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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reductions in albuminuria are associated with a subsequent lower risk of kidney failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. The SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin significantly reduced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal or near-normal kidney function. Whether this effect persists in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes is unknown. We assessed the effects of dapagliflozin on albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes in the dapagliflozin and prevention of adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease (DAPA-CKD) trial. METHODS: DAPA-CKD was a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial done at 386 sites in 21 countries. Patients were eligible for the trial if they had chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 25 mL/min per 1·73 m2 and 75 mL/min per 1·73 m2 and a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) between 200 mg/g and 5000 mg/g (22·6 to 565·6 mg/mmol). Participants were randomly assigned to dapagliflozin 10 mg (AstraZeneca; Gothenburg, Sweden) once daily or matching placebo, in accordance with the sequestered, fixed randomisation schedule, using balanced blocks to ensure an approximate 1:1 ratio. Change in albuminuria was a pre-specified exploratory outcome of DAPA-CKD. Regression in UACR stage, defined as a transition from macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g) to microalbuminuria or normoalbuminuria (<300 mg/g), and progression in UACR stage, defined as a transition from less than 3000 mg/g to 3000 mg/g or greater, were additional discrete endpoints. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036150. FINDINGS: Between Feb 2, 2017, and April 3, 2020, 4304 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to either dapagliflozin (n=2152) or placebo (n=2152). Median UACR was 949 mg/g (IQR 477 to 1885). Overall, compared with placebo, dapagliflozin reduced geometric mean UACR by 29·3% (95% CI -33·1 to -25·2; p<0·0001); relative to placebo, treatment with dapagliflozin resulted in a geometric mean percentage change of -35·1% (95% CI -39·4 to -30·6; p<0·0001) in patients with type 2 diabetes and -14·8% (-22·9 to -5·9; p=0·0016) in patients without type 2 diabetes over the follow-up visits (pinteraction<0·0001) Among 3860 patients with UACR of 300 mg/g or greater at baseline, dapagliflozin increased the likelihood of regression in UACR stage (hazard ratio 1·81, 95% CI 1·60 to 2·05). Among 3820 patients with UACR less than 3000 mg/g at baseline, dapagliflozin decreased the risk of progression in UACR stage (0·41, 0·32 to 0·52). Larger reductions in UACR at day 14 during dapagliflozin treatment were significantly associated with attenuated eGFR decline during subsequent follow-up (ß per log unit UACR change -3·06, 95% CI -5·20 to -0·90; p=0·0056). INTERPRETATION: In patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes, dapagliflozin significantly reduced albuminuria, with a larger relative reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. The similar effects of dapagliflozin on clinical outcomes in patients with or without type 2 diabetes, but different effects on UACR, suggest that part of the protective effect of dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease might be mediated through pathways unrelated to reduction in albuminuria. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes in the DAPA-CKD trial. In this pre-specified analysis, we assessed the effect of dapagliflozin on the rate of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-ie, the eGFR slope. METHODS: DAPA-CKD was a randomised controlled trial that enrolled participants aged 18 years or older, with or without type 2 diabetes, with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 200-5000 mg/g, and an eGFR of 25-75 mL/min per 1·73m2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to oral dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or placebo, added to standard care. In this pre-specified analysis, we analysed eGFR slope using mixed-effect models with different slopes from baseline to week 2 (acute eGFR decline), week 2 to end of treatment (chronic eGFR slope), and baseline to end of treatment (total eGFR slope). DAPA-CKD is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036150, and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between Feb 2, 2017, and April 3, 2020, 4304 participants were recruited, of whom 2152 (50%) were assigned to dapagliflozin and 2152 (50%) were assigned to placebo. At baseline, the mean age was 62 years (SD 12), 1425 (33·1%) participants were women, 2906 (67·5%) participants had type 2 diabetes. The median on-treatment follow-up was 2·3 years (IQR 1·8-2·6). From baseline to the end of treatment, dapagliflozin compared with placebo slowed eGFR decline by 0·95 mL/min per 1·73 m2 per year (95% CI 0·63 to 1·27) in the overall cohort. Between baseline and week 2, dapagliflozin compared with placebo resulted in an acute eGFR decline of 2·61 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (2·16 to 3·06) in patients with type 2 diabetes and 2·01 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (1·36 to 2·66) in those without type 2 diabetes. Between week 2 and end of treatment, dapagliflozin compared with placebo reduced the mean rate of eGFR decline by a greater amount in patients with type 2 diabetes (mean difference in chronic eGFR slope 2·26 mL/min per 1·73 m2 per year [1·88 to 2·64]) than in those without type 2 diabetes (1·29 mL/min per 1·73 m2 per year [0·73 to 1·85]; pinteraction=0·0049). Between baseline and end of treatment, the effect of dapagliflozin compared with placebo on the decline of total eGFR slope in patients with type 2 diabetes was 1·18 mL/min per 1·73 m2 per year (0·79 to 1·56) and without type 2 diabetes was 0·46 mL/min per 1·73 m2 per year (-0·10 to 1·03; pinteraction=0·040). The total eGFR slope was steeper in patients with higher baseline HbA1c and UACR; the effect of dapagliflozin on eGFR slope was also more pronounced in patients with higher baseline HbA1c and UACR. INTERPRETATION: Dapagliflozin significantly slowed long-term eGFR decline in patients with chronic kidney disease compared with placebo. The mean difference in eGFR slope between patients treated with dapagliflozin versus placebo was greater in patients with type 2 diabetes, higher HbA1c, and higher UACR. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials have shown kidney-protective effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, and clinical practice databases have suggested that these effects translate to clinical practice. However, long-term efficacy, as well as whether the presence or absence of proteinuria and the rate of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) decline prior to SGLT2 inhibitor initiation modify treatment efficacy among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Japan Chronic Kidney Disease Database (J-CKD-DB), a nationwide multicenter CKD registry, we developed propensity scores for SGLT2 inhibitor initiation, with 1:1 matching with patients who were initiated on other glucose-lowering drugs. The primary outcome included rate of eGFR decline, and the secondary outcomes included a composite outcome of 50% eGFR decline or end-stage kidney disease. RESULTS: At baseline, mean age at initiation of the SGLT2 inhibitor (n = 1,033) or other glucose-lowering drug (n = 1,033) was 64.4 years, mean eGFR was 68.1 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and proteinuria was apparent in 578 (28.0%) of included patients. During follow-up, SGLT2 inhibitor initiation was associated with reduced eGFR decline (difference in slope for SGLT2 inhibitors vs. other drugs 0.75 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year [0.51 to 1.00]). During a mean follow-up of 24 months, 103 composite kidney outcomes occurred: 30 (14 events per 1,000 patient-years) among the SGLT2 inhibitors group and 73 (36 events per 1,000 patient-years) among the other drugs group (hazard ratio 0.40, 95% CI 0.26-0.61). The benefit provided by SGLT2 inhibitors was consistent irrespective of proteinuria and rate of eGFR decline before initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors (P heterogeneity ≥ 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors on kidney function as observed in clinical trials translate to patients treated in clinical practice with no evidence that the effects are modified by the underlying rate of kidney function decline or the presence of proteinuria.

