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1.
BMJ ; 372: n311, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 March to 31 July 2020 with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and without a history of anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, initiating therapeutic anticoagulation (a proxy for clinical deterioration, including thromboembolic events), and bleeding that required transfusion. RESULTS: Of 4297 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19, 3627 (84.4%) received prophylactic anticoagulation within 24 hours of admission. More than 99% (n=3600) of treated patients received subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin. 622 deaths occurred within 30 days of hospital admission, 513 among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation. Most deaths (510/622, 82%) occurred during hospital stay. Using inverse probability of treatment weighted analyses, the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.1% to 15.5%) among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation and 18.7% (15.1% to 22.9%) among those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive prophylactic anticoagulation, those who did had a 27% decreased risk for 30 day mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.81). Similar associations were found for inpatient mortality and initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation. Receipt of prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with increased risk of bleeding that required transfusion (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.71 to 1.05). Quantitative bias analysis showed that results were robust to unmeasured confounding (e-value lower 95% confidence interval 1.77 for 30 day mortality). Results persisted in several sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation among patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 was associated with a decreased risk of 30 day mortality and no increased risk of serious bleeding events. These findings provide strong real world evidence to support guidelines recommending the use of prophylactic anticoagulation as initial treatment for patients with covid-19 on hospital admission.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Tromboembolia/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e016502, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283587

RESUMO

Background The aim of this study was to determine whether frailty is associated with increased admission and mortality risk in the setting of heart failure. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort analysis included patients treated within the Veterans Affairs Health System who had International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for heart failure on 2 or more dates over a 2-year period. The clinical variables identifiable in claims data, such as demographic variables and markers of physical and cognitive dysfunction, were used to identify patients meeting the frailty phenotype. Of 388 785 extracted patients with coding of heart failure between 2015 and 2018, 163 085 patients (41.9%) with ejection fraction (EF) measurement were included in the present analysis (38.3% with reduced EF and 61.7% with preserved EF). There were 16 660 patients (10.2%) who were identified as frail (9.1% in heart failure with reduced EF and 10.9% in heart failure with preserved EF). Frail patients were older, more often depressed, and were likely to have been admitted in the previous year. One-year all-cause mortality rate was 9.7% and 28.1%, and admission rate was 58.1% and 79.5% for nonfrail and frail patients, respectively. Frailty was associated with mortality and admission risk compared with the nonfrail group (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% CI, 1.65-1.77 for mortality; adjusted OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.24-1.34 for admission) independent of EF. Conclusions Frailty based on diagnostic coding was associated with particularly higher risk of mortality despite adjustment for known clinical variables. Our findings underscore the importance of nontraditional parameters in the prognostic assessment.

4.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289664

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and a primary driver of health care resource use in the United States. As such, there continues to be much interest in the development and refinement of HF clinics that manage patients with HF in a guideline-directed, technology-enabled, and coordinated approach. Optimization of resource use and maintenance of collaboration with other providers are also important themes when considering implementation of HF clinics. Through this document, the Heart Failure Society of America aims to provide a contemporary, practical guide to creating and sustaining a HF clinic. The guide discusses (1) patient care considerations for delivering guideline-directed and patient-centered care, and (2) operational considerations including development of a HF clinic business plan, setting goals, leadership support, triggers for patient referral and patient follow-up, patient population served, optimal clinic staffing models, relationships with subspecialists, and continuous quality improvement. This document was developed to empower providers and clinicians who wish to build and sustain community-based, successful HF clinics.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). BACKGROUND: Little is known about patients who underwent ASC PCI before Medicare reimbursement was instituted in 2020. METHODS: Using commercial insurance claims from MarketScan, adults who underwent hospital outpatient department (HOPD) or ASC PCI for stable ischemic heart disease from 2007 to 2016 were studied. Propensity score analysis was used to measure the association between treatment setting and the primary composite outcome of 30-day myocardial infarction, bleeding complications, and hospital admission. RESULTS: The unmatched sample consisted of 95,492 HOPD and 849 ASC PCIs. Patients who underwent ASC PCI were more likely to be younger than 65 years, to live in the southern United States, and to have managed or consumer-driven health insurance. ASC PCI was also associated with decreased fractional flow reserve utilization (odds ratio [OR]: 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.48; p < 0.001). In unmatched, multivariate analysis, ASC PCI was associated with increased odds of the primary outcome (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.56; p = 0.039) and bleeding complications (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.90; p = 0.016). In propensity-matched analysis, ASC PCI was not associated with the primary outcome (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.60; p = 0.124) but was significantly associated with increased bleeding complications (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.25 to 4.95; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Commercially insured patients undergoing ASC PCI were less likely to undergo fractional flow reserve testing and had higher odds of bleeding complications than HOPD-treated patients. Further study is warranted as Medicare ASC PCI volume increases.

