.
BJPsych Open ; 5(5): e80, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe health anxiety is a chronic and costly disorder if untreated. Patient self-referral may lower barriers to treatment and decrease diagnostic delay. AIMS: This study evaluated the accuracy of self-referral for severe health anxiety and compared characteristics of patients self-referred to internet-delivered treatment with patients referred by a clinician to face-to-face treatment. METHOD: Two trials in the same clinic employed different referral methods for health anxiety, namely self-referral and clinician-referral (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01158430 and NCT02735434). The trials were conducted at different time points but with largely comparable eligibility criteria. The accuracy of the recruitment methods was compared by looking at the number of eligible patients in the two trials. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire and subsequently underwent a diagnostic interview by experienced clinicians. Mean differences in self-report and clinical data explored between-group demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 101/151 (67%) self-referred patients were eligible compared with 126/254 (50%) clinician-referred patients (P = 0.001). Self-referred patients were 3.4 years older (P = 0.008) and had a somewhat higher educational level (P = 0.030). Patients who self-referred reported significantly higher levels of health anxiety, emotional distress and somatic symptoms compared with clinician-referred patients. Yet, they had less clinician-assessed comorbid anxiety disorders (P<0.001) and better physical health-related quality of life (P<0.001) suggesting a more distinct symptom profile. CONCLUSIONS: Self-referral was found to be an accurate method to recruit highly relevant patients with treatment-demanding health anxiety. Thus, both self-referral and clinician-referral seem feasible and valid referral methods, but they may recruit patients with slightly different characteristics. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None.

9.
J Anxiety Disord ; 67: 102118, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487573

RESUMO

Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder, little is known about the processes during treatment that bring about change. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the proposed processes of change according to the cognitive model of social anxiety disorder predicted subsequent symptom reduction in CBT delivered as therapist-guided bibliotherapy. We analyzed data from patients with social anxiety disorder (N = 61) who participated in an effectiveness trial of CBT in primary care. Seven putative processes and outcome (i.e., social anxiety) were assessed on a weekly basis throughout treatment. We used linear mixed models to analyze within-person relations between processes and outcome. The results showed a unidirectional effect of reduced avoidance on subsequent decrease in social anxiety. Further, we found support for reciprocal influences between four of the proposed processes (i.e., estimated probability and cost of adverse outcome, self-focused attention, and safety behaviors) and social anxiety. The remaining two processes, (i.e., anticipatory and post-event processing) did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but were predicted by prior symptom reduction. The findings support that several of the change processes according to the cognitive model of social anxiety disorder are involved in symptom improvement.

10.
Behav Ther ; 50(3): 475-488, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030867

RESUMO

Evidence supporting the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for stress-related illness is growing, but little is known about its mechanisms of change. The aim of this study was to investigate potential mediators of CBT for severe stress in form of clinical burnout, using an active psychological treatment as comparator. We used linear mixed models to analyze data from patients (N = 82) with clinical burnout who received either CBT or another psychological treatment in a randomized controlled trial. Potential mediators (i.e., sleep quality, behavioral activation, perceived competence, and therapeutic alliance) and outcome (i.e., symptoms of burnout) were assessed weekly during treatment. The results showed that the positive treatment effects on symptoms of burnout favoring CBT (estimated between-group d = 0.93) were mediated by improvements in sleep quality, ab = -0.017, 95% CIasymmetric [-0.037, -0.002], and increase in perceived competence, ab = -0.037, 95% CIasymmetric [-0.070, -0.010]. Behavioral activation, ab = -0.004 [-0.016, 0.007], and therapeutic alliance, ab = 0.002 [-0.006, 0.011], did not significantly mediate the difference in effects between the treatments. Improving sleep quality and increasing perceived competence may thus constitute important process goals in order to attain symptom reduction in CBT for clinical burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Autorrelato , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMJ ; 364: l774, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862624
12.
Psychol Med ; 49(8): 1266-1274, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688184

