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1.
Brain Behav ; : e02025, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of December 2019, a novel respiratory infection, initially reported in China, known as COVID-19 initially reported in China, and later known as COVID-19, led to a global pandemic. Despite many studies reporting respiratory infections as the primary manifestations of this illness, an increasing number of investigations have focused on the central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the CNS presentations in COVID-19 patients in an attempt to identify the common CNS features and provide a better overview to tackle this new pandemic. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Included studies were publications that reported the CNS features between 1 January 2020 and 20 April 2020. The data of selected studies were screened and extracted independently by four reviewers. Extracted data analyzed by using STATA statistical software. The study protocol registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020184456). RESULTS: Of 2,353 retrieved studies, we selected 64 studies with 11,687 patients after screening. Most of the studies were conducted in China (58 studies). The most common CNS symptom of COVID-19 was headache (8.69%, 95%CI: 6.76%-10.82%), dizziness (5.94%, 95%CI: 3.66%-8.22%), and impaired consciousness (1.90%, 95%CI: 1.0%-2.79%). CONCLUSIONS: The growing number of studies has reported COVID-19, CNS presentations as remarkable manifestations that happen. Hence, understanding the CNS characteristics of COVID-19 can help us for better diagnosis and ultimately prevention of worse outcomes.

2.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 7, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some epidemiologic studies have reported a sharp increase in multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence in different provinces in Iran. This report aimed to investigate more closely the increasing trend of MS incidence in the past 10 years in Iran. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, the data for all MS patients meeting the McDonald criteria were obtained from a national registry, coordinated by the Ministry of Health (MOH). Joinpoint (JP) regression was used for time trend analysis of MS incidence and determine the optimal number of significant joinpoints. Finally, an annual percentage change (APC) in MS incidence for each segment of the trend line was estimated with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients and the mean annual incidence rate of MS were 30.9 ± 1.1 and 5.3 ± 1.9 per 100,000 population, respectively. The overall incidence rate of MS had increased significantly from 2.14 in 2006 to its peak (7.5) in 2014, per 100,000 population (APC = 12%, P < 0.001). The first JP was observed in 2011 in both male and female groups. The overall APC in the first segment was 22.6% (17.2-28.2%, p < 0.01). Besides, the corresponding APC values for males and females were 22.1% (14.7-30%, p < 0.01) and 22.5% (17.5-27.8%, p < 0.01), respectively. After 2011, the MS incidence underwent a more or less decreasing trend in both genders. CONCLUSION: Contrary to previous studies, the MS incidence trend in Iran was rising just before 2011, and in the recent decade, Iran has a stable rate of MS cases.

3.
J Educ Health Promot ; 9: 273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The state of health-care disaster preparedness in Iran prior to the possible earthquakes is not well documented. This study identified the challenges of the Iranian health system before possible earthquakes in Tehran based on the World Health Organization (WHO) framework. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this qualitative study, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted for 17 health experts and authorities, who were selected based on purposive sampling method. The questions were designed based on the proposed framework of the WHO in six areas including policies and planning, communication, collaboration and coordination, training, volunteers and the public, and surge capability. The data were analyzed by using framework analysis. RESULTS: The main themes included weak communication infrastructures, inappropriate assessment of specialized training courses and lack of a clear scenario, integrated urban commanding, extra-sectorial coordination, and data banks for public volunteers. CONCLUSION: Iran health-care disaster preparedness was tested by many earthquakes. This research showed that disaster preparedness in Iran faces several challenges.

4.
Int J Orthop Trauma Nurs ; : 100813, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317987

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hip fracture disrupts general health and is one of the most common physical injuries in the elderly. Depression is the most common mood disorder in older people and one of the main complications of hip fractures. AIM AND METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of depression in older people with hip fractures. Relevant literature published until July 2019 was obtained and screened according to established inclusion criteria. Two researchers independently carried out quality assessment and data extraction before the meta-analysis. We calculated proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI). To investigate the sources of heterogeneity, we performed subgroup analyses based on study design, follow-up duration, type of fracture, and gender. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies with a combined sample size of 11958 were included. The overall prevalence of depression in older people with hip fracture was 23% (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.29). The lowest and highest prevalence of depression was in Asia (0.19) and America (0.27) respectively. CONCLUSION: In this systematic review and meta-analysis the estimated prevalence of depression among older hip fracture patients was 23%. Further research is needed to identify strategies for preventing and treating mood disorders in this population.

