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1.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693546

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Batch effects heavily impact results in omics studies, causing bias and false positive results, but software to control them preemptively is lacking. Sample randomization prior to measurement is vital for minimizing these effects, but current approaches are often ad hoc, poorly documented, and ill-equipped to handle multiple batches and outcomes. RESULTS: We developed Omixer-a Bioconductor package implementing multivariate and reproducible sample randomization for omics studies. It proactively counters correlations between technical factors and biological variables of interest by optimizing sample distribution across batches. AVAILABILITY: Omixer is available from Bioconductor at http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/Omixer.html. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 69, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep traits are associated with cardiometabolic disease risk, with evidence from Mendelian randomization (MR) suggesting that insomnia symptoms and shorter sleep duration increase coronary artery disease risk. We combined adjusted multivariable regression (AMV) and MR analyses of phenotypes of unfavourable sleep on 113 metabolomic traits to investigate possible biochemical mechanisms linking sleep to cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We used AMV (N = 17,368) combined with two-sample MR (N = 38,618) to examine effects of self-reported insomnia symptoms, total habitual sleep duration, and chronotype on 113 metabolomic traits. The AMV analyses were conducted on data from 10 cohorts of mostly Europeans, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. For the MR analyses, we used summary results from published European-ancestry genome-wide association studies of self-reported sleep traits and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) serum metabolites. We used the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method and complemented this with sensitivity analyses to assess MR assumptions. RESULTS: We found consistent evidence from AMV and MR analyses for associations of usual vs. sometimes/rare/never insomnia symptoms with lower citrate (- 0.08 standard deviation (SD)[95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.12, - 0.03] in AMV and - 0.03SD [- 0.07, - 0.003] in MR), higher glycoprotein acetyls (0.08SD [95% CI 0.03, 0.12] in AMV and 0.06SD [0.03, 0.10) in MR]), lower total very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.00] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.09, - 0.02] in MR), and lower phospholipids in very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.002] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.08, - 0.02] in MR). Longer total sleep duration associated with higher creatinine concentrations using both methods (0.02SD per 1 h [0.01, 0.03] in AMV and 0.15SD [0.02, 0.29] in MR) and with isoleucine in MR analyses (0.22SD [0.08, 0.35]). No consistent evidence was observed for effects of chronotype on metabolomic measures. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst our results suggested that unfavourable sleep traits may not cause widespread metabolic disruption, some notable effects were observed. The evidence for possible effects of insomnia symptoms on glycoprotein acetyls and citrate and longer total sleep duration on creatinine and isoleucine might explain some of the effects, found in MR analyses of these sleep traits on coronary heart disease, which warrant further investigation.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(1): 119-134, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450751

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is known to play a pivotal role in childhood health and development, but a comprehensive characterization of genome-wide DNAm trajectories across this age period is currently lacking. We have therefore performed a series of epigenome-wide association studies in 5019 blood samples collected at multiple time-points from birth to late adolescence from 2348 participants of two large independent cohorts. DNAm profiles of autosomal CpG sites (CpGs) were generated using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Change over time was widespread, observed at over one-half (53%) of CpGs. In most cases, DNAm was decreasing (36% of CpGs). Inter-individual variation in linear trajectories was similarly widespread (27% of CpGs). Evidence for non-linear change and inter-individual variation in non-linear trajectories was somewhat less common (11 and 8% of CpGs, respectively). Very little inter-individual variation in change was explained by sex differences (0.4% of CpGs) even though sex-specific DNAm was observed at 5% of CpGs. DNAm trajectories were distributed non-randomly across the genome. For example, CpGs with decreasing DNAm were enriched in gene bodies and enhancers and were annotated to genes enriched in immune-developmental functions. In contrast, CpGs with increasing DNAm were enriched in promoter regions and annotated to genes enriched in neurodevelopmental functions. These findings depict a methylome undergoing widespread and often non-linear change throughout childhood. They support a developmental role for DNA methylation that extends beyond birth into late adolescence and has implications for understanding life-long health and disease. DNAm trajectories can be visualized at http://epidelta.mrcieu.ac.uk.

