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1.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13327, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042645

RESUMO

The hypothalamus is a crucial structure in the brain that responds to metabolic cues and regulates energy homeostasis. Patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrate a lack of hypothalamic neuronal response after glucose ingestion, which is suggested to be an underlying cause of the disease. In this study, we assessed whether intranasal insulin can be used to enhance neuronal hypothalamic responses to glucose ingestion. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 4-double cross-over experiment, hypothalamic activation was measured in young non- diabetic subjects by determining blood-oxygen-level dependent MRI signals over 30 minutes before and after ingestion of 75 g glucose dissolved in 300 ml water, under intranasal insulin or placebo condition. Glucose ingestion under placebo condition lead to an average 1.4% hypothalamic BOLD decrease, under insulin condition the average response to glucose was a 2.2% decrease. Administration of water did not affect the hypothalamic BOLD responses. Intranasal insulin did not change circulating glucose and insulin levels. Still, circulating glucose levels showed a significant dampening effect on the BOLD response and insulin levels a significant strengthening effect. Our data provide proof of concept for future experiments testing the potential of intranasal application of insulin to ameliorate defective homeostatic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

2.
Epigenomics ; 9(11): 1403-1422, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990796

RESUMO

AIM: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sensitive marker of one-carbon metabolism. Higher Hcy levels have been associated with global DNA hypomethylation. We investigated the association between plasma Hcy and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: Methylation was measured using Illumina 450 k arrays in 2035 individuals from six cohorts. Hcy-associated differentially methylated positions and regions were identified using meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three differentially methylated positions cg21607669 (SLC27A1), cg26382848 (AJUBA) and cg10701000 (KCNMA1) at chromosome 19, 14 and 10, respectively, were significantly associated with Hcy. In addition, we identified 68 Hcy-associated differentially methylated regions, the most significant of which was a 1.8-kb spanning domain (TNXB/ATF6B) at chromosome 6. CONCLUSION: We identified novel epigenetic loci associated with Hcy levels, of which specific role needs to be further validated.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Homocisteína/sangue , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Masculino , Tenascina/genética , Tenascina/metabolismo
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