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1.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2022 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35135724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periampullary adenocarcinoma consists of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), distal cholangiocarcinoma (DC), ampullary cancer (AC), and duodenal adenocarcinoma (DA). The aim of this study was to assess treatment modalities and overall survival by tumor origin. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with non-metastatic periampullary cancer in 2012-2018 were identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. OS was studied with Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox regression analyses, stratified by origin. RESULTS: Among the 8758 patients included, 68% had PDAC, 13% DC, 12% AC, and 7% DA. Resection was performed in 35% of PDAC, 56% of DC, 70% of AC, and 59% of DA. Neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant therapy was administered in 22% of PDAC, 7% of DC, 7% of AC, and 12% of DA. Three-year OS was highest for AC (37%) and DA (34%), followed by DC (21%) and PDAC (11%). Adjuvant therapy was associated with improved OS among PDAC (HR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.55-0.69) and DC (HR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.98), but not AC (HR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.62-1.22) and DA (HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.48-1.50). CONCLUSION: This retrospective study identified considerable differences in treatment modalities and OS between the four periampullary cancer origins in daily clinical practice. An improved OS after adjuvant chemotherapy could not be demonstrated in patients with AC and DA.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053599

RESUMO

The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), an inflammatory parameter, has shown prognostic value in several malignancies. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the impact of pretreatment PLR on the oncological outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A systematic literature search has been carried out in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for pertinent papers published between January 2000 and August 2021. Within a random-effects model, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to investigate the relationships among the PLR, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were also conducted to further evaluate the relationship. A total of 20 articles comprising 5429 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled outcomes revealed that a high PLR before treatment is associated with impaired OS (HR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.06-1.24; p < 0.01) and DFS (HR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.19-2.07; p < 0.01). Subgroup analysis revealed that this association is not influenced by the treatment modality (surgical vs. non-surgical), PLR cut-off values, or sample size of the included studies. An elevated pretreatment PLR is prognostic for the OS and DFS of CCA patients. More high-quality studies are required to investigate the pathophysiological basis of the observation and the prognostic value of the PLR in clinical management as well as for patient selection.

3.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 48(3): 604-614, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565633

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major hepatectomy for perihilar and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is often associated with a significant intraoperative blood loss and the requirement for perioperative transfusion of blood products. The aim of this study was to investigate the oncological impact of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion during hospitalization in patients undergoing hepatectomy for CCA as adverse effects have been described in other malignancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients undergoing hepatectomy for CCA from 2010 to 2019 at a single institution were eligible for this study. Survival analysis was carried out according to Kaplan-Meier and the associations of cancer-specific (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with in-hospital application of FFP and other clinico-pathological characteristics were assessed using Cox regression models. Perioperatively deceased patients were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 219 CCA patients were included in this survival analysis of which 53.0% (116/219) received FFP during hospitalization. Patients receiving in-hospital FFP showed a median CCS of 33 months (3-year-CSS = 46%, 5-year-CSS = 29%) compared to 83 months (3-year-CSS = 55%, 5-year-CSS = 53%) in patients who did not receive in-hospital FFP (p = 0.006 log rank). Further, in-hospital FFP was identified as an independent predictor of oncological outcome in multivariable analysis (CSS: HR = 1.71, p = 0.016; RFS: HR = 1.89, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: In a large European cohort of patients, in-hospital transfusion of FFP was identified as a novel independent prognostic marker in CCA patients undergoing curative-intent liver surgery. A restrictive transfusion policy is therefore recommended to improve long-term outcome in these patients.