4.
Hum Reprod ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227132

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is there a relation between ART and DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns in cord blood, including any differences between IVF and ICSI? SUMMARY ANSWER: DNAm at 19 CpGs was associated with conception via ART, with no difference found between IVF and ICSI. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Prior studies on either IVF or ICSI show conflicting outcomes, as both widespread effects on DNAm and highly localized associations have been reported. No study on both IVF and ICSI and genome-wide neonatal DNAm has been performed. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a cross-sectional study comprising 87 infants conceived with IVF or ICSI and 70 conceived following medically unassisted conception. The requirement for inclusion in the study was an understanding of the Swedish language and exclusion was the use of donor gametes. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants were from the UppstART study, which was recruited from fertility and reproductive health clinics, and the Born into Life cohort, which is recruited from the larger LifeGene study. We measured DNAm from DNA extracted from cord blood collected at birth using a micro-array (450k array). Group differences in DNAm at individual CpG dinucleotides (CpGs) were determined using robust linear models and post-hoc Tukey's tests. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We found no association of ART conception with global methylation levels, imprinted loci and meta-stable epialleles. In contrast, we identify 19 CpGs at which DNAm was associated with being conceived via ART (effect estimates: 0.5-4.9%, PFDR < 0.05), but no difference was found between IVF and ICSI. The associated CpGs map to genes related to brain function/development or genes connected to the plethora of conditions linked to subfertility, but functional annotation did not point to any likely functional consequences. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We measured DNAm in cord blood and not at later ages or in other tissues. Given the number of tests performed, our study power is limited and the findings need to be replicated in an independent study. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: We find that ART is associated with DNAm differences in cord blood when compared to non-ART samples, but these differences are limited in number and effect size and have unknown functional consequences in adult blood. We did not find indications of differences between IVF and ICSI. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): E.W.T. was supported by a VENI grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (91617128) and JPI-H2020 Joint Programming Initiative a Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (JPI HDHL) under proposal number 655 (PREcisE Project) through ZonMw (529051023). Financial support was provided from the European Union's Seventh Framework Program IDEAL (259679), the Swedish Research Council (K2011-69X-21871-01-6, 2011-3060, 2015-02434 and 2018-02640) and the Strategic Research Program in Epidemiology Young Scholar Awards, Karolinska Institute (to A.N.I.) and through the Swedish Initiative for Research on Microdata in the Social And Medical Sciences (SIMSAM) framework grant no 340-2013-5867, grants provided by the Stockholm County Council (ALF-projects), the Strategic Research Program in Epidemiology at Karolinska Institutet and the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and Danderyd University Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden). The funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. The authors declare no competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

5.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 220, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in human development and disease, yet there is limited understanding of its highly coordinated regulation. Here, we identify 818 genes that affect DNA methylation patterns in blood using large-scale population genomics data. RESULTS: By employing genetic instruments as causal anchors, we establish directed associations between gene expression and distant DNA methylation levels, while ensuring specificity of the associations by correcting for linkage disequilibrium and pleiotropy among neighboring genes. The identified genes are enriched for transcription factors, of which many consistently increased or decreased DNA methylation levels at multiple CpG sites. In addition, we show that a substantial number of transcription factors affected DNA methylation at their experimentally determined binding sites. We also observe genes encoding proteins with heterogenous functions that have widespread effects on DNA methylation, e.g., NFKBIE, CDCA7(L), and NLRC5, and for several examples, we suggest plausible mechanisms underlying their effect on DNA methylation. CONCLUSION: We report hundreds of genes that affect DNA methylation and provide key insights in the principles underlying epigenetic regulation.