7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185662

RESUMO

Importance: In May 2020, dapagliflozin was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), based on the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial. Limited data are available characterizing the generalizability of dapagliflozin to US clinical practice. Objective: To evaluate candidacy for initiation of dapagliflozin based on the FDA label among contemporary patients with HFrEF in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 154 714 patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) hospitalized at 406 sites in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) registry admitted between January 1, 2014, and September 30, 2019. Patients who left against medical advice, transferred to an acute care facility or to hospice, or had missing data were excluded. The FDA label (which excluded patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, those undergoing dialysis, and those with type 1 diabetes) was applied to the GWTG-HF registry sample. Data analyses were conducted from April 1 to June 30, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of patients hospitalized with HFrEF who would be candidates for dapagliflozin under the FDA label. Results: Among 154 714 patients hospitalized with HFrEF, 125 497 (81.1%; 83 481 men [66.5%]; mean [SD] age, 68 [15] years) would be candidates for dapagliflozin according to the FDA label. Across 355 sites with patients with 10 or more hospitalizations, the median proportion of candidates for dapagliflozin according to the FDA label was 81.1% (interquartile range, 77.8%-84.6%) at each site. This proportion was similar across all study years (interquartile range, 80.4%-81.7%) and was higher among those without type 2 diabetes than with type 2 diabetes (85.5% vs 75.6%). Among GWTG-HF participants, the most frequent reason for not meeting the FDA label criteria was eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 at discharge (18.5%). Among 75 654 patients with available paired admission and discharge data, 14.2% had an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 at both time points, while 3.8% developed an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 by discharge. Although there were more older adults, women, and Black patients in the GWTG-HF registry than in the DAPA-HF trial, most clinical characteristics were qualitatively similar between the 2 groups. Compared with the DAPA-HF trial cohort, there was lower use of evidence-based HF therapies among patients in GWTG-HF. Conclusions and Relevance: These data from a large, contemporary US registry of patients hospitalized with heart failure suggest that 4 of 5 patients with HFrEF (with or without type 2 diabetes) would be candidates for initiation of dapagliflozin, supporting its broad generalizability to US clinical practice.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250265

RESUMO

This article has been temporarily removed as it was inadvertently posted ahead of an agreed-upon embargo. The article will be reinstated upon embargo expiry. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(9): e006743, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) guides treatment of heart failure, yet this data has not been systematically collected in large data sets. We sought to characterize the epidemiology of incident heart failure using the initial LVEF. METHODS: We identified 219 537 patients in the Veterans Affairs system between 2011 and 2017 who had an LVEF documented within 365 days before and 30 days after the heart failure diagnosis date. LVEF was obtained from natural language processing from imaging and provider notes. In multivariate analysis, we assessed characteristics associated with having an initial LVEF <40%. RESULTS: Most patients were male and White; a plurality were within the 60 to 69 year age decile. A majority of patients had ischemic heart disease and a high burden of co-morbidities. Over time, presentation with an LVEF <40% became slightly less common, with a nadir in 2015. Presentation with an initial LVEF <40% was more common in younger patients, men, Black and Hispanic patients, an inpatient presentation, lower systolic blood pressure, lower pulse pressure, and higher heart rate. Ischemic heart disease, alcohol use disorder, peripheral arterial disease, and ventricular arrhythmias were associated with an initial LVEF <40%, while most other comorbid conditions (eg, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, malignancy) were more strongly associated with an initial LVEF >50%. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with heart failure, particularly at the extremes of age, an initial preserved LVEF is common. In addition to clinical characteristics, certain races (Black and Hispanic) were more likely to present with a reduced LVEF. Further studies are needed to determine if racial differences are due to patient or health systems issues such as access to care.

