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1.
Injury ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Femoral neck fractures in young patients are typically managed with internal fixation using either cancellous screws or a sliding hip screw (SHS). Although fixation preserves the hip joint, patients are still at risk of complications and poor clinical outcomes which lead to diminished function and health related quality of life (HRQL). The Fixation using Alternative Implants for the Treatment of Hip Fractures (FAITH-2) pilot randomized controlled factorial trial evaluated the effect of surgical fixation (cancellous screws vs. SHS) and vitamin D supplementation vs. placebo on patient-reported function and HRQL. METHODS: Patients between the ages of 18-60 years with a femoral neck fracture requiring surgical fixation were eligible. Eligible patients were randomized to receive either a sliding hip screw or cancellous screws for fracture fixation AND vitamin D3 4,000 IU or placebo daily for 6 months. Patient-reported function (Hip Outcome Score) and HRQL (Short Form-12) were assessed at standardized time points in the 12 months following their fixation surgery. Patient-reported function and HRQL were summarized using means, SD, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), or percentages and counts. Longitudinal data analysis with mixed models was used to explore the effect of treatment group and time on the patient-reported function and HRQL. RESULTS: 86 of the 91 patients randomized into the FAITH-2 pilot study were deemed eligible. There were no significant differences in patient-reported function or HRQL between the treatment groups at 12 months post-fracture. At the 6- and 9-month assessments, a potential benefit in hip function was seen in the cancellous screw group. In all treatment groups, participants reported lower function and HRQL at 12 months post-fracture as compared to their pre-injury assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Few differences were found in function and HRQL among the treatment groups in the FAITH-2 pilot study. Despite modern implants and vitamin D supplementation, neither function nor HRQL returns to baseline in this population. Additional efforts to improve the outcomes of these challenging injuries are still needed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level II.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand the early outcomes after hip arthroscopy and better define the trajectory of improvement in a prospective cohort of patients who have undergone hip arthroscopic osteochondroplasty for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Femoroacetabular Impingement RandomiSed controlled Trial (FIRST) on the 108 study patients who underwent osteochondroplasty, with or without labral repair. Study outcomes included patient-reported pain (using a 100-point Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)), hip function (using the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-12)), and health-related quality of life (using the EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D)) measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months post-operatively. RESULTS: There was a decrease in mean post-operative pain VAS scores from baseline. The first 2 weeks post-operative yielded the greatest reduction in pain with a mean (SD) VAS score of 37.8 (23.4), with score stabilization between 6 months (26.9 (26.9)) and 12 months (25.3 (27.6)). Mean HOS (activities of daily living) scores improved from baseline (59.7 (16.2)) starting at 6 weeks post-operative (64.1 (19.1)). The HOS (Sports) showed no improvement from baseline (41.2 (20.4)) until 3 months (49.1 (27.9)), and continued to improve at 6 months (64.1 (28.7)) and 12 months (68.6 (30.5)). The iHOT-12 scores showed functional improvement from baseline (31.3 (18.8)), as early as 6 weeks (44.9 (22.4)) up to and including 12 months (67.1 (29.7)). EQ-5D index scores showed modest steady improvement from 6 weeks to 12 months post-operative, while the EQ-5D VAS component similarly showed modest and steady improvements from 3 months onward. CONCLUSION: Results from this study highlight that hip arthroscopic osteochondroplasty with or without labral repair for FAI leads to early pain relief. While all scores improved from baseline, functional gains appear to plateau from 6 months onwards. These data can be used to inform decision-making about timelines for rehabilitation and return to sport, a knowledge gap in the current FAI literature. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify patient factors associated with improved pain scores, functional hip scores, health-related quality of life, and re-operation rates after arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). METHODS: Using the comprehensive dataset from the multinational Femoroacetabular Impingement Randomized Controlled Trial (FIRST), a total of 13 prognostic factors that were chosen a priori were identified that would be expected to predict post-surgical outcomes. The primary outcome was pain assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and secondary outcomes included hip function (Hip Outcome Score [HOS] and International Hip Outcome Tool [iHOT-12]), health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 [SF-12] and Euro-Qol 5 Dimensions [EQ-5D]), and re-operation rate. A multivariable linear regression was used to analyse the change questionnaire scores from baseline to 12 months post-surgery including all 13 prognostic factors as independent variables. A total of 27 re-operation events were analysed at 24 months using a multivariable logistic regression including only the treatment group variable. RESULTS: Of the 154 patients that had VAS scores completed at 12 months, a lower BMI (adjusted mean difference [aMD], 4.48 for a 5-unit decrease in BMI; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-8.63; p = 0.035) was significantly associated with less pain. There was a significant negative association between increasing age and 1-year EQ-5D scores (aMD, - 0.04 for every 10-year increase in age; 95% CI - 0.07 to - 0.006; p = 0.020). The degree of impingement, severity of osteoarthritis, type of procedure, and adjudicated quality of surgery were not significantly associated with improvement across all outcomes at 12 months. Furthermore, there was no significant association between the treatment variable and the incidence of re-operation at 24 months. CONCLUSION: This study identified that lower BMI and age are predictive of improved pain and health utility scores, respectively, following arthroscopic management of FAI at 12 months post-surgery. These results may be a helpful adjunct in clinical decisions for this patient population when determining candidacy for surgical intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.

