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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(11): 104033, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781272

RESUMO

We describe two sporadic and two familial cases with loss-of-function variants in PRPS1, which is located on the X chromosome and encodes phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRS-1). We illustrate the clinical variability associated with decreased PRS-1 activity, ranging from mild isolated hearing loss to severe encephalopathy. One of the variants we identified has already been reported with a phenotype similar to our patient's, whereas the other three were unknown. The clinical and biochemical information we provide will hopefully contribute to gain insight into the correlation between genotype and phenotype of this rare condition, both in females and in males. Moreover, our observation of a new family in which hemizygous males display hearing loss without any neurological or ophthalmological symptoms prompts us to suggest analysing PRPS1 in cases of isolated hearing loss. Eventually, PRPS1 variants should be considered as a differential diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders.

2.
Genet Med ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Abnormality of the corpus callosum (AbnCC) is etiologically a heterogeneous condition and the prognosis in prenatally diagnosed cases is difficult to predict. The purpose of our research was to establish the diagnostic yield using chromosomal microarray (CMA) and exome sequencing (ES) in cases with prenatally diagnosed isolated (iAbnCC) and nonisolated AbnCC (niAbnCC). METHODS: CMA and prenatal trio ES (pES) were done on 65 fetuses with iAbnCC and niAbnCC. Only pathogenic gene variants known to be associated with AbnCC and/or intellectual disability were considered. RESULTS: pES results were available within a median of 21.5 days (9-53 days). A pathogenic single-nucleotide variant (SNV) was identified in 12 cases (18%) and a pathogenic CNV was identified in 3 cases (4.5%). Thus, the genetic etiology was determined in 23% of cases. In all diagnosed cases, the results provided sufficient information regarding the neurodevelopmental prognosis and helped the parents to make an informed decision regarding the outcome of the pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Our results show the significant diagnostic and prognostic contribution of CMA and pES in cases with prenatally diagnosed AbnCC. Further prospective cohort studies with long-term follow-up of the born children will be needed to provide accurate prenatal counseling after a negative pES result.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2441, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415109

RESUMO

KIF21B is a kinesin protein that promotes intracellular transport and controls microtubule dynamics. We report three missense variants and one duplication in KIF21B in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) and microcephaly. We demonstrate, in vivo, that the expression of KIF21B missense variants specifically recapitulates patients' neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including microcephaly and reduced intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity. We establish that missense KIF21B variants impede neuronal migration through attenuation of kinesin autoinhibition leading to aberrant KIF21B motility activity. We also show that the ACC-related KIF21B variant independently perturbs axonal growth and ipsilateral axon branching through two distinct mechanisms, both leading to deregulation of canonical kinesin motor activity. The duplication introduces a premature termination codon leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Although we demonstrate that Kif21b haploinsufficiency leads to an impaired neuronal positioning, the duplication variant might not be pathogenic. Altogether, our data indicate that impaired KIF21B autoregulation and function play a critical role in the pathogenicity of human neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Cinesina/genética , Atividade Motora , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Organogênese/genética , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 830-845, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442410