5.
Omega (Westport) ; : 30222820966934, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106088

RESUMO

This review study fills an important gap by aiming to determine the age changes in attempted and completed suicide in Iran during the past decade. A systematic review of related articles in international and Iranian databases from January 2008 to January 2020 was first conducted and relevant studies were extracted based on established criteria. Results showed that the mean age of suicide in Iran is 29.8 (range 27.7 - 31.8) years old for men and 27.4 (range 25.8 - 28.9) for women (P < 0.0001). The youngest and oldest populations of completed suicide belong to eastern and central regions of the country respectively. Findings imply the critical importance of increasing awareness through educational programs and public health campaigns to increase awareness and reduce suicidal behavior in Iran.

6.
J Cardiovasc Thorac Res ; 12(3): 214-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123328

RESUMO

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is the important cause of most cardiovascular diseases, with high prevalence and mortality. Atherosclerosis is not only a lipid metabolism disorder but also recently is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease. Several studies showed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is the examination of IL6 mRNA Levels and hypomethylation of IL6 promoter in atherosclerosis patients. Methods: In this assay, a total of 35 cases with atherosclerosis and 30 controls were enrolled. RNA and DNA were isolated from the peripheral blood of all samples. Mean IL6 gene expression was determined by RT-PCR and methylation status at six CpG motifs in IL6 promoter was determined using bisulfite genomic sequencing. Results: Real Time-PCR analysis results showed the mean IL6 RNA level in atherosclerosis patients candidate for CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) was significantly higher than controls (P value = 0.01). Also, the upstream CpG motifs (-1038 to -952) in IL6 promoter were predominantly unmethylated in patients than in the controls (P value = 0.01). Conclusion: These findings suggest that an increase in IL-6 gene expression and its DNA hypomethylation promoter are associated with atherosclerosis patient's candidate for CABG surgery.

7.
Malays J Med Sci ; 27(4): 119-129, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863751

RESUMO

Background: Mental disorders are common among the elderly with serious symptoms of depression and social isolation. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of laughter therapy (LT) on depression and quality of life (QOL) of the elderly living in Abadeh nursing homes. Methods: This is a controlled semi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test design. Ninety eligible ones of the elderly living in the Abadeh nursing homes and from July to September 2017, entered the study. Some of the criteria for entering the study include being over 60 years old, orientation, not having blindness and deafness, lack of physical and mental problems. After determining the intervention and control groups, the scale of depression and QOL was administered to the subjects and their scores were collected in the pre-test. Results: Most of the study samples were in the intervention (35.55%) and control (37.77%) group in the age range of 60-69 years. In both intervention and control groups, respectively, 31.11% and 68.88% elderly were males and females. The mean scores of depression in the intervention group after LT (M = 2.57) were lower than those before the intervention (M = 6.87) [CI = -5.58-(-3.02)] and also the results of independent t-test showed a statistically significant difference before and after the intervention between the two groups (P < 0.001). The mean score of dimensions of QOL after LT was higher than that before in the intervention and there was a statistically significant difference in all dimensions with paired t-test (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Since the implementation of this programme could improve the mental status and QOL of the elderly, this method of therapy can be used as an alternative or complementary model to enhance the health of the elderly.

8.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(6): 2794-2800, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984128

RESUMO

Introduction: Gender identity disorder is a complex psychological problem and people with this disorder are at risk of many problems, including reduced quality of life. Empowerment intervention is one of the methods that can be used to improve the quality of life of people. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of empowerment model-based training on the quality of life of transgender people undergoing hormone therapy. Methods: The present study is a randomized clinical trial that was conducted in 2012 on 81 transgender people at Tehran Welfare Center. The study samples were randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group received training based on the empowerment model (threat perception, problem-solving, educational participation, and evaluation) and the control group received routine treatment. Results: According to the findings, after the intervention, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of the mean level of overt anxiety (P = 0.045) and aspects of emotional health (P = 0.030), the general perception of health (P = 0.007), mental health (P = 0.008), and overall quality of life (P = 0.005). Also, although there was a statistically significant difference in the aspect emotional well-being in the intervention group before and after the intervention (P = 0.034), this difference was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.274). Conclusion: The results showed that the empowerment-based training program had a significant relationship with the improvement in aspects of emotional health, the overall perception of health, mental health, emotional well-being and overall quality of life.