4.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has affected the hospital experience for patients, visitors, and staff. OBJECTIVE: To understand clinician perspectives on adaptations to end-of-life care for dying patients and their families during the pandemic. DESIGN: Mixed-methods embedded study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04602520). SETTING: 3 acute care medical units in a tertiary care hospital from 16 March to 1 July 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 45 dying patients, 45 family members, and 45 clinicians. INTERVENTION: During the pandemic, clinicians continued an existing practice of collating personal information about dying patients and "what matters most," eliciting wishes, and implementing acts of compassion. MEASUREMENTS: Themes from semistructured clinician interviews that were summarized with representative quotations. RESULTS: Many barriers to end-of-life care arose because of infection control practices that mandated visiting restrictions and personal protective equipment, with attendant practical and psychological consequences. During hospitalization, family visits inside or outside the patient's room were possible for 36 patients (80.0%); 13 patients (28.9%) had virtual visits with a relative or friend. At the time of death, 20 patients (44.4%) had a family member at the bedside. Clinicians endeavored to prevent unmarked deaths by adopting advocacy roles to "fill the gap" of absent family and by initiating new and established ways to connect patients and relatives. LIMITATION: Absence of clinician symptom or wellness metrics; a single-center design. CONCLUSION: Clinicians expressed their humanity through several intentional practices to preserve personalized, compassionate end-of-life care for dying hospitalized patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Canadian Critical Care Trials Group Research Coordinator Fund.

5.
CMAJ ; 192(49): E1715-E1722, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with clinically significant short- and long-term complications after noncardiac surgery. Our aim was to describe the incidence of clinically important POAF after noncardiac surgery and establish the prognostic value of N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in this context. METHODS: The Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) Study was a prospective cohort study involving patients aged 45 years and older who had inpatient noncardiac surgery that was performed between August 2007 and November 2013. We determined 30-day incidence of clinically important POAF (i.e., resulting in angina, congestive heart failure, symptomatic hypotension or requiring treatment) using logistic regression models to analyze the association between preoperative NT-proBNP and POAF. RESULTS: In 37 664 patients with no history of atrial fibrillation, we found that the incidence of POAF was 1.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9%-1.1%; 369 events); 3.2% (95% CI 2.3%-4.4%) in patients undergoing major thoracic surgery, 1.3% (95% CI 1.2%-1.5%) in patients undergoing major nonthoracic surgery and 0.2% (95% CI 0.1%-0.3%) in patients undergoing low-risk surgery. In a subgroup of 9789 patients with preoperative NT-proBNP measurements, the biomarker improved the prediction of POAF risk over conventional prognostic factors (likelihood ratio test p < 0.001; fraction of new information from NT-proBNP was 16%). Compared with a reference NT-proBNP measurement set at 100 ng/L, adjusted odds ratios for the occurrence of POAF were 1.31 (95% CI 1.15-1.49) at 200 ng/L, 2.07 (95% CI 1.27-3.36) at 1500 ng/L and 2.39 (95% CI 1.26-4.51) at 3000 ng/L. INTERPRETATION: We determined that the incidence of clinically important POAF after noncardiac surgery was 1.0%. We also found that preoperative NT-proBNP levels were associated with POAF independent of established prognostic factors. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00512109.