4.
J Pathol ; 256(1): 50-60, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561876

RESUMO

Deep learning is a powerful tool in computational pathology: it can be used for tumor detection and for predicting genetic alterations based on histopathology images alone. Conventionally, tumor detection and prediction of genetic alterations are two separate workflows. Newer methods have combined them, but require complex, manually engineered computational pipelines, restricting reproducibility and robustness. To address these issues, we present a new method for simultaneous tumor detection and prediction of genetic alterations: The Slide-Level Assessment Model (SLAM) uses a single off-the-shelf neural network to predict molecular alterations directly from routine pathology slides without any manual annotations, improving upon previous methods by automatically excluding normal and non-informative tissue regions. SLAM requires only standard programming libraries and is conceptually simpler than previous approaches. We have extensively validated SLAM for clinically relevant tasks using two large multicentric cohorts of colorectal cancer patients, Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening (DACHS) from Germany and Yorkshire Cancer Research Bowel Cancer Improvement Programme (YCR-BCIP) from the UK. We show that SLAM yields reliable slide-level classification of tumor presence with an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of 0.980 (confidence interval 0.975, 0.984; n = 2,297 tumor and n = 1,281 normal slides). In addition, SLAM can detect microsatellite instability (MSI)/mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) or microsatellite stability/mismatch repair proficiency with an AUROC of 0.909 (0.888, 0.929; n = 2,039 patients) and BRAF mutational status with an AUROC of 0.821 (0.786, 0.852; n = 2,075 patients). The improvement with respect to previous methods was validated in a large external testing cohort in which MSI/dMMR status was detected with an AUROC of 0.900 (0.864, 0.931; n = 805 patients). In addition, SLAM provides human-interpretable visualization maps, enabling the analysis of multiplexed network predictions by human experts. In summary, SLAM is a new simple and powerful method for computational pathology that could be applied to multiple disease contexts. © 2021 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
J Pathol ; 256(3): 269-281, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738636

RESUMO

The spread of early-stage (T1 and T2) adenocarcinomas to locoregional lymph nodes is a key event in disease progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). The cellular mechanisms behind this event are not completely understood and existing predictive biomarkers are imperfect. Here, we used an end-to-end deep learning algorithm to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) status in digitized histopathology slides of the primary CRC and its surrounding tissue. In two large population-based cohorts, we show that this system can predict the presence of more than one LNM in pT2 CRC patients with an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of 0.733 (0.67-0.758) and patients with any LNM with an AUROC of 0.711 (0.597-0.797). Similarly, in pT1 CRC patients, the presence of more than one LNM or any LNM was predictable with an AUROC of 0.733 (0.644-0.778) and 0.567 (0.542-0.597), respectively. Based on these findings, we used the deep learning system to guide human pathology experts towards highly predictive regions for LNM in the whole slide images. This hybrid human observer and deep learning approach identified inflamed adipose tissue as the highest predictive feature for LNM presence. Our study is a first proof of concept that artificial intelligence (AI) systems may be able to discover potentially new biological mechanisms in cancer progression. Our deep learning algorithm is publicly available and can be used for biomarker discovery in any disease setting. © 2021 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico por Computador , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Linfonodos/patologia , Microscopia , Biópsia , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209368

RESUMO

Surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is associated with a high rate of recurrence even after complete resection. To achieve acceptable results, preoperative patient selection is crucial. Hence, we aimed to identify preoperative characteristics with prognostic value focusing on certain radiological features. Patients who underwent hepatectomy for iCCA between 2010 and 2020 at University Hospital, RWTH Aachen were included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regressions were applied for survival analysis and associations of overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with clinical/radiological characteristics, respectively. Based on radiological features patients were stratified into three groups: single nodule ≤ 3 cm, single nodule > 3 cm, and ≥ 2 nodules. Analysis of 139 patients revealed a mean OS of 142 months for those with a single nodule ≤ 3 cm, median OS of 28 months with a single nodule > 3 cm, and 19 months with ≥ 2 nodules, respectively. Multivariable analyses based on preoperative characteristics showed the radiological stratification to be independently associated with OS (HR (hazard ratio) = 4.25 (1 nodule, > 3 cm), HR = 5.97 (≥ 2 nodules), p = 0.011), RFS (HR = 4.18 (1 nodule, > 3 cm), and HR = 11.07 (≥2 nodules), p = 0.001). In conclusion, patients with single iCCA ≤ 3 cm show compelling OS and RFS. Basic radiological features (e.g., nodule size, number) are prognostic for patients undergoing surgery and useful in preoperative patient selection.