RESUMO

SOX6 belongs to a family of 20 SRY-related HMG-box-containing (SOX) genes that encode transcription factors controlling cell fate and differentiation in many developmental and adult processes. For SOX6, these processes include, but are not limited to, neurogenesis and skeletogenesis. Variants in half of the SOX genes have been shown to cause severe developmental and adult syndromes, referred to as SOXopathies. We here provide evidence that SOX6 variants also cause a SOXopathy. Using clinical and genetic data, we identify 19 individuals harboring various types of SOX6 alterations and exhibiting developmental delay and/or intellectual disability; the individuals are from 17 unrelated families. Additional, inconstant features include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, mild facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, and multiple osteochondromas. All variants are heterozygous. Fourteen are de novo, one is inherited from a mosaic father, and four offspring from two families have a paternally inherited variant. Intragenic microdeletions, balanced structural rearrangements, frameshifts, and nonsense variants are predicted to inactivate the SOX6 variant allele. Four missense variants occur in residues and protein regions highly conserved evolutionarily. These variants are not detected in the gnomAD control cohort, and the amino acid substitutions are predicted to be damaging. Two of these variants are located in the HMG domain and abolish SOX6 transcriptional activity in vitro. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations are found. Taken together, these findings concur that SOX6 haploinsufficiency leads to a neurodevelopmental SOXopathy that often includes ADHD and abnormal skeletal and other features.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Osteocondroma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Variação Estrutural do Genoma/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/química , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/metabolismo , Síndrome , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma , Translocação Genética/genética
5.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(4): 803-809, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interphasic DNA has a constant three-dimensional conformation, which is particularly striking for spermatic DNA, with distinct chromosomal territories and a constant chromosomal conformation. We hypothesized that this organization is fragile, and that an excess or a lack of chromosomal segments could hinder the genomic structure as a whole. METHODS: Five human male chromosomal translocation carriers and five controls were included. Spermatic DNA spatial organization was studied, in both balanced and unbalanced spermatozoa, with two-dimensional fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) via analysis of chromosomes not implicated in the cases' translocations, compared to that of normal controls. Two parameters were studied: the distance between the two telomeric ends of chromosome 1, and the area of the chromosomal territories of chromosomes 1 and 17. RESULTS: Sperm FISH analysis of rearrangement carriers revealed changes in the nuclear architecture compared to that of controls. Inter-telomeric distance and chromosomal territories areas were both significantly increased. DISCUSSION: We show that an excess or lack of chromosomal segments can hinder the normal spatial nuclear architecture in sperm. These results show that nuclear architecture is a fragile assembly, and that local chromosomal abnormalities may impact the nucleus as a whole. This suggests a potential avenue for selection of spermatozoa prior to in vitro fertilization, not only in rearrangement carriers but also in the infertile population at large. Furthermore, we suggest that 2D-FISH could possibly be a useful tool in assessing spermatic nuclear organization in a way to evaluate male fertility.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 356-370, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109418

RESUMO

Genetic syndromes frequently present with overlapping clinical features and inconclusive or ambiguous genetic findings which can confound accurate diagnosis and clinical management. An expanding number of genetic syndromes have been shown to have unique genomic DNA methylation patterns (called "episignatures"). Peripheral blood episignatures can be used for diagnostic testing as well as for the interpretation of ambiguous genetic test results. We present here an approach to episignature mapping in 42 genetic syndromes, which has allowed the identification of 34 robust disease-specific episignatures. We examine emerging patterns of overlap, as well as similarities and hierarchical relationships across these episignatures, to highlight their key features as they are related to genetic heterogeneity, dosage effect, unaffected carrier status, and incomplete penetrance. We demonstrate the necessity of multiclass modeling for accurate genetic variant classification and show how disease classification using a single episignature at a time can sometimes lead to classification errors in closely related episignatures. We demonstrate the utility of this tool in resolving ambiguous clinical cases and identification of previously undiagnosed cases through mass screening of a large cohort of subjects with developmental delays and congenital anomalies. This study more than doubles the number of published syndromes with DNA methylation episignatures and, most significantly, opens new avenues for accurate diagnosis and clinical assessment in individuals affected by these disorders.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Estudos de Coortes , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Síndrome
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031333

RESUMO

CDC42BPB encodes MRCKß (myotonic dystrophy-related Cdc42-binding kinase beta), a serine/threonine protein kinase, and a downstream effector of CDC42, which has recently been associated with Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome, an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder. We identified 12 heterozygous predicted deleterious variants in CDC42BPB (9 missense, 2 frameshift, and 1 nonsense) in 14 unrelated individuals (confirmed de novo in 11/14) with neurodevelopmental disorders including developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism, hypotonia, and structural brain abnormalities including cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. The frameshift and nonsense variants in CDC42BPB are expected to be gene-disrupting and lead to haploinsufficiency via nonsense-mediated decay. All missense variants are located in highly conserved and functionally important protein domains/regions: 3 are found in the protein kinase domain, 2 are in the citron homology domain, and 4 in a 20-amino acid sequence between 2 coiled-coil regions, 2 of which are recurrent. Future studies will help to delineate the natural history and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms of the missense variants leading to the neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotypes.