9.
World J Plast Surg ; 9(2): 160-165, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dorsal augmentation of the nose for aesthetic and reconstructive purposes is an important issue in rhinoplasty surgery. This study aimed to compare the two methods of dice cartilage wrapping for dorsal augmentation of the nose including temporalis fascia and alloderm. METHODS: In a clinical trial study, 50 patients who needed to augment the nasal dorsum, were enrolled and randomly allocated to two equal groups. In the first group, diced cartilage graft of the patient was wrapped in temporalis fascia and in the second group, a thin sheet of alloderm was used for this purpose. After one year follow up, satisfaction of patients and the expert panel were compared in two groups. Also mean increase in dorsal height was measured and compared in two groups. RESULTS: The mean increase of dorsal nasal height one year after surgery in the alloderm and temporalis fascia was 3.13±0.49 and 3.42±0.33, respectively and in the fascia group was significantly higher (p=0.02). The mean of patients' satisfaction in the two groups of alloderm and temporal fascia groups was 7.48±0.92 and 8.04±0.89, respectively (p=0.03). The mean satisfaction of expert panel in the two methods was 7.56±0.81 and 7.7±0.63, respectively (p=0.5). CONCLUSION: The use of temporal fascia for covering the diced cartilage in augmentation of nasal dorsum had better results than the alloderm. Patients satisfaction and mean dorsal height was higher in temporal fascia group.

10.
Acta Histochem ; 122(6): 151589, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778245

RESUMO

Recent evidences showed that, noise stress causes abnormal changes in structure and function of central nervous system (CNS). The Current study was conducted to evaluate some stereological parameters of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of male pups of Wistar rat after prenatal and early postnatal noise stress. 18 pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into prenatal noise-exposed (NE) group, postnatal NE group, and controls. Male pups of NE groups were exposed to noise 100 dB at the frequency ranges of 500-8000 Hz, 4 h per day from gestational day one (GD1) to GD21 for the prenatal NE group, and from postnatal day one (PND1) to PND21 in the postnatal NE group. The Control group animals were maintained under standard condition without noise stimulation. Corticosterone level in plasma was measured using ELISA technique. Changes of the neurons and non-neurons cells number and volume of the mPFC were evaluated by stereological analysis. Tunnel assay was also used for detection of apoptotic cells. Increase in plasma corticosterone level, decrease in the number of neurons, and increase in the apoptotic cells number were observed in both NE groups. Decrease in volume of mPFC and also in non-neurons cells number was observed in the prenatal NE group. An increase in the non-neurons number was seen in the postnatal NE group. Data of the current comparative study showed that, noise stress during prenatal and early postnatal periods can induce the abnormal alteration in some stereological parameters of mPFC in male pups of Wistar rat. These negative alterations were more remarkable after prenatal noise stress.

11.
J Lasers Med Sci ; 11(3): 238-242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802281

RESUMO

Introduction: Diverse microbiotas which have some contributions to gene expression reside in human skin. To identify the protective role of the skin microbiome against UV exposure, proteinprotein interaction (PPI) network analysis is used to assessment gene expression alteration. Methods: A microarray dataset, GEO accession number GSE117359, was considered in this respect. Differential expressed genes (DEGs) in the germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) groups are analyzed by GEO2R. The top significant DEGs were assigned for network analysis via Cytoscape 3.7.2 and its applications. Results: A total of 28 genes were identified as significant DEGs and the centrality analysis of the network indicated that only one of the seven hub-bottlenecks was from queried genes. The gene ontology analysis of Il6, Cxcl2, Cxcl1, TNF, Il10, Cxcl10, and Mmp9 showed that the crucial genes were highly enriched in the immune system. Conclusion: The skin microbiome plays a significant role in the protection of skin against UV irradiation and the role of TNF and IL6 is prominent in this regard.