6.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34 Suppl 3: S29-S36, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been argued to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and function in femoral neck fracture patients compared with hemiarthroplasty (HA). The HEALTH trial showed no clinically important functional advantages of THA over HA. The current analysis explores factors associated with HRQoL and function in this population. METHODS: Using repeated measures regression, we estimated the association between HRQoL and function [Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical component score (PCS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) function score] and 23 variables. RESULTS: THA as compared to monopolar HA, but not bipolar HA, was more likely to improve PCS scores (adjusted mean difference [AMD] 1.88 points, P = 0.02), whereas higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score (AMD -2.64, P < 0.01), preoperative use of an aid (AMD -2.66, P < 0.01), and partial weight-bearing status postoperatively (AMD -1.38, P = 0.04) demonstrated less improvement of PCS scores over time. THA improved WOMAC function scores over time compared with monopolar HA (but not bipolar HA) (AMD -2.40, P < 0.01), whereas higher American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (AMD 1.99, P = 0.01) and preoperative use of an aid (AMD 5.39, P < 0.01) were associated with lower WOMAC function scores. Preoperative treatment for depression was associated with lower functional scores (AMD 7.73, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Patients receiving THA are likely to receive small and clinically unimportant improvements in health utility and function compared with those receiving monopolar HA and little improvement compared with those receiving bipolar HA. Patient-specific characteristics seem to play a larger role in predicting functional improvement among femoral neck fracture patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II.

7.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34 Suppl 3: S37-S41, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Displaced femoral neck fractures are a significant source of morbidity and mortality and can be treated with either hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). Proponents of THA have argued THA offers lower risk of revision, with improved functional outcomes when compared to HA. To evaluate cost effectiveness of THA compared with HA, a trial-based economic analysis of the HEALTH study was undertaken. METHODS: Health care resource utilization (HRU) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data were collected postoperatively and costed using publicly available databases. Using EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores, we derived quality adjusted life years (QALYs). A 1.5% discount rate to both costs and QALYs was applied. Age analyses per age group were conducted. All costs are reported in 2019 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: When compared with HA, THA was not cost-effective for all patients with displaced femoral neck fractures ($150,000/QALY gained). If decision makers were willing to spend $50,000 or $100,000 to gain one QALY, the probability of THA being cost-effective was 12.8% and 32.8%, respectively. In a subgroup of patients younger than 73 (first quartile), THA was both more effective and less costly. Otherwise, THA was more expensive and yielded marginal HRQoL gains. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that for most patients, THA is not a cost-effective treatment for displaced femoral neck fracture management versus HA. However, THA may be cost effective for younger patients. These patients experience more meaningful improvements in quality of life with less associated cost because of shorter hospital stay and fewer postoperative complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Economic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

8.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34 Suppl 3: S55-S63, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with the development of prolonged pain after hip fracture surgery. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Eighty hospitals in 10 countries. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: One thousand four hundred forty-one hip fracture patients in the HEALTH trial. INTERVENTIONS: Total hip arthroplasty or hemiarthroplasty. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Moderate-to-severe pain (at least 2 activities on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis questionnaire pain subscale with scores ≥2) at 12 and 24 months after hip arthroplasty. RESULTS: Of 840 and 726 patients with complete baseline data and outcomes at 1-year and 2-year follow-up, 96 (11.4%) and 80 (11.0%) reported moderate-to-severe pain, respectively. An increased risk of pain at both 1 and 2 years after surgery was associated with reporting moderate-to-severe hip pain before fracture [absolute risk increase (ARI) 15.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.44%-24.35%; ARI 12.5%, 95% CI 2.85%-22.12%, respectively] and prefracture opioid use (ARI 15.6%, 95% CI 5.41%-25.89%; ARI 21.1%; 95% CI 8.23%-34.02%, respectively). Female sex was associated with an increased risk of persistent pain at 1 year (ARI 6.2%, 95% CI 3.53%-8.84%). A greater risk of persistent pain at 2 years was associated with younger age (≤79-year-old; ARI 6.3%; 95% CI 2.67%-9.91%) and higher prefacture functional status (ARI 10.7%; 95% CI 3.80%-17.64%). CONCLUSIONS: Among hip fracture patients undergoing arthroplasty, approximately one in 10 will experience moderate-to-severe pain up to 2 years after surgery. Younger age, female sex, higher functioning prefracture, living with hip pain prefracture, and use of prescription opioids were predictive of persistent pain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