8.
Genet Med ; 22(2): 389-397, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants inCHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

9.
J Med Genet ; 57(5): 301-307, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype-phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients' medical care. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents. RESULTS: Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype-phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, NDE1 and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of NDE1 and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(4): 103776, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562959

RESUMO

Chromoanagenesis represents an extreme form of genomic rearrangements involving multiple breaks occurring on a single or multiple chromosomes. It has been recently described in both acquired and rare constitutional genetic disorders. Constitutional chromoanagenesis events could lead to abnormal phenotypes including developmental delay and congenital anomalies, and have also been implicated in some specific syndromic disorders. We report the case of a girl presenting with growth retardation, hypotonia, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, coloboma, and hypoplastic corpus callosum. Karyotype showed a de novo structurally abnormal chromosome 14q31qter region. Molecular characterization using SNP-array revealed a complex unbalanced rearrangement in 14q31.1-q32.2, on the paternal chromosome 14, including thirteen interstitial deletions ranging from 33 kb to 1.56 Mb in size, with a total of 4.1 Mb in size, thus suggesting that a single event like chromoanagenesis occurred. To our knowledge, this is one of the first case of 14q distal deletion due to a germline chromoanagenesis. Genome sequencing allowed the characterization of 50 breakpoints, leading to interruption of 10 genes including YY1 which fit with the patient's phenotype. This precise genotyping of breaking junction allowed better definition of genotype-phenotype correlations.

12.
Neurobiol Dis ; 136: 104709, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843706

RESUMO

Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA) is a brain malformation associated with a wide clinical spectrum including intellectual disability (ID) and an etiopathological complexity. We identified a novel missense G424R mutation in the X-linked p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3) gene in a boy presenting with severe ID, microcephaly and CCA and his fetal sibling with CCA and severe hydrocephaly. PAK3 kinase is known to control synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine dynamics but its implication is less characterized in brain ontogenesis. In order to identify developmental functions of PAK3 impacted by mutations responsible for CCA, we compared the biochemical and biological effects of three PAK3 mutations localized in the catalytic domain. These mutations include two "severe" G424R and K389N variants (responsible for severe ID and CCA) and the "mild" A365E variant (responsible for nonsyndromic mild ID). Whereas they suppressed kinase activity, only the two severe variants displayed normal protein stability. Furthermore, they increased interactions between PAK3 and the guanine exchange factor αPIX/ARHGEF6, disturbed adhesion point dynamics and cell spreading, and severely impacted cell migration. Our findings highlight new molecular defects associated with mutations responsible for severe clinical phenotypes with developmental brain defects.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1210-1222, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079897

RESUMO

We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Epilepsia/etiologia , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 596-610, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879640