12.
J Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a risk factor for adverse post-procedural outcome after revascularization; however, it is unclear how left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and clinical HF symptoms affect percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes. We investigated the characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients with clinical HF or LVSD after PCI. METHODS: This was a Japanese multicenter registry study of adult patients receiving PCI. Among 4689 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at 15 hospitals from January 2009 to December 2012, we analyzed 2634 (56.2%) with documented left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). They were divided into four groups based on clinical HF (symptoms or HF hospitalization) and LVEF [≥35% and <35% (HF due to LVSD)]. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), comprising all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, HF hospitalization, performance of coronary artery bypass grafting, and stroke within 2 years after the initial PCI. RESULTS: Our findings revealed 354 patients (13.4%) with HF (clinical HF, n = 173, 48.9%; LVSD, n = 132, 37.3%; both, n = 49; 13.8%). The incidence of MACE was higher in patients with clinical HF or LVSD, and was largely due to higher non-cardiac death and HF hospitalization. After adjustment, clinical HF (hazard ratio 2.16, 95% confidence interval; 1.49-3.14) and lower LVEF (per 10%, hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval; 0.81-0.99) were independently associated with higher MACE risk. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical HF and LVSD were independently associated with adverse long-term clinical outcomes, particularly with non-cardiac death and HF readmission, in patients treated with PCI.

13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(9): 1042-1047, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936253

RESUMO

Importance: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Veterans Affairs Health Care System provide incentives for hospitals to reduce 30-day readmission and mortality rates. In contrast with the large body of evidence describing readmission and mortality in the Medicare system, it is unclear how heart failure readmission and mortality rates have changed during this period in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Objectives: To evaluate trends in readmission and mortality after heart failure admission in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System, which had no financial penalties, in a decade involving focus on heart failure readmission reduction (2007-2017). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from all Veterans Affairs-paid heart failure admissions from January 2007 to September 2017. All Veterans Affairs-paid hospital admissions to Veterans Affairs and non-Veterans Affairs facilities for a primary diagnosis of heart failure were included, when the admission was paid for by the Veterans Affairs. Data analyses were conducted from October 2018 to March 2020. Exposures: Admission for a primary diagnosis of heart failure at discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thirty-day all-cause readmission and mortality rates. Results: A total of 164 566 patients with 304 374 hospital admissions were included. Among the 304 374 hospital admissions between 2007 and 2017, 298 260 (98.0%) were for male patients, and 195 205 (64.4%) were for white patients. The mean (SD) age was 70.8 (11.5) years. The adjusted odds ratio of 30-day readmission declined throughout the study period to 0.85 (95% CI, 0.83-0.88) in 2015 to 2017 compared with 2007 to 2008. The adjusted odds ratio of 30-day mortality remained stable, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96-1.06) in 2015 to 2017 compared with 2007 to 2008. Stratification by left ventricular ejection fraction showed similar readmission reduction trends and no significant change in mortality, regardless of strata. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of an integrated health care system that provided guidance and nonfinancial incentives for reducing readmissions, such as public reporting of readmission rates, risk-adjusted 30-day readmission declined despite inclusion of clinical variables in risk adjustment, but mortality did not decline. Future investigations should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific approaches to readmission reduction to inform efficient and effective application in individual health systems, hospitals, and practices.

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(9): e009887, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883105
15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876650

RESUMO

Importance: Medicare Advantage (MA), a private insurance plan option, now covers one-third of all Medicare beneficiaries. Although patients with cardiovascular disease enrolled in MA have been reported to receive higher quality of care in the ambulatory setting than patients enrolled in fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, it is unclear whether MA is associated with higher quality in patients hospitalized with heart failure, or alternatively, if incentives to reduce utilization under MA plans may be associated with worse care. Objective: To determine whether there are differences in quality of care received and in-hospital outcomes among patients enrolled in MA vs FFS Medicare. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational, retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with heart failure in hospitals participating in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure registry. Exposures: Medicare Advantage enrollment. Main Outcomes and Measures: In-hospital mortality, discharge disposition, length of stay, and 4 heart failure achievement measures. Results: Of 262 626 patients hospitalized with heart failure, 93 549 (35.6%) were enrolled in MA and 169 077 (64.4%) in FFS Medicare. The median (interquartile range) age was 78 (70-85) years for patients enrolled in MA and 78 (69-86) years for patients enrolled in FFS Medicare. Standard mean differences in age, sex, prevalence of comorbidities, or objective measures on admission, including vital signs and laboratory values, were less than 10%. After adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences in receipt of evidence-based ß-blockers when indicated; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blockers, or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors at discharge; measurement of left ventricular function; and postdischarge appointments by Medicare insurance type. Patients enrolled in MA, however, had higher odds of being discharged directly home (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13-1.19; P < .001) relative to patients enrolled in FFS Medicare and lower odds of being discharged within 4 days (AOR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00; P = .04). There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality between patients with MA and patients with FFS Medicare (AOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.92-1.03; P = .42). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients hospitalized with heart failure, no observable benefit was noted in quality of care or in-hospital mortality between those enrolled in MA vs FFS Medicare, except lower use of post-acute care facilities. As MA continues to grow, it will be important to ensure that participating private plans provide an added value to the patients they cover to justify the higher administrative costs compared with traditional FFS Medicare.

