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1.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395486

RESUMO

We tested whether a polygenic risk score integrating the effects of genes affecting neurodevelopment is associated to brain structural variation in healthy subjects. We acquired magnetic resonance imaging and genetic data of 167 healthy adults and computed a neurodevelopmental polygenic risk score (nPRS). We correlated the nPRS with local gyrification, cortical thickness and grey matter density and explored effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms included in the score. We did not find significant correlations of this nPRS with either measure. Individuals with the risk allele at rs11139497 show increases in cortical thickness (p < 0.05, FWE corrected) of the left superior temporal gyrus.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7013, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065058

RESUMO

Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with poor prognosis and mainly unknown pathophysiology. Heritability estimates exceed 30% but few genetic risk variants have been identified. Here we investigated common genetic variants associated with DLB in a large European multisite sample. We performed a genome wide association study in Norwegian and European cohorts of 720 DLB cases and 6490 controls and included 19 top-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an additional cohort of 108 DLB cases and 75545 controls from Iceland. Overall the study included 828 DLB cases and 82035 controls. Variants in the ASH1L/GBA (Chr1q22) and APOE ε4 (Chr19) loci were associated with DLB surpassing the genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 × 10-8). One additional genetic locus previously linked to psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, ZFPM1 (Chr16q24.2), showed suggestive association with DLB at p-value < 1 × 10-6. We report two susceptibility loci for DLB at genome-wide significance, providing insight into etiological factors. These findings highlight the complex relationship between the genetic architecture of DLB and other neurodegenerative disorders.

3.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 67-75, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076262

RESUMO

Schizotypy is a multidimensional risk phenotype distributed in the general population, constituting of subclinical, psychotic-like symptoms. It is associated with psychosis proneness, and several risk genes for psychosis are associated with schizotypy in non-clinical populations. Schizotypy might also modulate cognitive abilities as it is associated with attentional deficits in healthy subjects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that established genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737 are associated with psychometric schizotypy and that schizotypy mediates their effect on attention or vice versa. In 615 healthy subjects from the FOR2107 cohort study, we analysed the genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737, psychometric schizotypy (schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief SPQB), and a neuropsychological measure of sustained and selective attention (d2 test). ZNF804A rs1344706 C (non-risk) alleles were significantly associated with higher SPQ-B Cognitive-Perceptual subscores in women and with attention deficits in both sexes. This schizotypy dimension also mediated the effect of ZNF804A on attention in women, but not in men. CACNA1C rs1006737-A showed a significant sex-modulated negative association with Interpersonal schizotypy only in men, and no effect on attention. Our multivariate model demonstrates differential genetic contributions of two psychosis risk genes to dimensions of schizotypy and, partly, to attention. This supports a model of shared genetic influence between schizotypy and cognitive functions impaired in schizophrenia.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 55, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705288

RESUMO

Rare coding variants in TREM2, PLCG2, and ABI3 were recently associated with the susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasians. Frequencies and AD-associated effects of variants differ across ethnicities. To start filling the gap on AD genetics in South America and assess the impact of these variants across ethnicity, we studied these variants in Argentinian population in association with ancestry. TREM2 (rs143332484 and rs75932628), PLCG2 (rs72824905), and ABI3 (rs616338) were genotyped in 419 AD cases and 486 controls. Meta-analysis with European population was performed. Ancestry was estimated from genome-wide genotyping results. All variants show similar frequencies and odds ratios to those previously reported. Their association with AD reach statistical significance by meta-analysis. Although the Argentinian population is an admixture, variant carriers presented mainly Caucasian ancestry. Rare coding variants in TREM2, PLCG2, and ABI3 also modulate susceptibility to AD in populations from Argentina, and they may have a European heritage.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/etnologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Fosfolipase C gama/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argentina/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 419, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664635