9.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34 Suppl 3: S49-S54, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: HEALTH was a randomized controlled trial comparing total hip arthroplasty with hemiarthroplasty in low-energy displaced femoral neck fracture patients aged ≥50 years with unplanned revision surgery within 24 months of the initial procedure being the primary outcome. No significant short-term differences between treatment arms were observed. The primary objective of this secondary HEALTH trial analysis was to determine if any patient and surgical factors were associated with increased risk of revision surgery within 24 months after hip fracture. METHODS: We analyzed 9 potential factors chosen a priori that could be associated with revision surgery. The factors included age, body mass index, major comorbidities, independent ambulation, type of surgical approach, length of operation, use of femoral cement, femoral head size, and degree of femoral stem offset. Our statistical analysis was a multivariable Cox regression using reoperation within 24 months of index surgery as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Of the 1441 patients included in this analysis, 8.1% (117/1441) experienced reoperation within 24 months. None of the studied factors were found to be predictors of revision surgery (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both total and partial hip replacements are successful procedures in low-energy displaced femoral neck fracture patients. We were unable to identify any patient or surgeon-controlled factors that significantly increased the need for revision surgery in our elderly and predominately female patient population. One should not generalize our findings to an active physiologically younger femoral neck fracture population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

10.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34 Suppl 3: S42-S48, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027165

RESUMO

AIM: Patients with hip fractures are often frail with multiple comorbidities and at risk of medical serious adverse events (SAEs). We investigated the HEALTH trial patient population to ascertain predictors of SAEs. METHODS: We performed a multivariable Cox regression analysis. Occurrence of SAEs was included as the dependent variable with 31 potential prognostic factors being included as independent variables. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred forty-one patients were included in this analysis. Three hundred seventy (25.6%) patients suffered from an SAE. The most common events were cardiac (38.4%, n = 105), respiratory (20.8%, n = 77), and neurological (14.1%, n = 77). The majority of SAEs (50.8%, n = 188) occurred in the first 90 days after hip fracture with 35.4% occurring in the first 30 days (n = 131). Body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 24.9 compared with BMI between 25 and 29.9 [hazard ratio (HR) 1.32, P = 0.03] and receiving a total hip arthroplasty compared with a bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HR 1.36, P = 0.03) were associated with a higher risk of a medical SAE within 24 months of femoral neck fracture. Age (P = 0.09), use of femoral cement (P = 0.59), and use of canal pressurization (P = 0.37) were not associated with a medical SAE. CONCLUSION: Total hip arthroplasty is associated with more SAEs in the immediate postoperative period, and care should be taken in selecting patients for this treatment compared with a hemiarthroplasty. A higher BMI may be protective in hip fracture patients while age alone does not predict SAEs and neither does the use of femoral cement and/or pressurization. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

11.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34 Suppl 3: S15-S21, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are recognized as one of the most devastating injuries impacting older adults because of the complications that follow. Mortality rates postsurgery can range from 14% to 58% within one year of fracture. We aimed to identify factors associated with increased risk of mortality within 24 months of a femoral neck fracture in patients aged ≥50 years enrolled in the FAITH and HEALTH trials. METHODS: Two multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to investigate potential prognostic factors that may be associated with mortality within 90 days and 24 months of hip fracture. RESULTS: Ninety-one (4.1%) and 304 (13.5%) of 2247 participants died within 90 days and 24 months of suffering a femoral neck fracture, respectively. Older age (P < 0.001), lower body mass index (P = 0.002), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class III/IV/V (P = 0.004), use of an ambulatory aid before femoral neck fracture (P < 0.001), and kidney disease (P < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of mortality within 24 months of femoral neck fracture. Older age (P = 0.03), lower body mass index (P = 0.02), use of an ambulatory aid before femoral neck fracture (P < 0.001), and having a comorbidity (P = 0.04) were associated with a higher risk of mortality within 90 days of femoral neck fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis found that factors that are indicative of a poorer health status were associated with a higher risk of mortality within 24 months of femoral neck fracture. We did not find a difference in treatment methods (internal fixation vs. joint arthroplasty) on the risk of mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