RESUMO

Mutations in several genes encoding components of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex cause neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report on five individuals with mutations in SMARCD1; the individuals present with developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and small hands and feet. Trio exome sequencing proved the mutations to be de novo in four of the five individuals. Mutations in other SWI/SNF components cause Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, or other syndromic and non-syndromic NDDs. Although the individuals presented here have dysmorphisms and some clinical overlap with these syndromes, they lack their typical facial dysmorphisms. To gain insight into the function of SMARCD1 in neurons, we investigated the Drosophila ortholog Bap60 in postmitotic memory-forming neurons of the adult Drosophila mushroom body (MB). Targeted knockdown of Bap60 in the MB of adult flies causes defects in long-term memory. Mushroom-body-specific transcriptome analysis revealed that Bap60 is required for context-dependent expression of genes involved in neuron function and development in juvenile flies when synaptic connections are actively being formed in response to experience. Taken together, we identify an NDD caused by SMARCD1 mutations and establish a role for the SMARCD1 ortholog Bap60 in the regulation of neurodevelopmental genes during a critical time window of juvenile adult brain development when neuronal circuits that are required for learning and memory are formed.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Memória , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Mitose , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Corpos Pedunculados , Mutação , Síndrome , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
15.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(5): 973-978, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chromosomal translocations is 1/500 in the general population. While in the vast majority of cases, carriers have a normal phenotype; they can present with difficulty conceiving due to the presence of a proportion of unbalanced gametes as a consequence of abnormal chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Since complex translocations involve three or more chromosomes, meiotic segregation leads to a greater number of possible combinations which effectively complicate both their study and therapeutic care. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on the case of a male carrier of a complex homogeneous double Robertsonian translocation: 44, XY, der(13;14)(q10;q10),der(21;22)(q10;q10). We studied his meiotic segregation by FISH on spermatozoa from the initial sample, as well as following discontinuous gradient centrifugation and after incubation in an hypo-osmotic solution. CONCLUSION: We report a method to study in a simple single-step manner the meiotic segregation of double Robertsonian translocations in spermatozoa. Further, our results suggest that reproductive prognosis of affected individuals may be markedly improved by HOST-based sperm selection (HBSS).


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Meiose , Espermatozoides/patologia , Translocação Genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(7): 2436-2446, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659920

RESUMO

Context: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) (mainly secondary to 11p15 molecular disruption) and Temple syndrome (TS) (secondary to 14q32.2 molecular disruption) are imprinting disorders with phenotypic (prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, early feeding difficulties) and molecular overlap. Objective: To describe the clinical overlap between SRS and TS and extensively study the molecular aspects of TS. Patients: We retrospectively collected data on 28 patients with disruption of the 14q32.2 imprinted region, identified in our center, and performed extensive molecular analysis. Results: Seventeen (60.7%) patients showed loss of methylation of the MEG3/DLK1 intergenic differentially methylated region by epimutation. Eight (28.6%) patients had maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 and three (10.7%) had a paternal deletion in 14q32.2. Most patients (72.7%) had a Netchine-Harbison SRS clinical scoring system ≥4/6, and consistent with a clinical diagnosis of SRS. The mean age at puberty onset was 7.2 years in girls and 9.6 years in boys; 37.5% had premature pubarche. The body mass index of all patients increased before pubarche and/or the onset of puberty. Multilocus analysis identified multiple methylation defects in 58.8% of patients. We identified four potentially damaging genetic variants in genes encoding proteins involved in the establishment or maintenance of DNA methylation. Conclusions: Most patients with 14q32.2 disruption fulfill the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of SRS. These clinical data suggest similar management of patients with TS and SRS, with special attention to their young age at the onset of puberty and early increase of body mass index.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Impressão Genômica/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Fenótipo , Puberdade Precoce/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/diagnóstico , Síndrome , Dissomia Uniparental , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(1): 151-155, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130637

RESUMO

A congenital myasthenia was suspected in two unrelated children with very similar phenotypes including several episodes of severe dyspnea. Both children had a 10q11.2 deletion revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms array or by Next Generation Sequencing analysis. The deletion was inherited from the healthy mother in the first case. These deletions unmasked a recessive mutation at the same locus in both cases, but in two different genes: CHAT and SLC18A3.