7.
J Pathol ; 255(3): 270-284, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309874

RESUMO

Activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is frequently found in cancer, but mTOR inhibitors have thus far failed to demonstrate significant antiproliferative efficacy in the majority of cancer types. Besides cancer cell-intrinsic resistance mechanisms, it is conceivable that mTOR inhibitors impact on non-malignant host cells in a manner that ultimately supports resistance of cancer cells. Against this background, we sought to analyze the functional consequences of mTOR inhibition in hepatocytes for the growth of metastatic colon cancer. To this end, we established liver epithelial cell (LEC)-specific knockout (KO) of mTOR (mTORLEC ) mice. We used these mice to characterize the growth of colorectal liver metastases with or without partial hepatectomy to model different clinical settings. Although the LEC-specific loss of mTOR remained without effect on metastasis growth in intact liver, partial liver resection resulted in the formation of larger metastases in mTORLEC mice compared with wildtype controls. This was accompanied by significantly enhanced inflammatory activity in LEC-specific mTOR KO livers after partial liver resection. Analysis of NF-ĸB target gene expression and immunohistochemistry of p65 displayed a significant activation of NF-ĸB in mTORLEC mice, suggesting a functional importance of this pathway for the observed inflammatory phenotype. Taken together, we show an unexpected acceleration of liver metastases upon deletion of mTOR in LECs. Our results support the notion that non-malignant host cells can contribute to resistance against mTOR inhibitors and encourage testing whether anti-inflammatory drugs are able to improve the efficacy of mTOR inhibitors for cancer therapy. © 2021 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia
8.
Cancer Metab ; 9(1): 26, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic reprogramming is a common phenomenon in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Amino acids are important mediators in cancer metabolism, and their kinetics in tumor tissue are far from being understood completely. Mass spectrometry imaging is capable to spatiotemporally trace important endogenous metabolites in biological tissue specimens. In this research, we studied L-[ring-13C6]-labeled phenylalanine and tyrosine kinetics in a human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) xenografted mouse model using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-FTICR-MSI). METHODS: We investigated the L-[ring-13C6]-Phenylalanine (13C6-Phe) and L-[ring-13C6]-Tyrosine (13C6-Tyr) kinetics at 10 min (n = 4), 30 min (n = 3), and 60 min (n = 4) after tracer injection and sham-treated group (n = 3) at 10 min in mouse-xenograft lung tumor tissues by MALDI-FTICR-MSI. RESULTS: The dynamic changes in the spatial distributions of 19 out of 20 standard amino acids are observed in the tumor tissue. The highest abundance of 13C6-Phe was detected in tumor tissue at 10 min after tracer injection and decreased progressively over time. The overall enrichment of 13C6-Tyr showed a delayed temporal trend compared to 13C6-Phe in tumor caused by the Phe-to-Tyr conversion process. Specifically, 13C6-Phe and 13C6-Tyr showed higher abundances in viable tumor regions compared to non-viable regions. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the spatiotemporal intra-tumoral distribution of the essential aromatic amino acid 13C6-Phe and its de-novo synthesized metabolite 13C6-Tyr by MALDI-FTICR-MSI. Our results explore for the first time local phenylalanine metabolism in the context of cancer tissue morphology. This opens a new way to understand amino acid metabolism within the tumor and its microenvironment.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10331, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990635