12.
J Lasers Med Sci ; 11(3): 280-286, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802288

RESUMO

Introduction: Photobiomodulation (PBM) is known as low-level laser (or light) therapy and is applied in different fields of medicine. However, it is required that its molecular and cellular mechanism be investigated. This study aims to assess the neuroprotective properties of PBM in the rat retina. Methods: GSE22818 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and the regulation of the significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) which are produced by light damage in the rat retina by the pretreatment of PBM application was assessed via network analysis and gene ontology enrichment. Results: The 78 produced DEGs by light-damage in the rat retina were protected via PBM pretreatment action. Among these determined DEGs, 53 individuals were included in the main connected component of the constructed protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Ccl2, Icam1, Cxcl10, Timp1, and Fos were determined as hub nodes. Eight clusters including 26 regulated biochemical pathways by PBM pretreatment were identified. The critical DEGs based on the action maps were introduced. Conclusion: The finding indicates that PBM treatment protects rat retina against light damage via the prevention of Fos, Ccl2, Icam1, Cxcl10, and Myc dysregulation.

13.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 80(8): 851-862, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817992

RESUMO

Introduction An abnormal endometrial immune response is involved in the pathogenesis of repeated implantation failure (RIF), so we investigated the effectiveness of tacrolimus treatment on the endometrium of RIF patients. Materials and Methods Ten RIF patients with elevated T-helper 1/T-helper 2 (Th1/Th2) cell ratios were recruited into a clinical study. The expression of p53, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the endometrium of patients with and without tacrolimus treatment and the association of these factors with assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes were investigated. Results Tacrolimus significantly increased the expression of LIF, IL-10, and IL-17 and decreased the expression of IL-4, IFN-γ, and the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio in RIF patients. Tacrolimus treatment resulted in an implantation rate of 40%, a clinical pregnancy rate of 50%, and a live birth rate of 35% in RIF patients with elevated Th1/Th2 ratios who had previously failed to become pregnant despite at least three transfers of embryos. We also found a significant positive correlation between IL-10 levels and the implantation rate. Conclusions Our findings suggest that RIF patients with a higher Th1/Th2 ratio could be candidates for tacrolimus therapy and that this immunosuppressive drug could be acting through upregulation of LIF, IL-10, and IL-17.

14.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 35(5): 588-591, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638682

RESUMO

Flood is the most common natural hazard in Iran, which annually affects the environment and human lives. On March 25, 2019 in Shiraz-Iran, following a heavy rainfall, the occurrence of a flash flood caused an extensive number of deaths, injuries, and vehicle demolitions in a short time. Evidence suggests that man-made causes of the incident, including unsustainable urban development and lack of early warning services, have played a more influential role compared with its natural causes. This study has attempted to substantiate that understanding disaster risks, as the first priority of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015-2030, directly impacts the decisions and actions of policymakers, local authorities, and the public. To provide more safety, mitigation, and disaster risk reduction, attention should primarily be paid on making a cultural paradigm shift through providing sufficient training in developing appropriate disaster risk perception in the community at large.

15.
Malays J Med Sci ; 27(3): 20-33, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684803

RESUMO

Natural disasters have multiple psychological effects including increased risk of suicide among victims. Reviews have shown that suicidal behaviours can be an aftermath of natural disasters. The present study attempted to identify the suicide-related risk factors after natural disasters. This study was a systematic review probing English language articles related to suicide and its risk factors after natural disasters and published between 1 January 1990 and 27 September 2018 in Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, ProQuest and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. After reviewing and screening the collected studies by means of specific criteria, only 30 studies were qualified to enter the survey. It was found that most of these studies had investigated suicide after earthquake. Gender, age, serious mental disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), loss of family members, low economic status, low social support, and injury to the person and the family/relatives were identified as the most important risk factors for suicide after natural disasters. Women, adolescents, elderly, people with depression and PTSD, those suffer from low social support and parentless people were found to be among the ones being highly vulnerable to suicide after natural disasters. There is, therefore, a need for providing psychosocial support for these people after such disasters.