4.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of dapagliflozin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, with and without heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Patients with CKD, with and without type 2 diabetes, were enrolled in the DAPA-CKD (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease) trial. Some patients had HF at baseline. METHODS: A total of 4,304 participants were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo. The primary composite endpoint was ≥50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, or kidney/cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints were a kidney composite (primary endpoint minus cardiovascular death), the composite of cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization, and all-cause death. Analysis of outcomes according to HF history was prespecified. RESULTS: HF patients (n = 468; 11%) were older and had more coronary disease, atrial fibrillation, and type 2 diabetes. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was similar in patients with and without HF. Rates of HF hospitalization/cardiovascular death and death from any cause were higher in HF patients, but the secondary kidney failure outcome occurred at the same rate in people with and without HF. Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary outcome equally in patients with HF (HR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.37-0.91]) and without HF (HR: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.51-0.75]) (P interaction = 0.59). The proportional risk-reductions were similar in patients with and without HF for the cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization composite (HR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.44-1.05] vs HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.51-0.97], respectively; P interaction = 0.90), and all-cause death (HR: 0.56 [95% CI: 0.34-0.93] vs HR: 0.73 [95% CI: 0.54-0.97], respectively; P interaction = 0.39), although absolute risk reductions were larger in HF patients. Adverse event rates were low and did not differ among patients with or without HF. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization and prolonged survival in CKD patients with or without type 2 diabetes, independently of history of HF. (A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Renal Outcomes and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease [DAPA-CKD]; NCT03036150).