12.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34 Suppl 3: S9-S14, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the 24-month risk of mortality between arthroplasty and internal fixation for undisplaced femoral neck fractures (FNFs). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Secondary data analysis of 2 multinational randomized controlled trials. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 50 years or older with a FNF. INTERVENTION: Arthroplasty (n = 1441), including total hip arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty, performed for a displaced FNF versus internal fixation (n = 734), including sliding hip screw or multiple cancellous screws, performed for an undisplaced FNF. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: The primary outcome was mortality within 24 months of injury. Secondary outcomes included reoperation and health-related quality of life. RESULTS: The 24-month mortality rate was 15.0% (n = 327). Arthroplasty was associated with a significant reduction in the odds of mortality [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.72, P < 0.01] compared with treatment with internal fixation. 11.4% (n = 248) of the study patients required reoperation within 24 months of injury. The odds of reoperation were 59% lower with arthroplasty treatment than with internal fixation (aOR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.32-0.55, P < 0.01). The 24-month SF-12 physical component scores were 2.7 points higher in arthroplasty patients compared with internal fixation patients (95% CI: 1.6-3.8, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest arthroplasty for a FNF may reduce the risk of mortality and reoperation compared with internal fixation of undisplaced fractures. This finding is counter to many current surgical practices but consistent with a mounting body of evidence. Before widespread adoption of arthroplasty for undisplaced fractures, these results should be confirmed in a definitive comparative trial. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

13.
Am J Sports Med ; : 363546520952804, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition known to cause hip pain in young adults. PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the surgical correction of FAI via arthroscopic osteochondroplasty with or without labral repair compared with arthroscopic lavage of the hip joint with or without labral repair. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 220 male and female participants aged 18 to 50 years with nonarthritic FAI suitable for surgical treatment were recruited for the trial at 10 clinical centers in Canada, Finland, and Denmark between October 2012 and November 2017, of whom 214 were included in the final analysis. In the osteochondroplasty group, cam- and/or pincer-type lesions were resected using fluoroscopic guidance. In the lavage group, the joint was washed out with 3 L of normal saline. Surgeons were instructed to repair the labrum in both groups if it was mechanically unstable once probed, showing visible displacement or chondrolabral separation. The primary outcome was patient-reported pain (using the 100-point visual analog scale [VAS]) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included hip function (Hip Outcome Score [HOS] and International Hip Outcome Tool), physical and mental health (12-Item Short Form Health Survey), and health utility (EuroQol-5 Dimensions) at 12 months as well as any reoperations and other hip-related adverse events at 24 months. RESULTS: At 12 months, there was no difference in pain (VAS) between the groups (mean difference [MD], 0.11 [95% CI, -7.22 to 7.45]; P = .98). Also, 88.3% (189/214) of participants had a labral tear, of which 60.3% were repaired. For the secondary outcomes, there were no significant differences between treatment groups, with the exception of the HOS activities of daily living domain in which lavage showed significant improvement compared with osteochondroplasty (MD, -5.03 [95% CI, -10.40 to -0.03]; P = .049). By 24 months, there were significantly fewer reoperations reported in the osteochondroplasty group (8/105) than the lavage group (19/104) (odds ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.15-0.89]; P = .026). The primary reasons for a reoperation included hip pain (15/27; 55.6%) and a reinjury of the labrum (11/27; 40.7%). CONCLUSION: Both the osteochondroplasty and the lavage groups with or without labral repair for FAI had significantly improved pain or function significantly at 1 year. By 2 years, the reoperation rate was significantly lower in the osteochondroplasty group. REGISTRATION: NCT01623843 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

