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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558840

RESUMO

Insights into individual differences in gene expression and its heritability (h2) can help in understanding pathways from DNA to phenotype. We estimated the heritability of gene expression of 52,844 genes measured in whole blood in the largest twin RNA-Seq sample to date (1497 individuals including 459 monozygotic twin pairs and 150 dizygotic twin pairs) from classical twin modeling and identity-by-state-based approaches. We estimated for each gene h2total, composed of cis-heritability (h2cis, the variance explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cis-window of the gene), and trans-heritability (h2res, the residual variance explained by all other genome-wide variants). Mean h2total was 0.26, which was significantly higher than heritability estimates earlier found in a microarray-based study using largely overlapping (>60%) RNA samples (mean h2 = 0.14, p = 6.15 × 10-258). Mean h2cis was 0.06 and strongly correlated with beta of the top cis expression quantitative loci (eQTL, ρ = 0.76, p < 10-308) and with estimates from earlier RNA-Seq-based studies. Mean h2res was 0.20 and correlated with the beta of the corresponding trans-eQTL (ρ = 0.04, p < 1.89 × 10-3) and was significantly higher for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine interactions (p = 4.22 × 10-15), many other immune system pathways, and genes identified in genome-wide association studies for various traits including behavioral disorders and cancer. This study provides a thorough characterization of cis- and trans-h2 estimates of gene expression, which is of value for interpretation of GWAS and gene expression studies.

2.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-6, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342890

RESUMO

Lifelong health is thought to be partially set during intrauterine life by persistent epigenetic changes induced by the prenatal environment. To evaluate this hypothesis, we initiated a prospective longitudinal study in monochorionic (MC) twins: the TwinLIFE study. MC twins are monozygotic, thus in origin genetically identical, and share a single placenta. Although MC twins have many environmental factors in common, in one-third of the MC twin pairs, one fetus has significantly less access to nutrients and resources during pregnancy than its co-twin often resulting in a significant discordance in prenatal growth. Hence, MC twins constitute a unique natural experiment to study the influence of the prenatal environment on health. In TwinLIFE, we will chart intrapair differences in DNA methylation focusing on mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from cord as an advanced proxy of epigenetic dysregulation relevant for long-term health consequences. Next, we will follow up the MC twins for growth, cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental outcomes during childhood and evaluate the impact of an epigenetic signature at birth on future health. The current target is to include 100 MC twin pairs, but we aim to continue enrollment after procuring additional funding. TwinLIFE will not only address an unmet clinical need in the high-risk group of MC twins, but may also advance early-life strategies to prevent adverse growth, cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental outcomes in the general population.

3.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 12(1): 34, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrophages and their precursors monocytes play a key role in inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders. Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and activation programs are accompanied by significant epigenetic remodeling where DNA methylation associates with cell identity. Here we show that DNA methylation changes characteristic for monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation occur at transcription factor binding sites, and, in contrast to what was previously described, are generally highly localized and encompass both losses and gains of DNA methylation. RESULTS: We compared genome-wide DNA methylation across 440,292 CpG sites between human monocytes, naïve macrophages and macrophages further activated toward a pro-inflammatory state (using LPS/IFNγ), an anti-inflammatory state (IL-4) or foam cells (oxLDL and acLDL). Moreover, we integrated these data with public whole-genome sequencing data on monocytes and macrophages to demarcate differentially methylated regions. Our analysis showed that differential DNA methylation was most pronounced during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, was typically restricted to single CpGs or very short regions, and co-localized with lineage-specific enhancers irrespective of whether it concerns gain or loss of methylation. Furthermore, differentially methylated CpGs were located at sites characterized by increased binding of transcription factors known to be involved in monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation including C/EBP and ETS for gain and AP-1 for loss of methylation. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the involvement of subtle, yet highly localized remodeling of DNA methylation at regulatory regions in cell differentiation.