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423370

RESUMO

AIMS: Hyperkalaemia is a common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and limits the optimal use of agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with CKD, sodium‒glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors provide cardiorenal protection, but whether they affect the risk of hyperkalaemia remains uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CREDENCE trial randomized 4401 participants with T2DM and CKD to the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin or matching placebo. In this post hoc analysis using an intention-to-treat approach, we assessed the effect of canagliflozin on a composite outcome of time to either investigator-reported hyperkalaemia or the initiation of potassium binders. We also analysed effects on central laboratory-determined hyper- and hypokalaemia (serum potassium ≥6.0 and <3.5 mmol/L, respectively) and change in serum potassium. At baseline, the mean serum potassium in canagliflozin and placebo arms was 4.5 mmol/L; 4395 (99.9%) participants were receiving renin-angiotensin system blockade. The incidence of investigator-reported hyperkalaemia or initiation of potassium binders was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo [occurring in 32.7 vs. 41.9 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.95, P = 0.014]. Canagliflozin similarly reduced the incidence of laboratory-determined hyperkalaemia (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.98, P = 0.031), with no effect on the risk of hypokalaemia (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71-1.20, P = 0.53). The mean serum potassium over time with canagliflozin was similar to that of placebo. CONCLUSION: Among patients treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibition with canagliflozin may reduce the risk of hyperkalaemia in people with T2DM and CKD without increasing the risk of hypokalaemia.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Verinurad is a human uric acid transporter (URAT1) inhibitor known to decrease serum uric acid (sUA) levels and may reduce albuminuria. In a Phase 2a study (NCT03118739), treatment with verinurad + febuxostat lowered urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) at 12 weeks by 39% (90% confidence interval: 4%, 62%) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperuricaemia and albuminuria. The Phase 2 b, randomised, placebo-controlled Study of verinurAd and alloPurinol in Patients with cHronic kIdney disease and hyperuRicaEmia (SAPPHIRE; NCT03990363) will examine the effect of verinurad + allopurinol on albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperuricaemia. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years of age) with CKD, eGFR ≥25 mL/min/1.73 m2, UACR 30-5000 mg/g and sUA ≥6.0 mg/dL will be enrolled. Approximately 725 patients will be randomised 1:1:1:1:1 to 12, 7.5 or 3 mg verinurad + allopurinol, allopurinol or placebo. An 8-week dose-titration period will precede a 12-month treatment period; verinurad dose will be increased to 24 mg at month 9 in a subset of patients in the 3 mg verinurad + allopurinol arm. The primary efficacy endpoint is change from baseline in UACR at 6 months. Secondary efficacy endpoints include changes in UACR, eGFR and sUA from baseline at 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study will assess the combined clinical effect of verinurad + allopurinol on kidney function in patients with CKD, hyperuricaemia and albuminuria, and whether this combination confers renoprotection beyond standard-of-care.