14.
BMJ ; 370: m2980, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Research Articles Downloadable Database, which includes 25 electronic databases and six additional Chinese databases to 20 July 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised clinical trials in which people with suspected, probable, or confirmed covid-19 were randomised to drug treatment or to standard care or placebo. Pairs of reviewers independently screened potentially eligible articles. METHODS: After duplicate data abstraction, a bayesian random effects network meta-analysis was conducted. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using a modification of the Cochrane risk of bias 2.0 tool, and the certainty of the evidence using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) approach. For each outcome, interventions were classified in groups from the most to the least beneficial or harmful following GRADE guidance. RESULTS: 23 randomised controlled trials were included in the analysis performed on 26 June 2020. The certainty of the evidence for most comparisons was very low because of risk of bias (lack of blinding) and serious imprecision. Glucocorticoids were the only intervention with evidence for a reduction in death compared with standard care (risk difference 37 fewer per 1000 patients, 95% credible interval 63 fewer to 11 fewer, moderate certainty) and mechanical ventilation (31 fewer per 1000 patients, 47 fewer to 9 fewer, moderate certainty). These estimates are based on direct evidence; network estimates for glucocorticoids compared with standard care were less precise because of network heterogeneity. Three drugs might reduce symptom duration compared with standard care: hydroxychloroquine (mean difference -4.5 days, low certainty), remdesivir (-2.6 days, moderate certainty), and lopinavir-ritonavir (-1.2 days, low certainty). Hydroxychloroquine might increase the risk of adverse events compared with the other interventions, and remdesivir probably does not substantially increase the risk of adverse effects leading to drug discontinuation. No other interventions included enough patients to meaningfully interpret adverse effects leading to drug discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Glucocorticoids probably reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation in patients with covid-19 compared with standard care. The effectiveness of most interventions is uncertain because most of the randomised controlled trials so far have been small and have important study limitations. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This review was not registered. The protocol is included as a supplement. READERS' NOTE: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Updates may occur for up to two years from the date of original publication.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34(10): 524-532, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the fixation method and vitamin D supplementation affect the risk of patient-important outcomes within 12 months of injury in nongeriatric femoral neck fracture patients. DESIGN: A pilot factorial randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen North American clinical sites. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-one adults 18-60 years of age with a femoral neck fracture requiring surgical fixation. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to a surgical intervention (sliding hip screw or cancellous screws) and a vitamin D intervention (vitamin D3 4000 IU daily vs. placebo for 6 months). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The primary clinical outcome was a composite of patient-important complications (reoperation, femoral head osteonecrosis, severe femoral neck malunion, and nonunion). Secondary outcomes included fracture-healing complications and radiographic fracture healing. RESULTS: Eighty-six participants with a mean age of 41 years were included. We found no statistically significant difference in the risk of patient-important outcomes between the surgical treatment arms (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.40-2.02, P = 0.80) and vitamin D supplementation treatment arms (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.42-2.18, P = 0.92). CONCLUSIONS: These pilot trial results continue to describe the results of current fixation implants, inform the challenges of improving outcomes in this fracture population, and may guide future vitamin D trials to improve healing outcomes in young fracture populations. Although the pilot trial was not adequately powered to detect treatment effects, publishing these results may facilitate future meta-analyses on this topic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