18.
Am Heart J ; 226: 240-249, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517853

RESUMO

Our aim was to investigate the variability in physician recognition of atrial fibrillation (AF)-related symptoms, which greatly contributes to the management of AF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1493 newly-referredAF patients (67 ±â€¯11 y/o, 1057 men) consecutively registered in an outpatient-based Japanese multicenter database (KiCS-AF) from September 2012 to December 2016 were analyzed. Self-reportedAF symptom burden was assessed via symptom and daily activities domains within the Atrial Fibrillation Effect on QualiTy-of-life (AFEQT) questionnaire. Physician symptom under-recognition (UR) was defined as no subjective complaints recorded in the medical records despite AFEQT score of <80; and physician's apparent over-recognition (OvR) was defined as documentation of subjective complaints despite total AFEQT score of ≥80. There was poor agreement between patient-reported and physicians-estimated symptom burden (kappa 0.28, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.33). In the logistic regression analysis, age> 75 (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-2.62), male sex (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.22-2.74), and persistent/permanent AF (OR 2.54/3.36; CI, 1.63-3.99/1.91-5.89, respectively) were predictors of UR. Conversely, heart failure (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.44-4.25) and treatment in an ablation facility (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-2.02) were associated with greater odds of OvR in addition to age, sex, and type of AF. CONCLUSIONS: Discordance in recognition of AF symptom burden by physicians was frequent in AF patients seen in outpatient management and involved both patient- and physician-related factors.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Avaliação de Sintomas
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e012405, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476539

RESUMO

Background There are conflicting data regarding the benefit of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in patients with diabetes mellitus and heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. We aimed to assess the comparative effectiveness of ICD placement in patients with diabetes mellitus and HF with reduced ejection fraction. Methods and Results Data were obtained from the Get With the Guidelines-Health Failure registry, linked with claims from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. We used a Cox proportional hazards model censored at 5 years with propensity score matching. Of the 17 186 patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims database (6540 with diabetes mellitus; 38%), 1677 (646 with diabetes mellitus; 39%) received an ICD during their index HF hospitalization or were prescribed an ICD at discharge. Patients with diabetes mellitus and an ICD (n=646), as compared with those without an ICD (n=1031), were more likely to be younger (74 versus 78 years of age) and have coronary artery disease (68% versus 60%). After propensity matching, ICD use among patients with diabetes mellitus, as compared with those without an ICD, was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality at 5 years after HF discharge (54% versus 59%; multivariable hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.64-0.82; P<0.0001). Ischemic heart disease did not modify the association between ICD use and all-cause mortality (P=0.95 for interaction). Similar results were seen in patients without diabetes mellitus. Conclusions Primary prevention ICD use among older patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction and diabetes mellitus was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Our analysis supports current guideline recommendations for implantation of primary prevention ICDs among older patients with diabetes mellitus and HF with reduced ejection fraction.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e014949, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378443

RESUMO

Background Although 30-day readmission is thought to be an important quality indicator in patients with hospitalized heart failure, its prognostic impact and comparison of patients who were readmitted beyond 30 days has not been investigated. We assessed early (0-30 days) versus midrange (31-90 days) readmission in terms of incidence and distribution, and elucidated whether the timing of readmission could have a different prognostic significance. Methods and Results We examined patients with hospitalized heart failure registered in the WET-HF (West Tokyo Heart Failure) registry. The primary outcomes analyzed were all-cause death and HF readmission. Data of 3592 consecutive patients with hospitalized heart failure (median follow-up, 2.0 years [interquartile range, 0.8-3.1 years]; 39.6% women, mean age 73.9±13.3 years) were analyzed. Within 90 days after discharge, HF readmissions occurred in 11.1% patients. Of them, patients readmitted within 30 and 31 to 90 days after discharge accounted for 43.1% and 56.9%, respectively. Independent predictors of 30- and 90-day readmission were almost identical, and after adjustment, readmission for HF within 90 days (including both early and midrange readmission) was an independent predictor of subsequent all-cause death (hazard ratio, 2.36; P<0.001). Among 90-day readmitted patients, the time interval from discharge to readmission was not significantly associated with subsequent all-cause death. Conclusions Among patients readmitted within 90 days after index hospitalization discharge, ≈60% of readmission events occurred beyond 30 days. Patients readmitted within 90 days had a higher risk of long-term mortality, regardless of the temporal proximity of readmission to the index hospitalization.

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