7.
Diabetologia ; 64(10): 2147-2158, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415356

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Higher plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-2 and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) have been found to be associated with higher risk of kidney failure in individuals with type 2 diabetes in previous studies. Whether drugs can reduce these biomarkers is not well established. We measured these biomarkers in samples of the CANVAS study and examined the effect of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on these biomarkers and assessed whether the early change in these biomarkers predict cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS). METHODS: Biomarkers were measured with immunoassays (proprietary multiplex assay performed by RenalytixAI, New York, NY, USA) at baseline and years 1, 3 and 6. Mixed-effects models for repeated measures assessed the effect of canagliflozin vs placebo on the biomarkers. Associations of baseline levels and the early change (baseline to year 1) for each biomarker with the kidney outcome were assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. RESULTS: In total, 3523/4330 (81.4%) of the CANVAS participants had available samples at baseline. Each doubling in baseline TNFR-1, TNFR-2 and KIM-1 was associated with a higher risk of kidney outcomes, with corresponding HRs of 3.7 (95% CI 2.3, 6.1; p < 0.01), 2.7 (95% CI 2.0, 3.6; p < 0.01) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.8; p < 0.01), respectively. Canagliflozin reduced the level of the plasma biomarkers with differences in TNFR-1, TNFR-2 and KIM-1 between canagliflozin and placebo during follow-up of 2.8% (95% CI 3.4%, 1.3%; p < 0.01), 1.9% (95% CI 3.5%, 0.2%; p = 0.03) and 26.7% (95% CI 30.7%, 22.7%; p < 0.01), respectively. Within the canagliflozin treatment group, each 10% reduction in TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 at year 1 was associated with a lower risk of the kidney outcome (HR 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 1.0; p = 0.02] and 0.9 [95% CI 0.9, 1.0; p < 0.01] respectively), independent of other patient characteristics. The baseline and 1 year change in biomarkers did not associate with cardiovascular or heart failure outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Canagliflozin decreased KIM-1 and modestly reduced TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 compared with placebo in individuals with type 2 diabetes in CANVAS. Early decreases in TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 during canagliflozin treatment were independently associated with a lower risk of kidney disease progression, suggesting that TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 have the potential to be pharmacodynamic markers of response to canagliflozin.

8.
Diabetologia ; 64(11): 2402-2414, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448033

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus can manifest over a broad clinical range, although there is no clear consensus on the categorisation of disease complexity. We assessed the effects of canagliflozin, compared with placebo, on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program over a range of type 2 diabetes mellitus complexity, defined separately by baseline intensity of treatment, duration of diabetes and glycaemic control. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the effects of canagliflozin on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) according to baseline glucose-lowering treatments (0 or 1, 2 or 3+ non-insulin glucose-lowering treatments, or insulin-based treatment), duration of diabetes (<10, 10 to 16, >16 years) and HbA1c (≤53.0 mmol/mol [<7.0%], >53.0 to 58.5 mmol/mol [>7.0% to 7.5%], >58.5 to 63.9 mmol/mol [>7.5 to 8.0%], >63.9 to 69.4 mmol/mol [8.0% to 8.5%], >69.4 to 74.9 mmol/mol [>8.5 to 9.0%] or >74.9 mmol/mol [>9.0%]). We analysed additional secondary endpoints for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, including a combined kidney outcome of sustained 40% decline in eGFR, end-stage kidney disease or death due to kidney disease. We used Cox regression analyses and compared the constancy of HRs across subgroups by fitting an interaction term (p value for significance <0.05). RESULTS: At study initiation, 5095 (50%) CANVAS Program participants were treated with insulin, 2100 (21%) had an HbA1c > 74.9 mmol/mol (9.0%) and the median duration of diabetes was 12.6 years (interquartile interval 8.0-18 years). Canagliflozin reduced MACE (HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.75, 0.97]) with no evidence that the benefit differed between subgroups defined by the number of glucose-lowering treatments, the duration of diabetes or baseline HbA1c (all p-heterogeneity >0.17). Canagliflozin reduced MACE in participants receiving insulin with no evidence that the benefit differed from other participants in the trial (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.72, 1.00]). Similar results were observed for other cardiovascular outcomes and for the combined kidney outcome (HR for combined kidney outcome 0.60 [95% CI 0.47, 0.77]), with all p-heterogeneity >0.37. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In people with type 2 diabetes mellitus at high cardiovascular risk, there was no evidence that cardiovascular and renal protection with canagliflozin differed across subgroups defined by baseline treatment intensity, duration of diabetes or HbA1c.