4.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 50, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of imprinted genes, demonstrating a consistent preference towards the paternal or maternal allelic expression, is important for the understanding of gene expression regulation during embryonic development and of the molecular basis of developmental disorders with a parent-of-origin effect. Combining allelic analysis of RNA-Seq data with phased genotypes in family trios provides a powerful method to detect parent-of-origin biases in gene expression. RESULTS: We report findings in 296 family trios from two large studies: 165 lymphoblastoid cell lines from the 1000 Genomes Project and 131 blood samples from the Genome of the Netherlands (GoNL) participants. Based on parental haplotypes, we identified > 2.8 million transcribed heterozygous SNVs phased for parental origin and developed a robust statistical framework for measuring allelic expression. We identified a total of 45 imprinted genes and one imprinted unannotated transcript, including multiple imprinted transcripts showing incomplete parental expression bias that was located adjacent to strongly imprinted genes. For example, PXDC1, a gene which lies adjacent to the paternally expressed gene FAM50B, shows a 2:1 paternal expression bias. Other imprinted genes had promoter regions that coincide with sites of parentally biased DNA methylation identified in the blood from uniparental disomy (UPD) samples, thus providing independent validation of our results. Using the stranded nature of the RNA-Seq data in lymphoblastoid cell lines, we identified multiple loci with overlapping sense/antisense transcripts, of which one is expressed paternally and the other maternally. Using a sliding window approach, we searched for imprinted expression across the entire genome, identifying a novel imprinted putative lncRNA in 13q21.2. Overall, we identified 7 transcripts showing parental bias in gene expression which were not reported in 4 other recent RNA-Seq studies of imprinting. CONCLUSIONS: Our methods and data provide a robust and high-resolution map of imprinted gene expression in the human genome.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(3): 455-465, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552425

RESUMO

X-inactivation is a well-established dosage compensation mechanism ensuring that X-chromosomal genes are expressed at comparable levels in males and females. Skewed X-inactivation is often explained by negative selection of one of the alleles. We demonstrate that imbalanced expression of the paternal and maternal X-chromosomes is common in the general population and that the random nature of the X-inactivation mechanism can be sufficient to explain the imbalance. To this end, we analyzed blood-derived RNA and whole-genome sequencing data from 79 female children and their parents from the Genome of the Netherlands project. We calculated the median ratio of the paternal over total counts at all X-chromosomal heterozygous single-nucleotide variants with coverage ≥10. We identified two individuals where the same X-chromosome was inactivated in all cells. Imbalanced expression of the two X-chromosomes (ratios ≤0.35 or ≥0.65) was observed in nearly 50% of the population. The empirically observed skewing is explained by a theoretical model where X-inactivation takes place in an embryonic stage in which eight cells give rise to the hematopoietic compartment. Genes escaping X-inactivation are expressed from both alleles and therefore demonstrate less skewing than inactivated genes. Using this characteristic, we identified three novel escapee genes (SSR4, REPS2, and SEPT6), but did not find support for many previously reported escapee genes in blood. Our collective data suggest that skewed X-inactivation is common in the general population. This may contribute to manifestation of symptoms in carriers of recessive X-linked disorders. We recommend that X-inactivation results should not be used lightly in the interpretation of X-linked variants.


Assuntos
População/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Septinas/genética
8.
Cell Rep ; 25(10): 2660-2667.e4, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517855

RESUMO

An adverse intrauterine environment is associated with long-term physiological changes in offspring. These are believed to be mediated by epigenomic marks, including DNA methylation (DNAm). Changes in DNAm are often interpreted as damage or plastic responses of the embryo. Here, we propose that stochastic DNAm variation, generated during remodeling of the epigenome after fertilization, contributes to DNAm signatures of prenatal adversity through differential survival of embryos. Using a mathematical model of re-methylation in the early embryo, we demonstrate that selection, but not plasticity, will generate a characteristic reduction in DNAm variance at loci that contribute to survival. Such a reduction in DNAm variance was apparent in a human cohort prenatally exposed to the Dutch famine, illustrating that it is possible to detect a signature of selection on epigenomic variation. Selection should be considered as a possible mechanism linking prenatal adversity to subsequent health and may have implications when evaluating interventions.