6.
Epigenomics ; 12(7): 563-573, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516006

RESUMO

Aim: UVA radiation drives skin photoaging in the dermis, plausibly via persistent changes to DNA methylation in dermal fibroblasts. Methods: Genome-wide DNA methylation changes after five repeated daily UVA doses were determined at 48 h (transitionary) and 1 week (recovery) post final irradiation. Results: Differential methylation was found at the transitionary time point in active chromatin states near genes that are highly expressed in fibroblasts and are involved in cellular defensive mechanisms; the majority of these methylation differences were restored to control levels after 7 day recovery. At the recovery time point, new differential methylation occurred at repressed regions near developmental genes, normally weakly expressed in fibroblasts. Conclusion: UVA irradiation induces transitionary and recovery-associated DNA methylation responses in fibroblasts with contrasting functional characteristics.

7.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-11, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327008

RESUMO

Epigenetic programming is essential for lineage differentiation, embryogenesis and placentation in early pregnancy. In epigenetic association studies, DNA methylation is often examined in DNA derived from white blood cells, although its validity to other tissues of interest remains questionable. Therefore, we investigated the tissue specificity of epigenome-wide DNA methylation in newborn and placental tissues. Umbilical cord white blood cells (UC-WBC, n = 25), umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UC-MNC, n = 10), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC, n = 25) and placental tissue (n = 25) were obtained from 36 uncomplicated pregnancies. Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured by the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Using UC-WBC as a reference tissue, we identified 3595 HUVEC tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) and 11,938 placental tDMRs. Functional enrichment analysis showed that HUVEC and placental tDMRs were involved in embryogenesis, vascular development and regulation of gene expression. No tDMRs were identified in UC-MNC. In conclusion, the extensive amount of genome-wide HUVEC and placental tDMRs underlines the relevance of tissue-specific approaches in future epigenetic association studies, or the use of validated representative tissues for a certain disease of interest, if available. To this purpose, we herewith provide a relevant dataset of paired, tissue-specific, genome-wide methylation measurements in newborn tissues.

8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 43, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heritable epigenetic alterations have been proposed as an explanation for familial clustering of melanoma. Here we performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on affected family members not carrying pathogenic variants in established melanoma susceptibility genes, compared with healthy volunteers. RESULTS: All melanoma susceptibility genes showed the absence of epimutations in familial melanoma patients, and no loss of imprinting was detected. Unbiased genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed significantly different levels of methylation in single CpG sites. The methylation level differences were small and did not affect reported tumour predisposition genes. CONCLUSION: Our results provide no support for heritable epimutations as a cause of familial melanoma.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(2): 253-263, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558840

RESUMO

Insights into individual differences in gene expression and its heritability (h2) can help in understanding pathways from DNA to phenotype. We estimated the heritability of gene expression of 52,844 genes measured in whole blood in the largest twin RNA-Seq sample to date (1497 individuals including 459 monozygotic twin pairs and 150 dizygotic twin pairs) from classical twin modeling and identity-by-state-based approaches. We estimated for each gene h2total, composed of cis-heritability (h2cis, the variance explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cis-window of the gene), and trans-heritability (h2res, the residual variance explained by all other genome-wide variants). Mean h2total was 0.26, which was significantly higher than heritability estimates earlier found in a microarray-based study using largely overlapping (>60%) RNA samples (mean h2 = 0.14, p = 6.15 × 10-258). Mean h2cis was 0.06 and strongly correlated with beta of the top cis expression quantitative loci (eQTL, ρ = 0.76, p < 10-308) and with estimates from earlier RNA-Seq-based studies. Mean h2res was 0.20 and correlated with the beta of the corresponding trans-eQTL (ρ = 0.04, p < 1.89 × 10-3) and was significantly higher for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine interactions (p = 4.22 × 10-15), many other immune system pathways, and genes identified in genome-wide association studies for various traits including behavioral disorders and cancer. This study provides a thorough characterization of cis- and trans-h2 estimates of gene expression, which is of value for interpretation of GWAS and gene expression studies.