9.
Lancet ; 398(10296): 262-276, 2021 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216571

RESUMO

SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists are used in patients with type 2 diabetes as glucose lowering therapies, with additional benefits of weight loss and blood pressure reduction. Data from cardiovascular outcome trials have highlighted that these drugs confer protection against major cardiovascular disease in those with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, reduce the risk of admission to hospital for heart failure, and reduce cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Ongoing research using hard renal endpoints such as end stage kidney disease rather than surrogate markers might clarify the renoprotective benefits of both agents. When used for glucose lowering, SGLT2 inhibitors are most effective if the estimated glomerular filtration rate is more than 60 ml per min per 1·73m2 at initiation and should be avoided where there is a risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. GLP-1 receptor agonists are contraindicated in those with a history of medullary thyroid cancer and used with caution in patients with a history of pancreatitis of a known cause. These drugs are now second-line, or even arguably first-line, glucose lowering therapies in patients with cardiorenal disease, irrespective of glycaemic control. If an SGLT2 inhibitor or GLP-1 receptor agonist is considered suitable in patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment should be prioritised according to existing evidence: GLP-1 receptor agonists should be considered in patients at a high risk of, or with established, cardiovascular disease and SGLT2 inhibitors considered for patients with heart failure (with reduced ejection fraction) or chronic kidney disease (with or without established cardiovascular disease). There is now compelling data on the benefits of these drugs for a range of other clinical indications even without type 2 diabetes, including for GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with obesity and overweight with weight-related comorbidities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 156, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins particles (TRLP) and low density lipoprotein particles (LDLP) vary in size. Their association with ß-cell function is not well described. We determined associations of TRLP and LDLP subfractions with ß-cell function, estimated as HOMA-ß, and evaluated their associations with incident T2D in the general population. METHODS: We included 4818 subjects of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study without T2D at baseline. TRLP and LDLP subfraction concentrations and their average sizes were measured using the LP4 algorithm of the Vantera nuclear magnetic resonance platform. HOMA-IR was used as measure of insulin resistance. HOMA-ß was used as a proxy of ß-cell function. RESULTS: In subjects without T2D at baseline, very large TRLP, and LDL size were inversely associated with HOMA-ß, whereas large TRLP were positively associated with HOMA-ß when taking account of HOMA-IR. During a median follow-up of 7.3 years, 263 participants developed T2D. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, higher concentrations of total, very large, large, and very small TRLP (reflecting remnants lipoproteins) and greater TRL size were associated with an increased T2D risk after adjustment for relevant covariates, including age, sex, BMI, HDL-C, HOMA-ß, and HOMA-IR. On the contrary, higher concentrations of large LDLP and greater LDL size were associated with a lower risk of developing T2D. CONCLUSIONS: Specific TRL and LDL particle characteristics are associated with ß-cell function taking account of HOMA-IR. Moreover, TRL and LDL particle characteristics are differently associated with incident T2D, even when taking account of HOMA-ß and HOMA-IR.

11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2352-2361, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease (DAPA-CKD) randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin significantly reduced risk of kidney failure and prolonged survival in patients with CKD with or without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Adults with eGFR of 25-75 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 200-5000 mg/g had been randomized to receive dapagliflozin 10 mg/d or placebo. Here, we conducted a prespecified analysis of dapagliflozin's effects in patients with stage 4 CKD (eGFR,30 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline. The primary end point was a composite of time to ≥50% sustained decline in eGFR, ESKD, or kidney or cardiovascular death. Secondary end points were a kidney composite (same as the primary end point but without cardiovascular death), a composite of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause death. RESULTS: A total of 293 participants with stage 4 CKD received dapagliflozin and 331 received placebo. Patients with stage 4 CKD randomized to dapagliflozin experienced a 27% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -2 to 47%) reduction in the primary composite endpoint, and 29% (-2 to 51%), 17% (-53 to 55%), and 32% (-21 to 61%) reductions in the kidney, cardiovascular and mortality endpoints, respectively, relative to placebo. Interaction P-values were 0.22, 0.13, 0.63, and 0.95, respectively, comparing CKD stages 4 versus 2/3. The eGFR slope declined by 2.15 and 3.38 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year in the dapagliflozin and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.005). Patients treated with dapagliflozin or placebo had similar rates of serious adverse events and adverse events of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stage 4 CKD and albuminuria, the effects of dapagliflozin were consistent with those observed in the DAPA-CKD trial overall, with no evidence of increased risks.