9.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

10.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 11(1): 54, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30253792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation arrays are widely used in epigenome-wide association studies and methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) studies. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of monozygotic (MZ) twin correlations and mQTLs on data obtained with the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip (EPIC array) and compared the performance of the EPIC array to the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450 array) for buccal-derived DNA. RESULTS: Good-quality EPIC data were obtained for 102 buccal-derived DNA samples from 49 MZ twin pairs (mean age = 7.5 years, range = 1-10). Differences between MZ twins in the cellular content of buccal swabs were a major driver for differences in their DNA methylation profiles, highlighting the importance to adjust for cellular composition in DNA methylation studies of buccal-derived DNA. After adjusting for cellular composition, the genome-wide mean correlation (r) between MZ twins was 0.21 for the EPIC array, and cis mQTL analysis in 84 twins identified 1,296,323 significant associations (FDR 5%), encompassing 33,749 methylation sites and 616,029 genetic variants. MZ twin correlations were slightly larger (p < 2.2 × 10-16) for novel EPIC probes (N = 383,066, mean r = 0.22) compared to probes that are also present on HM450 (N = 406,822, mean r = 0.20). In line with this observation, a larger percentage of novel EPIC probes was associated with genetic variants (novel EPIC probes with significant mQTL 4.7%, HM450 probes with mQTL 3.9%, p < 2.2 × 10-16). Methylation sites with a large MZ correlation and sites associated with mQTLs were most strongly enriched in epithelial cell DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs), enhancers, and histone mark H3K4me3. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the contribution of familial factors to individual differences in DNA methylation and the effect of mQTLs are larger for novel EPIC probes, especially those within regulatory elements connected to active regions specific to the investigated tissue.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3738, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218040

RESUMO

X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), i.e., the inactivation of one of the female X chromosomes, restores equal expression of X-chromosomal genes between females and males. However, ~10% of genes show variable degrees of escape from XCI between females, although little is known about the causes of variable XCI. Using a discovery data-set of 1867 females and 1398 males and a replication sample of 3351 females, we show that genetic variation at three autosomal loci is associated with female-specific changes in X-chromosome methylation. Through cis-eQTL expression analysis, we map these loci to the genes SMCHD1/METTL4, TRIM6/HBG2, and ZSCAN9. Low-expression alleles of the loci are predominantly associated with mild hypomethylation of CpG islands near genes known to variably escape XCI, implicating the autosomal genes in variable XCI. Together, these results suggest a genetic basis for variable escape from XCI and highlight the potential of a population genomics approach to identify genes involved in XCI.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3097, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082726

RESUMO

Identification of causal drivers behind regulatory gene networks is crucial in understanding gene function. Here, we develop a method for the large-scale inference of gene-gene interactions in observational population genomics data that are both directed (using local genetic instruments as causal anchors, akin to Mendelian Randomization) and specific (by controlling for linkage disequilibrium and pleiotropy). Analysis of genotype and whole-blood RNA-sequencing data from 3072 individuals identified 49 genes as drivers of downstream transcriptional changes (Wald P < 7 × 10-10), among which transcription factors were overrepresented (Fisher's P = 3.3 × 10-7). Our analysis suggests new gene functions and targets, including for SENP7 (zinc-finger genes involved in retroviral repression) and BCL2A1 (target genes possibly involved in auditory dysfunction). Our work highlights the utility of population genomics data in deriving directed gene expression networks. A resource of trans-effects for all 6600 genes with a genetic instrument can be explored individually using a web-based browser.

13.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 11(1): 25, 2018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The well-established association of chronological age with changes in DNA methylation is primarily founded on the analysis of large sets of blood samples, while conclusions regarding tissue-specificity are typically based on small number of samples, tissues and CpGs. Here, we systematically investigate the tissue-specific character of age-related DNA methylation changes at the level of the CpG, functional genomic region and nearest gene in a large dataset. RESULTS: We assembled a compendium of public data, encompassing genome-wide DNA methylation data (Illumina 450k array) on 8092 samples from 16 different tissues, including 7 tissues with moderate to high sample numbers (Dataset size range 96-1202, Ntotal = 2858). In the 7 tissues (brain, buccal, liver, kidney, subcutaneous fat, monocytes and T-helper cells), we identified 7850 differentially methylated positions that gained (gain-aDMPs; cut-offs: Pbonf ≤ 0.05, effect size ≥ 2%/10 years) and 4,287 that lost DNA methylation with age (loss-aDMPs), 92% of which had not previously been reported for whole blood. The majority of all aDMPs identified occurred in one tissue only (gain-aDMPs: 85.2%; loss-aDMPs: 97.4%), an effect independent of statistical power. This striking tissue-specificity extended to both the functional genomic regions (defined by chromatin state segmentation) and the nearest gene. However, aDMPs did accumulate in regions with the same functional annotation across tissues, namely polycomb-repressed CpG islands for gain-aDMPs and regions marked by active histone modifications for loss-aDMPs. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that age-related DNA methylation changes are highly tissue-specific. These results may guide the development of improved tissue-specific markers of chronological and, perhaps, biological age.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Química Encefálica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/química , Boca/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Lipidol ; 12(2): 266-276.e3, 2018 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422286