16.
Cureus ; 12(5): e8314, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607297

RESUMO

Objectives Nonunions of tibial shaft fractures have profound implications on patient quality of life and are associated with physical and mental suffering. Radiographic Union Score for Tibia Fractures (RUST) may serve as an important prognostic tool for identifying patients at a high risk of nonunion. Design We used data from the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT) and Fluid Lavage of Open Wounds (FLOW) trials to explore the association of three-month RUST scores with nonunion in patients with tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. We performed a retrospective cohort study nested within two multi-center, randomized controlled trials. Participants The patients included in the current study: (1) sustained a tibial shaft fracture and were enrolled in the SPRINT or FLOW randomized trials, (2) had initial operative management with intramedullary nailing, (3) showed radiographic evidence of an unhealed fracture at the three-month follow-up, and (4) their healing status (union or nonunion) was captured at 12-months postoperatively. Intervention Multivariable binary logistic regression was carried out to identify factors associated with nonunion, including open versus closed injury, fracture severity, fracture gap, and three-month RUST score. We determined the concordance statistic (c statistic) for our regression model both with and without the RUST score. Outcome Measurements and Results Of the 155 tibial fracture patients with complete data available for analysis, the overall rate of nonunion at 12 months was 30% (n=47). The mean three-month RUST score in patients with nonunion at 12 months was 4.8 (standard deviation (SD) 1.1) as compared to 6.3 (SD 1.7) for those healed at 12 months. In our multivariable regression analysis, open fractures conferred five-fold greater odds of nonunion at 12 months as compared to closed fractures (odds ratio (OR) 4.76, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.71-13.30). Further, three-month RUST scores of 4 and 5-6 were associated with a 47% (95% CI: 18%-73%) and 23% (4.5-51.5%) absolute risk increase of nonunion as compared to a score of ≥ 7, respectively. The addition of RUST scores to our adjusted regression model improved the c statistic from 0.70 (95%CI: 0.61-0.79) to 0.81 (95%CI: 0.74-0.88). Conclusion A third of patients with tibial shaft fractures who have failed to heal by three months will show nonunion at one year. Open fractures and lower three-month RUST scores are strongly associated with a higher risk of nonunion at one year. Further research is needed to establish whether prognosis in this high-risk group can be modified.

17.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e036047, 2020 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595159

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common healthcare-associated infection in the intensive care unit (ICU). Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that may confer health benefits when ingested. Prior randomised trials suggest that probiotics may prevent infections such as VAP and Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). PROSPECT (Probiotics to Prevent Severe Pneumonia and Endotracheal Colonization Trial) is a multicentre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial comparing the efficacy of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG with usual care versus usual care without probiotics in preventing VAP and other clinically important outcomes in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The objective of E-PROSPECT is to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of L. rhamnosus GG plus usual care versus usual care without probiotics in critically ill patients. E-PROSPECT will be performed from the public healthcare payer's perspective over a time horizon from ICU admission to hospital discharge.We will determine probabilities of in-ICU and in-hospital events from all patients alongside PROSPECT. We will retrieve unit costs for each resource use item using jurisdiction-specific public databases, supplemented by individual site unit costs if such databases are unavailable. Direct costs will include medications, personnel costs, radiology/laboratory testing, operative/non-operative procedures and per-day hospital 'hoteling' costs not otherwise encompassed. The primary outcome is the incremental cost per VAP prevented between the two treatment groups. Other clinical events such as CDAD, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and in-hospital mortality will be included as secondary outcomes. We will perform pre-specified subgroup analyses (medical/surgical/trauma; age; frailty status; antibiotic use; prevalent vs no prevalent pneumonia) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for VAP, then generate confidence intervals using the non-parametric bootstrapping approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study approval for E-PROSPECT was granted by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board of McMaster University on 29 July 2019. Informed consent was obtained from the patient or substitute decision-maker in PROSPECT. The findings of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01782755; Pre-results.