12.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 249, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767039

RESUMO

Epigenetic clocks comprise a set of CpG sites whose DNA methylation levels measure subject age. These clocks are acknowledged as a highly accurate molecular correlate of chronological age in humans and other vertebrates. Also, extensive research is aimed at their potential to quantify biological aging rates and test longevity or rejuvenating interventions. Here, we discuss key challenges to understand clock mechanisms and biomarker utility. This requires dissecting the drivers and regulators of age-related changes in single-cell, tissue- and disease-specific models, as well as exploring other epigenomic marks, longitudinal and diverse population studies, and non-human models. We also highlight important ethical issues in forensic age determination and predicting the trajectory of biological aging in an individual.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Relógios Biológicos , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Animais , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
13.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 617-622, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342890

RESUMO

Lifelong health is thought to be partially set during intrauterine life by persistent epigenetic changes induced by the prenatal environment. To evaluate this hypothesis, we initiated a prospective longitudinal study in monochorionic (MC) twins: the TwinLIFE study. MC twins are monozygotic, thus in origin genetically identical, and share a single placenta. Although MC twins have many environmental factors in common, in one-third of the MC twin pairs, one fetus has significantly less access to nutrients and resources during pregnancy than its co-twin often resulting in a significant discordance in prenatal growth. Hence, MC twins constitute a unique natural experiment to study the influence of the prenatal environment on health. In TwinLIFE, we will chart intrapair differences in DNA methylation focusing on mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from cord as an advanced proxy of epigenetic dysregulation relevant for long-term health consequences. Next, we will follow up the MC twins for growth, cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental outcomes during childhood and evaluate the impact of an epigenetic signature at birth on future health. The current target is to include 100 MC twin pairs, but we aim to continue enrollment after procuring additional funding. TwinLIFE will not only address an unmet clinical need in the high-risk group of MC twins, but may also advance early-life strategies to prevent adverse growth, cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental outcomes in the general population.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Nervoso Central/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Epigênese Genética , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/patologia , Gêmeos/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 12(1): 34, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrophages and their precursors monocytes play a key role in inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders. Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and activation programs are accompanied by significant epigenetic remodeling where DNA methylation associates with cell identity. Here we show that DNA methylation changes characteristic for monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation occur at transcription factor binding sites, and, in contrast to what was previously described, are generally highly localized and encompass both losses and gains of DNA methylation. RESULTS: We compared genome-wide DNA methylation across 440,292 CpG sites between human monocytes, naïve macrophages and macrophages further activated toward a pro-inflammatory state (using LPS/IFNγ), an anti-inflammatory state (IL-4) or foam cells (oxLDL and acLDL). Moreover, we integrated these data with public whole-genome sequencing data on monocytes and macrophages to demarcate differentially methylated regions. Our analysis showed that differential DNA methylation was most pronounced during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, was typically restricted to single CpGs or very short regions, and co-localized with lineage-specific enhancers irrespective of whether it concerns gain or loss of methylation. Furthermore, differentially methylated CpGs were located at sites characterized by increased binding of transcription factors known to be involved in monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation including C/EBP and ETS for gain and AP-1 for loss of methylation. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the involvement of subtle, yet highly localized remodeling of DNA methylation at regulatory regions in cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Macrófagos/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto , Sítios de Ligação , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Ilhas de CpG , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Monócitos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.