RESUMO

In recent years, visit-to-visit variability of serum lipids has been linked to both clinical outcomes and surrogate markers for vascular disease. In this article, we present an overview of the current evidence connecting this intraindividual variability to these outcome measures, discuss its interplay with lipid-lowering treatment, and describe the literature regarding genetic factors of possible interest. In addition, we undertook an explorative genome-wide association analysis on visit-to-visit variability of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, examining additive effects in 2530 participants from the placebo arm of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk trial. While we identified suggestive associations (P < 1 × 10-6) at 3 different loci (KIAA0391, amiloride-sensitive cation channel 1 neuronal [ACCN1], and Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3 [DKK3]), previously published data from the genome-wide association study literature did not suggest plausible mechanistic pathways. Given the large degree of both clinical and methodological heterogeneity in the literature, additional research is needed to harmonize visit-to-visit variability parameters across studies and to definitively assess the possible role of (pharmaco)genetic factors.

15.
Bioinformatics ; 34(12): 2142-2143, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420690

RESUMO

Summary: OmicsPrint is a versatile method for the detection of data linkage errors in multiple omics studies encompassing genetic, transcriptome and/or methylome data. OmicsPrint evaluates data linkage within and between omics data types using genotype calls from SNP arrays, DNA- or RNA-sequencing data and includes an algorithm to infer genotypes from Illumina DNA methylation array data. The method uses classification to verify assumed relationships and detect any data linkage errors, e.g. arising from sample mix-ups and mislabeling. Graphical and text output is provided to inspect and resolve putative data linkage errors. If sufficient genotype calls are available, first degree family relations also are revealed which can be used to check parent-offspring relations or zygosity in twin studies. Availability and implementation: omicsPrint is available from BioConductor; http://bioconductor.org/packages/omicsPrint. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

16.
Sci Adv ; 4(1): eaao4364, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399631

RESUMO

Although it is assumed that epigenetic mechanisms, such as changes in DNA methylation (DNAm), underlie the relationship between adverse intrauterine conditions and adult metabolic health, evidence from human studies remains scarce. Therefore, we evaluated whether DNAm in whole blood mediated the association between prenatal famine exposure and metabolic health in 422 individuals exposed to famine in utero and 463 (sibling) controls. We implemented a two-step analysis, namely, a genome-wide exploration across 342,596 cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) for potential mediators of the association between prenatal famine exposure and adult body mass index (BMI), serum triglycerides (TG), or glucose concentrations, which was followed by formal mediation analysis. DNAm mediated the association of prenatal famine exposure with adult BMI and TG but not with glucose. DNAm at PIM3 (cg09349128), a gene involved in energy metabolism, mediated 13.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 5 to 28%] of the association between famine exposure and BMI. DNAm at six CpGs, including TXNIP (cg19693031), influencing ß cell function, and ABCG1 (cg07397296), affecting lipid metabolism, together mediated 80% (95% CI, 38.5 to 100%) of the association between famine exposure and TG. Analyses restricted to those exposed to famine during early gestation identified additional CpGs mediating the relationship with TG near PFKFB3 (glycolysis) and METTL8 (adipogenesis). DNAm at the CpGs involved was associated with gene expression in an external data set and correlated with DNAm levels in fat depots in additional postmortem data. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms mediate the influence of transient adverse environmental factors in early life on long-term metabolic health. The specific mechanism awaits elucidation.

