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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
3.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2815, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499537

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic changes underlying phenotypic variation in sheep (Ovis aries) may facilitate our efforts towards further improvement. Here, we report the deep resequencing of 248 sheep including the wild ancestor (O. orientalis), landraces, and improved breeds. We explored the sheep variome and selection signatures. We detected genomic regions harboring genes associated with distinct morphological and agronomic traits, which may be past and potential future targets of domestication, breeding, and selection. Furthermore, we found non-synonymous mutations in a set of plausible candidate genes and significant differences in their allele frequency distributions across breeds. We identified PDGFD as a likely causal gene for fat deposition in the tails of sheep through transcriptome, RT-PCR, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of sheep and a valuable genomic resource for future genetic studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of sheep and other domestic animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais Selvagens/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(2): 283-303, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445533

RESUMO

Tibetan sheep are the most common and widespread domesticated animals on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and have played an essential role in the permanent human occupation of this high-altitude region. However, the precise timing, route, and process of sheep pastoralism in the QTP region remain poorly established, and little is known about the underlying genomic changes that occurred during the process. Here, we investigate the genomic variation in Tibetan sheep using whole-genome sequences, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal variants in 986 samples throughout their distribution range. We detect strong signatures of selection in genes involved in the hypoxia and ultraviolet signaling pathways (e.g., HIF-1 pathway and HBB and MITF genes) and in genes associated with morphological traits such as horn size and shape (e.g., RXFP2). We identify clear signals of argali (Ovis ammon) introgression into sympatric Tibetan sheep, covering 5.23-5.79% of their genomes. The introgressed genomic regions are enriched in genes related to oxygen transportation system, sensory perception, and morphological phenotypes, in particular the genes HBB and RXFP2 with strong signs of adaptive introgression. The spatial distribution of genomic diversity and demographic reconstruction of the history of Tibetan sheep show a stepwise pattern of colonization with their initial spread onto the QTP from its northeastern part ∼3,100 years ago, followed by further southwest expansion to the central QTP ∼1,300 years ago. Together with archeological evidence, the date and route reveal the history of human expansions on the QTP by the Tang-Bo Ancient Road during the late Holocene. Our findings contribute to a depth understanding of early pastoralism and the local adaptation of Tibetan sheep as well as the late-Holocene human occupation of the QTP.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Genoma , Migração Humana , Hibridização Genética , Ovinos/genética , Altitude , Animais , Ecótipo , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Tibet
6.
Mol Biol Evol ; 34(9): 2380-2395, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645168

RESUMO

China has a rich resource of native sheep (Ovis aries) breeds associated with historical movements of several nomadic societies. However, the history of sheep and the associated nomadic societies in ancient China remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the genomic diversity of Chinese sheep using genome-wide SNPs, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal variations in > 1,000 modern samples. Population genomic analyses combined with archeological records and historical ethnic demographics data revealed genetic signatures of the origins, secondary expansions and admixtures, of Chinese sheep thereby revealing the peopling patterns of nomads and the expansion of early pastoralism in East Asia. Originating from the Mongolian Plateau ∼5,000‒5,700 years ago, Chinese sheep were inferred to spread in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River ∼3,000‒5,000 years ago following the expansions of the Di-Qiang people. Afterwards, sheep were then inferred to reach the Qinghai-Tibetan and Yunnan-Kweichow plateaus ∼2,000‒2,600 years ago by following the north-to-southwest routes of the Di-Qiang migration. We also unveiled two subsequent waves of migrations of fat-tailed sheep into northern China, which were largely commensurate with the migrations of ancestors of Hui Muslims eastward and Mongols southward during the 12th‒13th centuries. Furthermore, we revealed signs of argali introgression into domestic sheep, extensive historical mixtures among domestic populations and strong artificial selection for tail type and other traits, reflecting various breeding strategies by nomadic societies in ancient China.


Assuntos
Filogeografia/métodos , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Cruzamento , China , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Extremo Oriente , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos/genética , Migrantes , Cromossomo Y/genética
7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 32(10): 2515-33, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085518

RESUMO

Despite much attention, history of sheep (Ovis aries) evolution, including its dating, demographic trajectory and geographic spread, remains controversial. To address these questions, we generated 45 complete and 875 partial mitogenomic sequences, and performed a meta-analysis of these and published ovine mitochondrial DNA sequences (n = 3,229) across Eurasia. We inferred that O. orientalis and O. musimon share the most recent female ancestor with O. aries at approximately 0.790 Ma (95% CI: 0.637-0.934 Ma) during the Middle Pleistocene, substantially predating the domestication event (∼8-11 ka). By reconstructing historical variations in effective population size, we found evidence of a rapid population increase approximately 20-60 ka, immediately before the Last Glacial Maximum. Analyses of lineage expansions showed two sheep migratory waves at approximately 4.5-6.8 ka (lineages A and B: ∼6.4-6.8 ka; C: ∼4.5 ka) across eastern Eurasia, which could have been influenced by prehistoric West-East commercial trade and deliberate mating of domestic and wild sheep, respectively. A continent-scale examination of lineage diversity and approximate Bayesian computation analyses indicated that the Mongolian Plateau region was a secondary center of dispersal, acting as a "transportation hub" in eastern Eurasia: Sheep from the Middle Eastern domestication center were inferred to have migrated through the Caucasus and Central Asia, and arrived in North and Southwest China (lineages A, B, and C) and the Indian subcontinent (lineages B and C) through this region. Our results provide new insights into sheep domestication, particularly with respect to origins and migrations to and from eastern Eurasia.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Genômica , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Geografia , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Anim Genet ; 45(6): 903-7, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25204383

RESUMO

Variation in two SNPs and one microsatellite on the Y chromosome was analyzed in a total of 663 rams representing 59 breeds from a large geographic range in northern Eurasia. SNPA-oY1 showed the highest allele frequency (91.55%) across the breeds, whereas SNPG-oY1 was present in only 56 samples. Combined genotypes established seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H12 and H19). H6 dominated in northern Eurasia, and H8 showed the second-highest frequency. H4, which had been earlier reported to be absent in European breeds, was detected in one European breed (Swiniarka), whereas H7, which had been previously identified to be unique to European breeds, was present in two Chinese breeds (Ninglang Black and Large-tailed Han), one Buryatian (Transbaikal Finewool) and two Russian breeds (North Caucasus Mutton-Wool and Kuibyshev). H12, which had been detected only in Turkish breeds, was also found in Chinese breeds in this work. An overall low level of haplotype diversity (median h = 0.1288) was observed across the breeds with relatively higher median values in breeds from the regions neighboring the Near Eastern domestication center of sheep. H6 is the dominant haplotype in northwestern and eastern China, in which the haplotype distribution could be explained by the historical translocations of the H4 and H8 Y chromosomes to China via the Mongol invasions followed by expansions to northwestern and eastern China. Our findings extend previous results of sheep Y chromosomal genetic variability and indicate probably recent paternal gene flows between sheep breeds from distinct major geographic regions.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Frequência do Gene , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação
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