12.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289398

RESUMO

Concomitant type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease increases the risk of heart failure. Recent studies demonstrate beneficial effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on chronic kidney disease progression and heart failure hospitalization in patients with and without diabetes. In addition to inhibiting glucose reabsorption, SGLT2 inhibitors decrease proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, possibly leading to transient natriuresis. We review the hypothesis that SGLT2 inhibitor's natriuretic and osmotic diuretic effects mediate their cardioprotective effects. The degree to which these benefits are related to changes in sodium, independent of the kidney, is currently unknown. Aside from effects on osmotically active sodium, we explore the intriguing possibility that SGLT2 inhibitors could also modulate nonosmotic sodium storage. This alternative hypothesis is based on emerging literature that challenges the traditional 2-compartment model of sodium balance to provide support for a 3-compartment model that includes the binding of sodium to glycosaminoglycans, such as those in muscles and skin. This recent research on nonosmotic sodium storage, as well as direct cardiac effects of SGLT2 inhibitors, provides possibilities for other ways in which SGLT2 inhibitors might mitigate heart failure risk. Overall, we review the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on sodium balance and sensitivity, cardiac tissue, interstitial fluid and plasma volume, and nonosmotic sodium storage.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1805-1815, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve albuminuria in patients with high cardiorenal risk. We report albuminuria change in the Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events (DECLARE-TIMI 58) cardiovascular outcome trial, which included populations with lower cardiorenal risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: DECLARE-TIMI 58 randomized 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes, creatinine clearance >60 mL/min, and either atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD; 40.6%) or risk-factors for CVD (59.4%) to dapagliflozin or placebo. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was tested at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter. The change in UACR over time was measured as a continuous and categorical variable (≤15, >15 to <30, ≥30 to ≤300, and >300 mg/g) by treatment arm. The composite cardiorenal outcome was a ≥40% sustained decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, end-stage kidney disease, and cardiovascular or renal death; specific renal outcome included all except cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Baseline UACR was available for 16,843 (98.15%) participants: 9,067 (53.83%) with ≤15 mg/g, 2,577 (15.30%) with >15 to <30 mg/g, 4,030 (23.93%) with 30-300 mg/g, and 1,169 (6.94%) with >300 mg/g. Measured as a continuous variable, UACR improved from baseline to 4.0 years with dapagliflozin, compared with placebo, across all UACR and eGFR categories (all P < 0.0001). Sustained confirmed ≥1 category improvement in UACR was more common in dapagliflozin versus placebo (hazard ratio 1.45 [95% CI 1.35-1.56], P < 0.0001). Cardiorenal outcome was reduced with dapagliflozin for subgroups of UACR ≥30 mg/g (P < 0.0125, P interaction = 0.033), and the renal-specific outcome was reduced for all UACR subgroups (P < 0.05, P interaction = 0.480). CONCLUSIONS: In DECLARE-TIMI 58, dapagliflozin demonstrated a favorable effect on UACR and renal-specific outcome across baseline UACR categories, including patients with normal albumin excretion. The results suggest a role for SGLT2i also in the primary prevention of diabetic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
14.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1894-1897, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease (DAPA-CKD) study demonstrated risk reduction for kidney and cardiovascular outcomes with dapagliflozin versus placebo in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with and without diabetes. We compared outcomes according to baseline glycemic status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled participants with CKD, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73 m2, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 200-5,000 mg/g. The primary composite end point was sustained eGFR decline ≥50%, end-stage kidney disease, or kidney or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Of 4,304 participants, 738 had normoglycemia, 660 had prediabetes, and 2,906 had type 2 diabetes. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent (P for interaction = 0.19) in normoglycemia (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62 [95% CI 0.39, 1.01]), prediabetes (HR 0.37 [0.21, 0.66]), and type 2 diabetes (HR 0.64 [0.52, 0.79]). We found no evidence for effect modification on any outcome. Adverse events were similar, with no major hypoglycemia or ketoacidosis in participants with normoglycemia or prediabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin safely reduced kidney and cardiovascular events independent of baseline glycemic status.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucosídeos , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
15.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 36(Suppl 2): 3-9, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153985