RESUMO

Chorioamnionitis, inflammation of fetal membranes, is an important cause of preterm birth and a risk factor for the development of adverse neonatal outcomes including sepsis and intestinal pathologies. Intestinal bile acids (BAs) accumulation and hepatic cytokine production are involved in adverse intestinal outcomes. These findings triggered us to study the liver and enterohepatic circulation (EHC) following intra-amniotic (IA) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. An ovine chorioamnionitis model was used in which circulatory cytokines and outcomes of the liver and EHC of preterm lambs were longitudinally assessed following IA administration of 10 mg LPS at 5, 12 or 24h or 2, 4, 8 or 15d before preterm birth. Hepatic inflammation was observed, characterized by increased hepatic cytokine mRNA levels (5h - 2d post IA LPS exposure) and increased erythropoietic clusters (at 8 and 15 days post IA LPS exposure). Besides, 12h after IA LPS exposure, plasma BA levels were increased, whereas gene expression levels of several hepatic BA transporters were decreased. Initial EHC alterations normalized over time. Concluding, IA LPS exposure induces significant time-dependent changes in the fetal liver and EHC. These chorioamnionitis induced changes have potential postnatal consequences and the duration of IA LPS exposure might be essential herein.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/imunologia , Circulação Êntero-Hepática/imunologia , Feto/irrigação sanguínea , Hepatite/imunologia , Nascimento Prematuro/imunologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Corioamnionite/sangue , Corioamnionite/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Feto/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Carneiro Doméstico , Fatores de Tempo
10.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(10): 1565-1577, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a certain degree of tumor infiltration of the portal vein is common in patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) scheduled for surgery, complete tumor-associated portal vein occlusion (PVO) is less frequently observed. Here, we analyzed the impact of PVO on perioperative and oncological outcomes in pCCA patients. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2019, 127 patients with pCCA underwent surgery in curative intent at our department of which 17.3% (22/127) presented with PVO. Extensive group comparisons were conducted and the association of cancer-specific (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) with PVO and other clinico-pathological characteristics were assessed using Cox regression models. RESULTS: Patients without PVO showed a median CSS of 65 months (3-year-CSS = 64%, 5-year-CSS = 53%) compared to 31 months (3-year-CSS = 43%, 5-year-CSS = 17%) in patients with PVO (p = 0.025 log rank). Patients with PVO did also display significant perioperative mortality (22.7%, 5/22) compared to patients without PVO (14.3%, 15/105, p = 0.323). Further, PVO (CSS: HR = 5.25, p = 0.001; DFS: HR = 5.53, p = 0.001) was identified as independent predictors of oncological outcome. CONCLUSIONS: PVO has been identified as an important prognostic marker playing a role in inferior oncological outcome in patients with pCCA. As PVO is also associated with notable perioperative mortality, surgical therapy should be considered carefully in pCCA patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Tumor de Klatskin , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Colangiocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Tumor de Klatskin/complicações , Tumor de Klatskin/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumor de Klatskin/cirurgia , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917832

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer has one of the worst prognoses of any human malignancy and leukocyte infiltration is a major prognostic marker of the disease. As current immunotherapies confer negligible survival benefits, there is a need to better characterise leukocytes in pancreatic cancer to identify better therapeutic strategies. In this study, we analysed 32 human pancreatic cancer patients from two independent cohorts. A multi-parameter mass-cytometry analysis was performed on 32,000 T-cells from eight patients. Single-cell RNA sequencing dataset analysis was performed on a cohort of 24 patients. Multiplex immunohistochemistry imaging and spatial analysis were performed to map immune infiltration into the tumour microenvironment. Regulatory T-cell populations demonstrated highly immunosuppressive states with high TIGIT, ICOS and CD39 expression. CD8+ T-cells were found to be either in senescence or an exhausted state. The exhausted CD8 T-cells had low PD-1 expression but high TIGIT and CD39 expression. These findings were corroborated in an independent pancreatic cancer single-cell RNA dataset. These data suggest that T-cells are major players in the suppressive microenvironment of pancreatic cancer. Our work identifies multiple novel therapeutic targets that should form the basis for rational design of a new generation of clinical trials in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