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of a member of the PRACTICAL Consortium, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, which was incorrectly given as Manuela Gago Dominguez. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. Furthermore, in the original HTML version of this Article, the order of authors within the author list was incorrect. The PRACTICAL consortium was incorrectly listed after Richard S. Houlston and should have been listed after Nora Pashayan. This error has been corrected in the HTML version of the Article; the PDF version was correct at the time of publication.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209067, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576355

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) is a widely used botanical drug. Several reports indicate that EGb761 confers preventive as well as anti-tumorigenic properties in a variety of tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We here evaluate functional effects and molecular alterations induced by EGb761 in hepatoma cells and non-malignant hepatocytes. Hepatoma cell lines, primary human HCC cells and immortalized human hepatocytes (IH) were exposed to various concentrations (0-1000 µg/ml) of EGb761. Apoptosis and proliferation were evaluated after 72h of EGb761 exposure. Response to oxidative stress, tumorigenic properties and molecular changes were further investigated. While anti-oxidant effects were detected in all cell lines, EGb761 promoted anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects mainly in hepatoma cells. Consistently, EGb761 treatment caused a significant reduction in colony and sphere forming ability in hepatoma cells and no mentionable changes in IH. Transcriptomic changes involved oxidative stress response as well as key oncogenic pathways resembling Nrf2- and mTOR signaling pathway. Taken together, EGb761 induces differential effects in non-transformed and cancer cells. While treatment confers protective effects in non-malignant cells, EGb761 significantly impairs tumorigenic properties in cancer cells by affecting key oncogenic pathways. Results provide the rational for clinical testing of EGb761 in preventive and therapeutic strategies in human liver diseases.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgo biloba/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
7.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(12): 1656-1669, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482948

RESUMO

Liability to alcohol dependence (AD) is heritable, but little is known about its complex polygenic architecture or its genetic relationship with other disorders. To discover loci associated with AD and characterize the relationship between AD and other psychiatric and behavioral outcomes, we carried out the largest genome-wide association study to date of DSM-IV-diagnosed AD. Genome-wide data on 14,904 individuals with AD and 37,944 controls from 28 case-control and family-based studies were meta-analyzed, stratified by genetic ancestry (European, n = 46,568; African, n = 6,280). Independent, genome-wide significant effects of different ADH1B variants were identified in European (rs1229984; P = 9.8 × 10-13) and African ancestries (rs2066702; P = 2.2 × 10-9). Significant genetic correlations were observed with 17 phenotypes, including schizophrenia, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, depression, and use of cigarettes and cannabis. The genetic underpinnings of AD only partially overlap with those for alcohol consumption, underscoring the genetic distinction between pathological and nonpathological drinking behaviors.

8.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 10: 340, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425636

RESUMO

The role of genetic risk markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in mediating the neurocognitive endophenotypes (NEs) of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has rarely been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between well-known AD-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and individual NEs routinely evaluated during diagnosis of MCI, AD, and other dementias. The Fundació ACE (ACE) dataset, comprising information from 1245 patients with MCI, was analyzed, including the total sample, amnestic MCI (aMCI) (n = 811), and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) (n = 434). As probable-MCI (Pr-MCI) patients with memory impairment have a higher risk of AD, which could influence the statistical power to detect genetic associations, the MCI phenotype was also stratified into four related conditions: Pr-aMCI (n = 262), Pr-naMCI (n = 76), possible (Pss)-aMCI (n = 549), and Pss-naMCI (n = 358). Validation analyses were performed using data from the German study on Aging, Cognition, and Dementia in primary care patients (AgeCoDe), and the German Dementia Competence Network (DCN). SNP associations with NEs were calculated in PLINK using multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and education. In the total MCI sample, APOE-ε4 was significantly associated with the memory function NEs "delayed recall (DR)" (ß = -0.76, p = 4.1 × 10-10), "learning" (ß = -1.35, p = 2.91 × 10-6), and "recognition memory" (ß = -0.58, p = 9.67 × 10-5); and with "DR" in the aMCI group (ß = -0.36, p = 2.96 × 10-5). These results were confirmed by validation in the AgeCoDe (n = 503) and DCN (n = 583) datasets. APOE-ε4 was also significantly associated with the NE "learning" in individuals classified as having Pss-aMCI (ß = -1.37, p = 5.82 × 10-5). Moreover, there was a near study-wide significant association between the HS3ST1 locus (rs6448799) and the "backward digits" working memory NE (ß = 0.52, p = 7.57 × 10-5) among individuals with Pr-aMCI, while the AP2A2 locus (rs10751667) was significantly associated with the language NE "repetition" (ß = -0.19, p = 5.34 × 10-6). Overall, our findings support specific associations of established AD-associated SNPs with MCI NEs.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205895, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379966