Assuntos
Colina O-Acetiltransferase/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Genes Recessivos , Mutação , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Acetilcolina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
J Med Genet ; 55(3): 205-213, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 11p15 region contains two clusters of imprinted genes. Opposite genetic and epigenetic anomalies of this region result in two distinct growth disturbance syndromes: Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndromes (SRS). Cytogenetic rearrangements within this region represent less than 3% of SRS and BWS cases. Among these, 11p15 duplications were infrequently reported and interpretation of their pathogenic effects is complex. OBJECTIVES: To report cytogenetic and methylation analyses in a cohort of patients with SRS/BWS carrying 11p15 duplications and establish genotype/phenotype correlations. METHODS: From a cohort of patients with SRS/BWS with an abnormal methylation profile (using ASMM-RTQ-PCR), we used SNP-arrays to identify and map the 11p15 duplications. We report 19 new patients with SRS (n=9) and BWS (n=10) carrying de novo or familial 11p15 duplications, which completely or partially span either both telomeric and centromeric domains or only one domain. RESULTS: Large duplications involving one complete domain or both domains are associated with either SRS or BWS, depending on the parental origin of the duplication. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies of partial duplications within the telomeric domain demonstrate the prominent role of IGF2, rather than H19, in the control of growth. Furthermore, it highlights the role of CDKN1C within the centromeric domain and suggests that the expected overexpression of KCNQ1OT1 from the paternal allele (in partial paternal duplications, excluding CDKN1C) does not affect the expression of CDKN1C. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype associated with 11p15 duplications depends on the size, genetic content, parental inheritance and imprinting status. Identification of these rare duplications is crucial for genetic counselling.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Impressão Molecular , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética , Adulto , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/patologia , Centrômero/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p57/genética , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/patologia , Telômero/genética
19.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 35(4): 372-378, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711302

RESUMO

Chromosomal translocations and other balanced rearrangements, although usually associated with a normal phenotype, can lead to the transmission of an abnormal unbalanced genome to the offspring. Balanced and unbalanced spermatozoa, being indistinguishable, cannot be selected or deselected for prior to IVF and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Spermatozoa from 16 chromosomal rearrangement carriers were studied. After incubation in a hypo-osmotic solution (hypo-osmotic swelling test, or HOST), spermatozoa were fixed on microscope slides. The chromosomally balanced or unbalanced status corresponding to each observed class of flagellar conformation was evaluated through fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). We show here a specific type of spermatozoa, with a distinct flagellar conformation that was associated with a balanced genetic content. HOST is a simple, low-cost and time-honoured procedure initially developed to distinguish immotile viable from non-viable spermatozoa. We demonstrate that it can also be used to identify genetically balanced spermatozoa in chromosomal rearrangement carriers, with a 96% decrease in the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa after selection. This may potentially improve reproductive prognosis in affected couples if used prior to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and clinical utility and efficacy should be evaluated in further studies.


Assuntos
Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Espermatozoides/citologia , Translocação Genética/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Osmose , Motilidade Espermática , Cauda do Espermatozoide/ultraestrutura
20.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 463-479, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283832

RESUMO

Subtelomeric 1q43q44 microdeletions cause a syndrome associating intellectual disability, microcephaly, seizures and anomalies of the corpus callosum. Despite several previous studies assessing genotype-phenotype correlations, the contribution of genes located in this region to the specific features of this syndrome remains uncertain. Among those, three genes, AKT3, HNRNPU and ZBTB18 are highly expressed in the brain and point mutations in these genes have been recently identified in children with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In this study, we report the clinical and molecular data from 17 patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions, four with ZBTB18 mutations and seven with HNRNPU mutations, and review additional data from 37 previously published patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions. We compare clinical data of patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions with those of patients with point mutations in HNRNPU and ZBTB18 to assess the contribution of each gene as well as the possibility of epistasis between genes. Our study demonstrates that AKT3 haploinsufficiency is the main driver for microcephaly, whereas HNRNPU alteration mostly drives epilepsy and determines the degree of intellectual disability. ZBTB18 deletions or mutations are associated with variable corpus callosum anomalies with an incomplete penetrance. ZBTB18 may also contribute to microcephaly and HNRNPU to thin corpus callosum, but with a lower penetrance. Co-deletion of contiguous genes has additive effects. Our results confirm and refine the complex genotype-phenotype correlations existing in the 1qter microdeletion syndrome and define more precisely the neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with genetic alterations of AKT3, ZBTB18 and HNRNPU in humans.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Humanos
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