12.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 47(7): 1742-1749, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712346

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ampullary cancer is rare and as a result epidemiological data are scarce. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the trends in incidence, treatment and overall survival (OS) in patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2016. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with ampullary adenocarcinoma were identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the European standard population. Trends in treatment and OS were studied over (7 years) period of diagnosis, using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses for OS and stratified by the presence of metastatic disease. RESULTS: In total, 3840 patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma were diagnosed of whom, 55.0% were male and 87.1% had non-metastatic disease. The incidence increased from 0.59 per 100,000 in 1989-1995 to 0.68 per 100,000in 2010-2016. In non-metastatic disease, the resection rate increased from 49.5% in 1989-1995 to 63.9% in 2010-2016 (p < 0.001). The rate of adjuvant therapy increased from 3.1% to 7.9%. In non-metastatic disease, five-year OS (95% CI) increased from 19.8% (16.9-22.8) in 1989-1995 to 29.1% (26.0-31.2) in 2010-2016 (logrank p < 0.001). In patients with metastatic disease, median OS did not significantly improve (from 4.4 months (3.6-5.0) to 5.9 months (4.7-7.1); logrank p = 0.06). Cancer treatment was an independent prognostic factor for OS among all patients. CONCLUSION: Both incidence and OS of ampullary cancer increased from 1989 to 2016 which is most likely related to the observed increased resection rates and use of adjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Ampola Hepatopancreática/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
J Clin Med ; 10(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573277

RESUMO

B cells and tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are reported to be important in survival in cancer. Pancreatic Cancer (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancer types, and currently, it is the seventh leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. A better understanding of tumor biology is pivotal to improve clinical outcome. The desmoplastic stroma is a complex system in which crosstalk takes place between cancer-associated fibroblasts, immune cells and cancer cells. Indirect and direct cellular interactions within the tumor microenvironment (TME) drive key processes such as tumor progression, metastasis formation and treatment resistance. In order to understand the aggressiveness of PDAC and its resistance to therapeutics, the TME needs to be further unraveled. There are some limited data about the influence of nerve fibers on cancer progression. Here we show that small nerve fibers are located at lymphoid aggregates in PDAC. This unravels future pathways and has potential to improve clinical outcome by a rational development of new therapeutic strategies.

14.
Esophagus ; 18(1): 100-110, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of lymph node metastasis (LNmets) is a poor prognostic factor in oesophageal cancer (OeC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery. Tumour regression grade (TRG) in LNmets has been suggested as a predictor for survival. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TRG in LNmets is related to their location within the radiotherapy (RT) field. METHODS: Histopathological TRG was retrospectively classified in 2565 lymph nodes (LNs) from 117 OeC patients treated with nCRT and surgery as: (A) no tumour, no signs of regression; (B) tumour without regression; (C) viable tumour and regression; and (D) complete response. Multivariate survival analysis was used to investigate the relationship between LN location within the RT field, pathological TRG of the LN and TRG of the primary tumour. RESULTS: In 63 (54%) patients, viable tumour cells or signs of regression were seen in 264 (10.2%) LNs which were classified as TRG-B (n = 56), C (n = 104) or D (n = 104) LNs. 73% of B, C and D LNs were located within the RT field. There was a trend towards a relationship between LN response and anatomical LN location with respect to the RT field (p = 0.052). Multivariate analysis showed that only the presence of LNmets within the RT field with TRG-B is related to poor overall survival. CONCLUSION: Patients have the best survival if all LNmets show tumour regression, even if LNmets are located outside the RT field. Response in LNmets to nCRT is heterogeneous which warrants further studies to better understand underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Linfonodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Oncogene ; 40(5): 899-908, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288884