RESUMO

The prevalence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) continuously increases worldwide. The increasing prevalence parallels the growth in the number of people with diabetes, which is the leading cause of ESKD. Early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with diabetes and appropriate intervention is important to delay the progression of kidney function decline and prevent ESKD. Rate of CKD progression and response to treatment varies among patients with diabetes, highlighting the need to tailor individual treatment. In this review, we describe recent advances and areas for future studies with respect to precision medicine in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). DKD is a multi-factorial disease that is subject in part to genetic heritability, but is also influenced by various exogenous mediators, such as environmental or dietary factors. Genetic testing so far has limited utility to facilitate early diagnosis, classify progression or evaluate response to therapy. Various biomarker-based approaches are currently explored to identify patients at high risk of ESKD and to facilitate decision-making for targeted therapy. These studies have led to discovery and validation of a couple of inflammatory proteins such as circulating tumour necrosis factor receptors, which are strong predictors of kidney disease progression. Moreover, risk and drug-response scores based on multiple biomarkers are developed to predict kidney disease progression and long-term drug efficacy. These findings, if implemented in clinical practice, will pave the way to move from a one-size-fits-all to a one-fit-for-everyone approach.

16.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029680

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Canagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and related outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) trial. This analysis of CREDENCE trial data examines the effect of canagliflozin on the incidence of kidney-related adverse events (AEs). STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter international trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 4,401 trial participants with T2DM, CKD, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio >300-5,000 mg/g. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin 100 mg/d or placebo. OUTCOMES: Rates of kidney-related AEs were analyzed using an on-treatment approach, overall and by screening estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) strata (30-<45, 45-<60, and 60-<90 mL/min/1.73 m2). RESULTS: Canagliflozin was associated with a reduction in the overall incidence rate of kidney-related AEs (60.2 vs 84.0 per 1,000 patient-years; hazard ratio [HR], 0.71 [95% CI, 0.61-0.82]; P < 0.001), with consistent results for serious kidney-related AEs (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.51-1.00]; P = 0.05) and acute kidney injury (AKI; HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.64-1.13]; P = 0.3). The rates of kidney-related AEs were lower with canagliflozin relative to placebo across the 3 eGFR strata (HRs of 0.73, 0.60, and 0.81 for eGFR 30-<45, 45-<60, and 60-<90 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively; P = 0.3 for interaction), with similar results for AKI (P = 0.9 for interaction). Full recovery of kidney function within 30 days after an AKI event occurred more frequently with canagliflozin versus placebo (53.1% vs 35.4%; odds ratio, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.0-4.7]; P = 0.04). LIMITATIONS: Kidney-related AEs including AKI were investigator-reported and collected without central adjudication. Biomarkers of AKI and structural tubular damage were not measured, and creatinine data after an AKI event were not available for all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with placebo, canagliflozin was associated with a reduced incidence of serious and nonserious kidney-related AEs in patients with T2DM and CKD. These results highlight the safety of canagliflozin with regard to adverse kidney-related AEs. FUNDING: The CREDENCE trial and this analysis were funded by Janssen Research & Development, LLC, and were conducted as a collaboration between the funder, an academic steering committee, and an academic research organization, George Clinical. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The CREDENCE trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier number NCT02065791.

17.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 30(4): 456-465, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990507

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize new clinical findings of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA) in various etiologies of kidney disease targeted in clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Endothelin-1 is a multifunctional peptide with potential relevance to glomerular and tubulointerstitial kidney diseases. The phase 3 SONAR trial demonstrated a significant reduction in clinically relevant kidney outcomes for patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) after long-term treatment with the ERA, atrasentan, in addition to blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Promising preclinical disease models and small clinical trials in non-DKD resulted in the initiation of phase 3 trials investigating the effects of long-term treatment with ERA in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy and focal segmental glomeruloscelerosis (FSGS). The mechanisms by which ERA protects the kidneys have been extensively studied with evidence for the protection of tubule cells, podocytes, mesangial cells, the endothelial glycocalyx, and a reduction in glomerular perfusion pressure. The occurrence of fluid retention during ERA treatment, particularly in susceptible populations, necessitates strategies to support safe and effective treatment. SUMMARY: Treatment with ERA induces long-term kidney protection in DKD. Phase 3 trials are underway to investigate ERA effects in patients with IgA nephropathy and FSGS.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 42(13): 1216-1227, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792669