19.
Cureus ; 12(4): e7649, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411550

RESUMO

Background Nonunions of tibial shaft fractures have devastating physical and psychological consequences for patients. It remains unknown if early functional status can identify patients at risk for nonunion. Questions/Purposes To determine if functional status at three months after surgery, as measured by either the short form 36 (SF-36) or the short form 12 (SF-12) health survey physical component summary (SF-12 PCS) score, can serve as a prognostic indicator for nonunion at one year in patients with fractures of the tibial shaft. Patients/Methods This study was an observational cohort study nested within two multicenter, randomized controlled trials. Patients who met the following eligibility criteria were included: (1) sustained a tibial shaft fracture that was treated with intramedullary nailing, (2) were unhealed at the three-month follow-up, (3) had a reported SF-36 or SF-12 PCS score at three months, (4) had the final 12-month follow-up with a reported radiographic healing status (bone union or nonunion), and (5) were enrolled in either the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Shaft Fractures (SPRINT) or Fluid Lavage of Open Wounds (FLOW) randomized trials. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between healing status at 12 months and seven prognostic variables (open fracture, fracture pattern, nailing technique, smoking, fracture gap, three-month PCS score, and FLOW vs. SPRINT trial). Results A total of 940 patients were included in this study with an overall rate of radiographic nonunion of 13.3% (n=125) at the 12-month follow-up. Absolute nonunion risk increased with incrementally lower PCS scores (8.2%, 12.8%, 15.9%, 23.7% for scores ≥ 40, 30.0-39.99, 20.0-29.99, and < 20, respectively). In the multivariable regression analysis, PCS scores of < 20 were associated with a 2.6-times greater odds and 10% absolute risk increase of non-union, as compared to scores of ≥ 40 (OR 2.58, 95%CI: 1.02-6.53, ARI: 10.3, 95% CI: 0.1 - 28.2), whereas scores between 20 and 30 were associated with a nearly two-times greater odds of nonunion and a 6.4% absolute risk increase of nonunion (OR 1.94, 95%CI: 1.08-3.49, ARI: 6.4, 95% CI 0.6 - 15.3). Open fractures also conferred a 2.8-fold increase in odds of nonunion as compared to closed injuries (OR 2.77, 95%CI: 1.58-4.83), as did complex fractures when compared to simple fractures (OR 2.57, 95%CI: 1.64-4.02). Conclusion A considerable portion of patients with fractures of the tibial shaft treated with intramedullary nailing will experience nonunion at one-year postoperatively. Nonunion can be accurately predicted by patient functional recovery at three months as measured by the PCS of the SF-36 and SF-12 instruments.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202215, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259266

RESUMO

Importance: The risk of developing a surgical site infection after extremity fracture repair is nearly 5 times greater than in most elective orthopedic surgical procedures. For all surgical procedures, it is standard practice to prepare the operative site with an antiseptic solution; however, there is limited evidence to guide the choice of solution used for orthopedic fracture repair. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of iodophor vs chlorhexidine solutions to reduce surgical site infections and unplanned fracture-related reoperations for patients who underwent fracture repair. Design, Setting, and Participants: The PREP-IT (Program of Randomized Trials to Evaluate Pre-operative Antiseptic Skin Solutions in Orthopaedic Trauma) master protocol will be followed to conduct 2 multicenter pragmatic cluster randomized crossover trials, Aqueous-PREP (Pragmatic Randomized Trial Evaluating Pre-Operative Aqueous Antiseptic Skin Solution in Open Fractures) and PREPARE (Pragmatic Randomized Trial Evaluating Pre-Operative Alcohol Skin Solutions in Fractured Extremities). The Aqueous-PREP trial will compare 4% aqueous chlorhexidine vs 10% povidone-iodine for patients with open extremity fractures. The PREPARE trial will compare 2% chlorhexidine in 70% isopropyl alcohol vs 0.7% iodine povacrylex in 74% isopropyl alcohol for patients with open extremity fractures and patients with closed lower extremity or pelvic fractures. Both trials will share key aspects of study design and trial infrastructure. The studies will follow a pragmatic cluster randomized crossover design with alternating treatment periods of approximately 2 months. The primary outcome will be surgical site infection and the secondary outcome will be unplanned fracture-related reoperations within 12 months. The Aqueous-PREP trial will enroll a minimum of 1540 patients with open extremity fractures from at least 12 hospitals; PREPARE will enroll a minimum of 1540 patients with open extremity fractures and 6280 patients with closed lower extremity and pelvic fractures from at least 18 hospitals. The primary analyses will adhere to the intention-to-treat principle and account for potential between-cluster and between-period variability. The patient-centered design, implementation, and dissemination of results are guided by a multidisciplinary team that includes 3 patients and other relevant stakeholders. Discussion: The PREP-IT master protocol increases efficiency through shared trial infrastructure and study design components. Because prophylactic skin antisepsis is used prior to all surgical procedures and the application, cost, and availability of all study solutions are similar, the results of the PREP-IT trials are poised to inform clinical guidelines and bring about an immediate change in clinical practice. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT03385304 and NCT03523962.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Iodóforos/uso terapêutico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos
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