RESUMO

Depression is common in primary care, and most patients prefer psychological treatment over pharmacotherapy. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment, but there are gaps in current knowledge about CBT in the primary care context, especially with regard to long-term effects and the efficacy of specific delivery formats. This is an obstacle to the integration of primary care and specialist psychiatry. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of CBT for primary care patients with depression to investigate the effect of CBT for patients with depression in primary care. A total of 34 studies, with 2543 patients in CBT and 2815 patients in control conditions, were included. CBT was more effective than the control conditions [g = 0.22 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.30)], and the effect was sustained at follow-up [g = 0.17 (95% CI 0.10-0.24)]. CBT also led to a higher response rate [odds ratio (OR) = 2.47 (95% CI 1.60-3.80)] and remission rate [OR = 1.56 (95% CI 1.15-2.14)] than the control conditions. Heterogeneity was moderate. The controlled effect of CBT was significant regardless of whether patients met diagnostic criteria for depression, scored above a validated cut-off for depression, or merely had depressive symptoms. CBT also had a controlled effect regardless of whether the treatment was delivered as individual therapy, group therapy or therapist-guided self-help. We conclude that CBT appears to be effective for patients with depression in primary care, and recommend that patients with mild to moderate depression be offered CBT in primary care.

13.
Behav Ther ; 50(1): 177-188, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661558

RESUMO

Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and functional dyspepsia (FD) are common in adolescents and associated with low quality of life. Exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficient for adult and adolescent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but has never been evaluated for adolescent FAP/FD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel disorder-specific Internet-delivered CBT (Internet-CBT) for adolescents with FAP or FD, using an uncontrolled open pilot including 31 adolescents. The Internet-CBT consisted of 10 weekly online modules, which focused mainly on exposure to abdominal symptoms. Parents received modules to help them reduce unhelpful parental behaviors. Participants reported the treatment to be credible, and an overall satisfaction with the treatment. Data attrition rate was low (7%) and adherence to treatment was acceptable. We saw a significant and large effect on the primary outcome, pain intensity, at posttreatment (d = 1.20, p < .001) that was further improved after 6 months (d = 1.69, p < .001). Participants also made significant and large improvements on gastrointestinal symptoms (d = 0.84, p < .001) and quality of life (d = 0.84, p < .001) that were sustained or further improved at follow-up 6 months after treatment. This study demonstrated that exposure-based Internet-CBT, tailored for adolescents with FAP or FD, is a feasible treatment that potentially improves pain intensity, gastrointestinal symptoms, and quality of life.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/terapia , Comportamento do Adolescente , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dispepsia/terapia , Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Internet , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 48(4): 322-336, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230412

RESUMO

Emotion regulation group therapy (ERGT) is a novel treatment specifically targeting deliberate non-suicidal self-harm (DSH) in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Identifying robust predictors of positive response to ERGT could aid clinicians in treatment selection; however, to date, only one such study has been conducted. Thus, we aimed to replicate previously identified predictors of treatment response to ERGT by investigating demographic, clinical, and diagnostic predictors in 95 women with BPD or subclinical BPD who had participated in an open-trial evaluation of ERGT. Outcomes evaluated were frequency of DSH and emotion dysregulation. Assessments were conducted at pretreatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Multilevel mixed linear models and multilevel negative binomial generalized estimated equations were used to identify significant interactions between the predictors and outcomes. We found that greater pretreatment DSH frequency was associated with greater improvements in DSH during treatment (b = 0.998, SE = 0.00, p = 0.03) and follow-up (b = 0.997, SE = 0.00, p < 0.01) and that greater BPD severity was associated with greater improvements in DSH during treatment (b = 0.84, SE = 0.06, p = 0.02) and in emotion dysregulation at follow-up (b = -3.05, SE = 1.47, p = 0.04). Co-occurring disorders were associated with poorer treatment response during follow-up. Results were generally consistent with a previous study of the predictors of response to ERGT. The findings provide further support for the utility of this treatment across a range of BPD patients, including patients with severe DSH and BPD.