17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1862(3): 637-648, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translation modifications with large influences on protein structure and function. The effector function of immunoglobulin G (IgG) alters between pro- and anti-inflammatory, based on its glycosylation. IgG glycan synthesis is highly complex and dynamic. METHODS: With the use of two different analytical methods for assessing IgG glycosylation, we aim to elucidate the link between DNA methylation and glycosylation of IgG by means of epigenome-wide association studies. In total, 3000 individuals from 4 cohorts were analyzed. RESULTS: The overlap of the results from the two glycan measurement panels yielded DNA methylation of 7 CpG-sites on 5 genomic locations to be associated with IgG glycosylation: cg25189904 (chr.1, GNG12); cg05951221, cg21566642 and cg01940273 (chr.2, ALPPL2); cg05575921 (chr.5, AHRR); cg06126421 (6p21.33); and cg03636183 (chr.19, F2RL3). Mediation analyses with respect to smoking revealed that the effect of smoking on IgG glycosylation may be at least partially mediated via DNA methylation levels at these 7 CpG-sites. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the presence of an indirect link between DNA methylation and IgG glycosylation that may in part capture environmental exposures. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: An epigenome-wide analysis conducted in four population-based cohorts revealed an association between DNA methylation and IgG glycosylation patterns. Presumably, DNA methylation mediates the effect of smoking on IgG glycosylation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Imunoglobulina G/química , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigenômica/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Polissacarídeos/análise , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
18.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0182472, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is affected by the activities of the key enzymes and intermediate metabolites of the one-carbon pathway, one of which involves homocysteine. We investigated the effect of the well-known genetic variant associated with mildly elevated homocysteine: MTHFR 677C>T independently and in combination with other homocysteine-associated variants, on genome-wide leukocyte DNA-methylation. METHODS: Methylation levels were assessed using Illumina 450k arrays on 9,894 individuals of European ancestry from 12 cohort studies. Linear-mixed-models were used to study the association of additive MTHFR 677C>T and genetic-risk score (GRS) based on 18 homocysteine-associated SNPs, with genome-wide methylation. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 35 CpG sites in cis, and the GRS showed association with 113 CpG sites near the homocysteine-associated variants. Genome-wide analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 1 trans-CpG (nearest gene ZNF184), while the GRS model showed association with 5 significant trans-CpGs annotated to nearest genes PTF1A, MRPL55, CTDSP2, CRYM and FKBP5. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not show widespread changes in DNA-methylation across the genome, and therefore do not support the hypothesis that mildly elevated homocysteine is associated with widespread methylation changes in leukocytes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 908, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030611

RESUMO

Determining cell identity and maturation status of differentiated pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) requires knowledge of the transcriptional and epigenetic trajectory of organs during development. Here, we generate a transcriptional and DNA methylation atlas covering 21 organs during human fetal development. Analysis of multiple isogenic organ sets shows that organ-specific DNA methylation patterns are highly dynamic between week 9 (W9) and W22 of gestation. We investigate the impact of reprogramming on organ-specific DNA methylation by generating human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines from six isogenic organs. All isogenic hiPSCs acquire DNA methylation patterns comparable to existing hPSCs. However, hiPSCs derived from fetal brain retain brain-specific DNA methylation marks that seem sufficient to confer higher propensity to differentiate to neural derivatives. This systematic analysis of human fetal organs during development and associated isogenic hiPSC lines provides insights in the role of DNA methylation in lineage commitment and epigenetic reprogramming in humans.While DNA methylation and gene expression data are widely available for animal models, comprehensive data from human development is rarer. Here, the authors generated transcriptional and DNA methylation data from 21 organs during human development and 6 isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell lines.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Camundongos
20.
Epigenomics ; 9(11): 1403-1422, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990796

RESUMO

AIM: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sensitive marker of one-carbon metabolism. Higher Hcy levels have been associated with global DNA hypomethylation. We investigated the association between plasma Hcy and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: Methylation was measured using Illumina 450 k arrays in 2035 individuals from six cohorts. Hcy-associated differentially methylated positions and regions were identified using meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three differentially methylated positions cg21607669 (SLC27A1), cg26382848 (AJUBA) and cg10701000 (KCNMA1) at chromosome 19, 14 and 10, respectively, were significantly associated with Hcy. In addition, we identified 68 Hcy-associated differentially methylated regions, the most significant of which was a 1.8-kb spanning domain (TNXB/ATF6B) at chromosome 6. CONCLUSION: We identified novel epigenetic loci associated with Hcy levels, of which specific role needs to be further validated.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Homocisteína/sangue , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Subunidades alfa do Canal de Potássio Ativado por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Masculino , Tenascina/genética , Tenascina/metabolismo
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