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are both deadly cancers and they share many biological features besides their close anatomical location. One of the main histological features is neurotropism, which results in frequent perineural invasion. The underlying mechanism of cancer cells favoring growth by and through the nerve fibers is not fully understood. In this review, we provide knowledge of these cancers with frequent perineural invasion. We discuss nerve fiber crosstalk with the main different components of the tumor microenvironment (TME), the immune cells, and the fibroblasts. Also, we discuss the crosstalk between the nerve fibers and the cancer. We highlight the shared signaling pathways of the mechanisms behind perineural invasion in PDAC and CCA. Hereby we have focussed on signaling neurotransmitters and neuropeptides which may be a target for future therapies. Furthermore, we have summarized retrospective results of the previous literature about nerve fibers in PDAC and CCA patients. We provide our point of view in the potential for nerve fibers to be used as powerful biomarker for prognosis, as a tool to stratify patients for therapy or as a target in a (combination) therapy. Taking the presence of nerves into account can potentially change the field of personalized care in these neurotropic cancers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Fibras Nervosas/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
16.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic tumors are frequently diagnosed in a locally advanced stage with poor prognosis if untreated. This study assesses the safety and oncological outcomes of pancreatic surgery with arterial en-bloc resection. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent a pancreatic resection with arterial resection between 2011 and 2020. Univariable analyses were used to assess prognostic factors for survival. RESULTS: Forty consecutive patients (22 female; 18 male) undergoing arterial resections were included. Surgical procedures consisted of 19 pancreatoduodenectomies (PD, 48%), 16 distal splenopancreatectomy (DSP, 40%), and 5 total pancreatectomies (TP, 12%). Arterial resection included hepatic arteries (HA, N = 23), coeliac trunk (TC, N = 15) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA, N = 2). Neoadjuvant therapy was applied in 22 patients (58%). Major complications after surgery were observed in 15% of cases. 90-day mortality was 5%. Median disease-free survival and median overall survival were for the R0/CRM- group 22.8 months and 27.9 months, 9.5 and 19.8 months for the R0/CRM+ group, and 10.1 and 13.1 months for the R1 group, respectively. CONCLUSION: In highly selected patients, arterial en-bloc resection can be performed with acceptable mortality and morbidity rates and beneficial oncological outcome.

17.
Front Genet ; 12: 806386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251119

RESUMO

In the last four years, advances in Deep Learning technology have enabled the inference of selected mutational alterations directly from routine histopathology slides. In particular, recent studies have shown that genetic changes in clinically relevant driver genes are reflected in the histological phenotype of solid tumors and can be inferred by analysing routine Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections with Deep Learning. However, these studies mostly focused on selected individual genes in selected tumor types. In addition, genetic changes in solid tumors primarily act by changing signaling pathways that regulate cell behaviour. In this study, we hypothesized that Deep Learning networks can be trained to directly predict alterations of genes and pathways across a spectrum of solid tumors. We manually outlined tumor tissue in H&E-stained tissue sections from 7,829 patients with 23 different tumor types from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We then trained convolutional neural networks in an end-to-end way to detect alterations in the most clinically relevant pathways or genes, directly from histology images. Using this automatic approach, we found that alterations in 12 out of 14 clinically relevant pathways and numerous single gene alterations appear to be detectable in tissue sections, many of which have not been reported before. Interestingly, we show that the prediction performance for single gene alterations is better than that for pathway alterations. Collectively, these data demonstrate the predictability of genetic alterations directly from routine cancer histology images and show that individual genes leave a stronger morphological signature than genetic pathways.