RESUMO

AIMS: Mortality rates from chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased in the last decade. In this pre-specified analysis of the DAPA-CKD trial, we determined the effects of dapagliflozin on cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS AND RESULTS: DAPA-CKD was an international, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a median of 2.4 years of follow-up. Eligible participants were adult patients with CKD, defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) 200-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73 m2. All-cause mortality was a key secondary endpoint. Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death was adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. The DAPA-CKD trial randomized participants to dapagliflozin 10 mg/day (n = 2152) or placebo (n = 2152). The mean age was 62 years, 33% were women, the mean eGFR was 43.1 mL/min/1.73 m2, and the median UACR was 949 mg/g. During follow-up, 247 (5.7%) patients died, of whom 91 (36.8%) died due to cardiovascular causes, 102 (41.3%) due to non-cardiovascular causes, and in 54 (21.9%) patients, the cause of death was undetermined. The relative risk reduction for all-cause mortality with dapagliflozin (31%, hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.69 [0.53, 0.88]; P = 0.003) was consistent across pre-specified subgroups. The effect on all-cause mortality was driven largely by a 46% relative risk reduction of non-cardiovascular death (HR [95% CI] 0.54 [0.36, 0.82]). Deaths due to infections and malignancies were the most frequently occurring causes of non-cardiovascular deaths and were reduced with dapagliflozin vs. placebo. CONCLUSION: In patients with CKD, dapagliflozin prolonged survival irrespective of baseline patient characteristics. The benefits were driven largely by reductions in non-cardiovascular death.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Kidney Int ; 100(1): 215-224, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878338

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is a common form of glomerulonephritis, which despite use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system blockers and immunosuppressants, often progresses to kidney failure. In the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease trial, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of kidney failure and prolonged survival in participants with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes, including those with IgA nephropathy. Participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73m2 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 200-5000 mg/g (22.6-565 mg/mol) were randomized to dapagliflozin 10mg or placebo, as adjunct to standard care. The primary composite endpoint was a sustained decline in eGFR of 50% or more, end-stage kidney disease, or death from a kidney disease-related or cardiovascular cause. Of 270 participants with IgA nephropathy (254 [94%] confirmed by previous biopsy), 137 were randomized to dapagliflozin and 133 to placebo, and followed for median 2.1 years. Overall, mean age was 51.2 years; mean eGFR, 43.8 mL/min/1.73m2; and median urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, 900 mg/g. The primary outcome occurred in six (4%) participants on dapagliflozin and 20 (15%) on placebo (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.12, 0.73). Mean rates of eGFR decline with dapagliflozin and placebo were -3.5 and -4.7 mL/min/1.73m2/year, respectively. Dapagliflozin reduced the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio by 26% relative to placebo. Adverse events leading to study drug discontinuation were similar with dapagliflozin and placebo. There were fewer serious adverse events with dapagliflozin, and no new safety findings in this population. Thus, in participants with IgA nephropathy, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of chronic kidney disease progression with a favorable safety profile.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos , Humanos , Rim , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(8): 1956-1960, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852196

RESUMO

We report the prevalence and change in severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in DISCOVER, a global, 3-year, prospective, observational study of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) initiating second-line glucose-lowering therapy. CKD stages were defined according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Overall, 7843 patients from 35 countries had a baseline serum creatinine measurement. Of these (56.7% male; mean age: 58.1 years; mean eGFR: 87.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 ), baseline prevalence estimates for stage 0-1, 2, 3 and 4-5 CKD were 51.4%, 37.7%, 9.4% and 1.4%, respectively. A total of 5819 patients (74.2%) also had at least one follow-up serum creatinine measurement (median time between measurements: 2.9 years, interquartile range: 1.9-3.0 years). Mean eGFR decreased slightly to 85.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 over follow-up. CKD progression (increase of ≥1 stage) occurred in 15.7% of patients, and regression (decrease of ≥1 stage) in 12.0%. In summary, a substantial proportion of patients with T2D developed CKD or had CKD progression after the initiation of second-line therapy. Renal function should be regularly monitored in these patients, to ensure early CKD diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
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