15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(11): 2236-2244.e11, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Scalable and effective treatments are needed for children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). We performed a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy delivered online (Internet-CBT) compared with usual therapy. METHODS: We studied children (age, 8-12 y) diagnosed with FAPDs, based on the Rome IV criteria, in Sweden from September 2016 through April 2017. The patients were assigned randomly to groups that received 10 weeks of therapist-guided, internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (Internet-CBT, n = 46) or treatment as usual (treatments within the health care and school systems, including medications and visits to doctors and other health care professionals; n = 44). The primary outcome was global child-rated gastrointestinal symptom severity assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Gastrointestinal Symptom scale. All outcomes were collected from September 2016 through January 2018. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, gastrointestinal-specific anxiety, avoidance behaviors, and parental responses to children's symptoms. Societal costs and costs for health care consumption were collected during the treatment. RESULTS: Children who received Internet-CBT had a significantly larger improvement in gastrointestinal symptom severity with a medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.05-0.88; number needed to treat, 3.8) compared with children who received the treatment as usual. The children's quality of life, gastrointestinal-specific anxiety, avoidance behaviors, and parental responses to children's symptoms also improved significantly in the Internet-CBT group compared with the treatment as usual group. The effects of Internet-CBT persisted through 36 weeks of follow-up evaluation. Children who received Internet-CBT had significantly less health care use than children who received treatment as usual, with an average cost difference of US $137 (P = .011). We calculated a cost savings of US $1050 for every child treated with Internet-CBT compared with treatment as usual. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial of pediatric patients with FAPDs, we found Internet-CBT to be clinically cost effective compared with treatment as usual. Internet-CBT has the potential to increase the availability of treatment for a number of patients and reduce health care costs. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02873078.

16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(4): 484-490, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410065

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder is heritable and a leading cause of disability. Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective treatment for major depression. By quantifying genetic risk scores based on common genetic variants, the aim of this report was to explore the utility of psychiatric and cognitive trait genetic risk scores, for predicting the response of 894 adults with major depressive disorder to cognitive behavior therapy. The participants were recruited in a psychiatric setting, and the primary outcome score was measured using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self Rated. Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays were used to calculate the genomic risk scores based on large genetic studies of six phenotypes: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, intelligence, and educational attainment. Linear mixed-effect models were used to test the relationships between the six genetic risk scores and cognitive behavior therapy outcome. Our analyses yielded one significant interaction effect (B = 0.09, p < 0.001): the autism spectrum disorder genetic risk score correlated with Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self Rated changes during treatment, and the higher the autism spectrum disorder genetic load, the less the depressive symptoms decreased over time. The genetic risk scores for the other psychiatric and cognitive traits were not related to depressive symptom severity or change over time. Our preliminary results indicated, as expected, that the genomics of the response of patients with major depression to cognitive behavior therapy were complex and that future efforts should aim to maximize sample size and limit subject heterogeneity in order to gain a better understanding of the use of genetic risk factors to predict treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Biomarcadores , Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Dados Preliminares , Prognóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Pain ; 20(1): 47-59, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107241

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and debilitating chronic pain disorder associated with a substantial economic burden. Although there are several studies investigating the effectiveness of psychological treatments such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for FM, studies on cost-effectiveness are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of Internet-delivered exposure therapy (iExp) for FM. We used health economic data from a recently conducted randomized, controlled trial, where 140 participants were randomized to either iExp or a waitlist control (WLC) condition. Economic data were collected at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at the 1-year follow-up. Treatment effectiveness in relation to costs were analyzed using both a societal perspective (including all direct and indirect costs) and a health care unit perspective (including only the direct treatment costs). Bootstrapped net benefit regression analyses were also conducted, comparing the difference in costs and effects between iExp and WLC, within different willingness-to-pay scenarios. Results showed that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -$15,295, indicating that iExp was highly cost-effective as each successfully treated case (treatment responder) was associated with a substantial net reduction in costs. The robustness of the results was tested in 2 different sensitivity analyses, where iExp remained cost-effective, even in a willingness-to-pay-scenario of $0. We conclude that iExp is a cost-effective treatment that generates large societal cost savings. PERSPECTIVE: Health-economic evaluations of psychological interventions for FM are scarce. This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis of Internet-delivered exposure therapy for patients with FM. Results showed that iExp was highly cost-effective compared with no treatment, where each successfully treated case generated a substantial societal cost saving.