Assuntos
Dieta , Epigenômica , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 50, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of imprinted genes, demonstrating a consistent preference towards the paternal or maternal allelic expression, is important for the understanding of gene expression regulation during embryonic development and of the molecular basis of developmental disorders with a parent-of-origin effect. Combining allelic analysis of RNA-Seq data with phased genotypes in family trios provides a powerful method to detect parent-of-origin biases in gene expression. RESULTS: We report findings in 296 family trios from two large studies: 165 lymphoblastoid cell lines from the 1000 Genomes Project and 131 blood samples from the Genome of the Netherlands (GoNL) participants. Based on parental haplotypes, we identified > 2.8 million transcribed heterozygous SNVs phased for parental origin and developed a robust statistical framework for measuring allelic expression. We identified a total of 45 imprinted genes and one imprinted unannotated transcript, including multiple imprinted transcripts showing incomplete parental expression bias that was located adjacent to strongly imprinted genes. For example, PXDC1, a gene which lies adjacent to the paternally expressed gene FAM50B, shows a 2:1 paternal expression bias. Other imprinted genes had promoter regions that coincide with sites of parentally biased DNA methylation identified in the blood from uniparental disomy (UPD) samples, thus providing independent validation of our results. Using the stranded nature of the RNA-Seq data in lymphoblastoid cell lines, we identified multiple loci with overlapping sense/antisense transcripts, of which one is expressed paternally and the other maternally. Using a sliding window approach, we searched for imprinted expression across the entire genome, identifying a novel imprinted putative lncRNA in 13q21.2. Overall, we identified 7 transcripts showing parental bias in gene expression which were not reported in 4 other recent RNA-Seq studies of imprinting. CONCLUSIONS: Our methods and data provide a robust and high-resolution map of imprinted gene expression in the human genome.


Assuntos
Alelos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Impressão Genômica/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Análise Química do Sangue , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(3): 455-465, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552425

RESUMO

X-inactivation is a well-established dosage compensation mechanism ensuring that X-chromosomal genes are expressed at comparable levels in males and females. Skewed X-inactivation is often explained by negative selection of one of the alleles. We demonstrate that imbalanced expression of the paternal and maternal X-chromosomes is common in the general population and that the random nature of the X-inactivation mechanism can be sufficient to explain the imbalance. To this end, we analyzed blood-derived RNA and whole-genome sequencing data from 79 female children and their parents from the Genome of the Netherlands project. We calculated the median ratio of the paternal over total counts at all X-chromosomal heterozygous single-nucleotide variants with coverage ≥10. We identified two individuals where the same X-chromosome was inactivated in all cells. Imbalanced expression of the two X-chromosomes (ratios ≤0.35 or ≥0.65) was observed in nearly 50% of the population. The empirically observed skewing is explained by a theoretical model where X-inactivation takes place in an embryonic stage in which eight cells give rise to the hematopoietic compartment. Genes escaping X-inactivation are expressed from both alleles and therefore demonstrate less skewing than inactivated genes. Using this characteristic, we identified three novel escapee genes (SSR4, REPS2, and SEPT6), but did not find support for many previously reported escapee genes in blood. Our collective data suggest that skewed X-inactivation is common in the general population. This may contribute to manifestation of symptoms in carriers of recessive X-linked disorders. We recommend that X-inactivation results should not be used lightly in the interpretation of X-linked variants.


Assuntos
População/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Septinas/genética
19.
Cell Rep ; 25(10): 2660-2667.e4, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517855

RESUMO

An adverse intrauterine environment is associated with long-term physiological changes in offspring. These are believed to be mediated by epigenomic marks, including DNA methylation (DNAm). Changes in DNAm are often interpreted as damage or plastic responses of the embryo. Here, we propose that stochastic DNAm variation, generated during remodeling of the epigenome after fertilization, contributes to DNAm signatures of prenatal adversity through differential survival of embryos. Using a mathematical model of re-methylation in the early embryo, we demonstrate that selection, but not plasticity, will generate a characteristic reduction in DNAm variance at loci that contribute to survival. Such a reduction in DNAm variance was apparent in a human cohort prenatally exposed to the Dutch famine, illustrating that it is possible to detect a signature of selection on epigenomic variation. Selection should be considered as a possible mechanism linking prenatal adversity to subsequent health and may have implications when evaluating interventions.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Gravidez , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
EBioMedicine ; 38: 206-216, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Loci Gênicos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenótipo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Metabolismo Energético , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Vigilância da População , Gravidez
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