16.
Behav Brain Res ; 393: 112800, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653555

RESUMO

There is an increasing evidence that maternal immune activation can render the offspring more vulnerable to the impacts of peripubertal stress on behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of maternal immune activation and peripubertal stress on depression-related behaviors in male and female offspring. Pregnant mice were treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or vehicle, and then offspring were subjected to stressful conditions or left unstressed during peripubertal period. Four behavioral tests including novelty-suppressed feeding test, sucrose preference test, tail suspension test, and forced swim test were used to measure depression-related behaviors in offspring. The activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) or - gonadal (HPG) axes were also evaluated by measuring basal and stress-induced corticosterone, testosterone and estradiol levels in the serum of offspring. Our findings revealed that mild maternal immune activation and peripubertal stress interacted synergistically to induce depression-related symptoms and HPA axis hyperactivity in male offspring, whereas no significant changes were observed in female offspring. We also found that this combination of environmental factors significantly decreased serum testosterone and estradiol levels in adult male and female offspring respectively. There were also significant correlations between behavioral parameters and hormones. Taken together, these findings show that the combination of two environmental risk factors can predispose the male offspring to increased depression-related symptoms in adulthood as compared to the females. This study suggests that the combination of maternal immune activation and peripubertal stress can alter depression-related behaviors and HPA axis function in a sex-dependent manner.

17.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 109: 101820, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526246

RESUMO

AIM AND BACKGROUND: Tramadol is a synthetic analogue of codeine, mostly prescribed for the alleviation of mild to moderate pains. It bears several side effects including emotional instability and anxiety. In this study, we focused on the alteration in expression of autophagic and apoptotic genes in PC-12 cells for our in vitro and structural and functional changes of striatum for our in vivo under chronic exposure of tramadol. METHODS: For in vitro side of the study, PC12 cells were exposed to tramadol (50 µM) and expression of apoptosis and autophagy genes were determined. In parallel, rats were daily treated with tramadol at doses of 50 mg/kg for three weeks for the in vivo side. Motor coordination, EMG, histopathology and gene expression were done. RESULTS: Our in vitro findings revealed that tramadol increased expression of apoptosis and autophagy genes in PC12 cells. Moreover, our in vivo results disclosed that tramadol not only provoked atrophy of rats' striatum, but also triggered microgliosis along with neuronal death in the striatum. Tramadol also reduced motor coordination and muscular activity. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our data indicated that tramadol induced neurotoxicity in the PC12 cells via apoptosis and autophagy and in striatum chiefly through activation of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic responses.

18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(3): e11-e12, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375914

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease that can spread from one person to person. This virus is a novel coronavirus that was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak in Wuhan, China. Iran's novel coronavirus cases reached 17,361 on 17 March, while death toll reached approximately 1,135. Its first death was officially announced on 20 February 2020 in Qom. The 2019 coronavirus pandemic has affected educational systems around the world, Also in Iran, and led to the closure of face to face courses in schools and universities. Therefore, virtual education can be seen as a turning point in education of these days in Iran.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Realidade Virtual , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Educação/tendências , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/normas
20.
J Lasers Med Sci ; 11(2): 212-219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273965

RESUMO

Laser skin resurfacing has changed the approach of facial skin rejuvenation over the past decade. This article evaluates the laser effects on skin rejuvenation by the assessment of laser characteristics and histological and molecular changes, accompanied by the expression of proteins during and after laser-assisted rejuvenation of skin. It is important to note that different layers of skin with different cells are normally exposed to the sun's UV radiation which is the most likely factor in aging and damaging healthy skin. To identify the expression of proteins, using validated databases and reviewing existing data could reveal altered proteins which could be analyzed and mapped to investigate their expression and their different effects on cell biological responses. In this regard, proteomics data can be used for better investigation of the changes in the proteomic profile of the treated skin. Different assessments have revealed the survival and activation of fibroblasts and new keratinocytes with an increase of collagen and elastin fibers in the dermis and the reduction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) as a result of different low-power laser therapies of skin. There are a wide range of biological effects associated with laser application in skin rejuvenation; therefore, more safety considerations should be regarded in the application of lasers in skin rejuvenation.

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