18.
Gastroenterology ; 159(4): 1406-1416.e11, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microsatellite instability (MSI) and mismatch-repair deficiency (dMMR) in colorectal tumors are used to select treatment for patients. Deep learning can detect MSI and dMMR in tumor samples on routine histology slides faster and less expensively than molecular assays. However, clinical application of this technology requires high performance and multisite validation, which have not yet been performed. METHODS: We collected H&E-stained slides and findings from molecular analyses for MSI and dMMR from 8836 colorectal tumors (of all stages) included in the MSIDETECT consortium study, from Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Specimens with dMMR were identified by immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays for loss of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and/or PMS2. Specimens with MSI were identified by genetic analyses. We trained a deep-learning detector to identify samples with MSI from these slides; performance was assessed by cross-validation (N = 6406 specimens) and validated in an external cohort (n = 771 specimens). Prespecified endpoints were area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC). RESULTS: The deep-learning detector identified specimens with dMMR or MSI with a mean AUROC curve of 0.92 (lower bound, 0.91; upper bound, 0.93) and an AUPRC of 0.63 (range, 0.59-0.65), or 67% specificity and 95% sensitivity, in the cross-validation development cohort. In the validation cohort, the classifier identified samples with dMMR with an AUROC of 0.95 (range, 0.92-0.96) without image preprocessing and an AUROC of 0.96 (range, 0.93-0.98) after color normalization. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a deep-learning system that detects colorectal cancer specimens with dMMR or MSI using H&E-stained slides; it detected tissues with dMMR with an AUROC of 0.96 in a large, international validation cohort. This system might be used for high-throughput, low-cost evaluation of colorectal tissue specimens.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC
19.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380648

RESUMO

Chorioamnionitis can lead to inflammation and injury of the liver and gut, thereby predisposing patients to adverse outcomes such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). In addition, intestinal bile acids (BAs) accumulation is causally linked to NEC development. Plant sterols are a promising intervention to prevent NEC development, considering their anti-inflammatory properties in the liver. Therefore, we investigated whether an intra-amniotic (IA) Ureaplasma parvum (UP) infection affected the liver and enterohepatic circulation (EHC) and evaluated whether an IA administered plant sterol mixture dissolved in ß-cyclodextrin exerted prophylactic effects. An ovine chorioamnionitis model was used in which liver inflammation and the EHC were assessed following IA UP exposure in the presence or absence of IA prophylactic plant sterols (a mixture of ß-sitosterol and campesterol dissolved in ß-cyclodextrin (carrier)) or carrier alone. IA UP exposure caused an inflammatory reaction in the liver, histologically seen as clustered and conflated hepatic erythropoiesis in the parenchyma, which was partially prevented by IA administration of sterol + ß-cyclodextrin, or ß-cyclodextrin alone. In addition, IA administration of ß-cyclodextrin prior to UP caused changes in the expression of several hepatic BAs transporters, without causing alterations in other aspects of the EHC. Thereby, the addition of plant sterols to the carrier ß-cyclodextrin did not have additional effects.


Assuntos
Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Corioamnionite/tratamento farmacológico , Corioamnionite/microbiologia , Portadores de Fármacos , Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Circulação Êntero-Hepática/efeitos dos fármacos , Feto/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Fitoterapia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Sitosteroides/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Ureaplasma , Ureaplasma , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Animais , Colesterol/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inflamação , Injeções Intralesionais , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ovinos , Sitosteroides/farmacologia
20.
Nat Cancer ; 1(8): 789-799, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763651

RESUMO

Molecular alterations in cancer can cause phenotypic changes in tumor cells and their micro-environment. Routine histopathology tissue slides - which are ubiquitously available - can reflect such morphological changes. Here, we show that deep learning can consistently infer a wide range of genetic mutations, molecular tumor subtypes, gene expression signatures and standard pathology biomarkers directly from routine histology. We developed, optimized, validated and publicly released a one-stop-shop workflow and applied it to tissue slides of more than 5000 patients across multiple solid tumors. Our findings show that a single deep learning algorithm can be trained to predict a wide range of molecular alterations from routine, paraffin-embedded histology slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin. These predictions generalize to other populations and are spatially resolved. Our method can be implemented on mobile hardware, potentially enabling point-of-care diagnostics for personalized cancer treatment. More generally, this approach could elucidate and quantify genotype-phenotype links in cancer.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS) , Hematoxilina , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
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