18.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 48(4): 300-310, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192705

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common and debilitating inflammatory dermatological disorder and is marked by itch and inflamed skin. Scratching, sleep loss, and avoidance of situations associated with more AD symptoms are central hypothesized mechanisms that perpetuate the disorder and cause reduced quality of life. We developed an exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that entailed mindfulness practice as a means to increase tolerance for aversive experiences during exposure. The aim of the present study was to test the treatment's acceptability and preliminary efficacy in adults with AD. We used an uncontrolled pretest-posttest design and recruited participants (N = 9) from a university hospital dermatological clinic. The treatment comprised 10 weekly sessions over 10 weeks and assessments of AD symptoms as well as psychiatric symptoms and quality of life were conducted at baseline, posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. The results showed significant and large baseline to posttreatment improvements on self-reported measures of AD symptoms (p = .020) and general anxiety (p = .005), but there was no significant improvement in depression or quality of life. Treatment satisfaction was high and a majority of participants (67%) completed the treatment. We conclude that exposure-based CBT for adult AD can be feasible, acceptable, and potentially efficacious.

19.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 60(3): 295-304, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-harm is common and there is a need for studies that investigate the relevance of this behavior in clinical samples to inform risk assessment and treatment. The objectives in the current studies were to compare clinical and psychosocial correlates and subsequent adverse outcomes in youth who present to child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) with self-harm only (SH), self-harm with suicidality (SH+SU), with those without any indication of SH or SH+SU. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study and a longitudinal cohort study using data from a regional clinical care register, and Swedish national registers. The case-control study included all patients (5-17 years) between 2011 and 2015 (N = 25,161). SH and SH+SU cases were compared with controls (patients without SH) regarding a range of correlates. The longitudinal study included former CAMHS patients (N = 6,120) who were followed for a median time of 2.8 years after termination of CAMHS contact regarding outcomes such as clinical care consumption, social welfare recipiency, and crime conviction. RESULTS: In the case-control study, both the SH and SH+SU groups received more clinical care, had lower global functioning, and higher odds of having mental disorders compared to controls. In most comparisons, the SH+SU group had more problems than the SH group. In the longitudinal study, the same pattern emerged for most outcomes; for example, the adjusted hazard ratio for recurrent care due to self-harm was 23.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.0-31.4) in the SH+SU group compared to 3.9 (95% CI, 2.3-6.7) in the SH group. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent patients presenting with self-harm have higher risks for adverse outcomes than patients without self-harm. Suicidality in addition to self-harm is associated with more severe outcomes, importantly recurrent episodes of care for self-harm.

20.
Trials ; 20(1): 790, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a common disorder with a continuum regarding severity. Most alcohol-dependent persons have a moderate level of dependence and live under socially orderly conditions. Treatment-seeking in this group is low, mainly due to stigma and because treatment options are seen as unappealing. Alcohol is a relevant topic to discuss in many primary care (PC) consultations and PC is less stigmatizing to visit compared to addiction care units for people with alcohol problems. However, general practitioners (GPs) hesitate to engage in treating alcohol problems due to time constraints and lack of knowledge. Screening and brief interventions are effective for high consumers but there are few studies on dependence. METHODS: This is a two-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial (RCT). The aim is to study whether an Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (iCBT) when added to treatment as usual (TAU) is more effective than TAU only for alcohol dependence in PC. Two hundred and sixty adults with alcohol dependence will be included. Participants are randomized to iCBT and TAU or TAU only. The primary study outcome is alcohol consumption in grams per week and heavy-drinking days. Secondary outcomes include alcohol-related problem severity, number of diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, depression and anxiety symptoms, health-related quality of life and biochemical markers for high consumption and liver pathology. Data will be analyzed using mixed-effect models. DISCUSSION: Internet-based interventions are attractive to, and have been shown to reach, people with alcohol problems. Yet there are no studies investigating the efficacy of Internet treatment of alcohol dependence in PC. In this study we hypothesize that iCBT when added to TAU will improve treatment outcome for alcohol dependence in PC, compared to TAU only. If effective, iCBT can be distributed to the public to a low cost for a stakeholder and has the opportunity to reduce both short-term and long-term public health costs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN69957414. Retrospectively registered on 7 June 2018.

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