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness affecting around 1% of the global population. BD is characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes, and has an estimated heritability of around 70%. Research has identified the first BD susceptibility genes. However, the underlying pathways and regulatory networks remain largely unknown. Research suggests that the cumulative impact of common alleles with small effects explains only around 25-38% of the phenotypic variance for BD. A plausible hypothesis therefore is that rare, high penetrance variants may contribute to BD risk. The present study investigated the role of rare, nonsynonymous, and potentially functional variants via whole exome sequencing in 15 BD cases from two large, multiply affected families from Cuba. The high prevalence of BD in these pedigrees renders them promising in terms of the identification of genetic risk variants with large effect sizes. In addition, SNP array data were used to calculate polygenic risk scores for affected and unaffected family members. After correction for multiple testing, no significant increase in polygenic risk scores for common, BD-associated genetic variants was found in BD cases compared to healthy relatives. Exome sequencing identified a total of 17 rare and potentially damaging variants in 17 genes. The identified variants were shared by all investigated BD cases in the respective pedigree. The most promising variant was located in the gene SERPING1 (p.L349F), which has been reported previously as a genome-wide significant risk gene for schizophrenia. The present data suggest novel candidate genes for BD susceptibility, and may facilitate the discovery of disease-relevant pathways and regulatory networks.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485423

RESUMO

Primary liver cancer (PLC) ranks among the most lethal solid cancers worldwide due to lack of effective biomarkers for early detection and limited treatment options in advanced stages. Development of primary culture models that closely recapitulate phenotypic and molecular diversities of PLC is urgently needed to improve the patient outcome. Long-term cultures of 7 primary liver cancer cell lines of hepatocellular and cholangiocellular origin were established using defined culture conditions. Morphological and histological characteristics of obtained cell lines and xenograft tumors were analyzed and compared to original tumors. Time course analyses of transcriptomic and genomic changes were performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Key oncogenic alterations were identified by targeted NGS and cell lines carrying potentially actionable mutations were treated with corresponding specific inhibitors. PDCL fully resembled morphological features of the primary cancers in vitro and in vivo over extended period in culture. Genomic alterations as well as transcriptome profiles showed high similarity with primary tumors and remained stable during long-term culturing. Targeted-NGS confirmed that key oncogenic mutations such as TP53, KRAS, CTNNB1 as well as actionable mutations (e.g. MET, cKIT, KDR) were highly conserved in PDCL and amenable for individualized therapeutic approaches. Integrative genomic and transcriptomic approaches further demonstrated that PDCL more closely resemble molecular and prognostic features of PLC than established cell lines and are valuable tool for direct target evaluation. Our integrative analysis demonstrates that PDCL represents refined model for discovery of relevant molecular subgroups and exploration of precision medicine approaches for the treatment of this deadly disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10735, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013141

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) contributes to high mortality in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the pathology in CDH might allow the identification of prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. We report the results from an expression profiling of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in direct post-pulmonary blood flow of 18 CDH newborns. Seven miRNAs differentially expressed in children that either died or developed chronic lung disease (CLD) up to 28 days after birth, compared to those who survived without developing CLD during this period, were identified. Target gene and pathway analyses indicate that these miRNAs functions include regulation of the cell cycle, inflammation and morphogenesis, by targeting molecules responsive to growth factors, cytokines and cellular stressors. Furthermore, we identified hub molecules by constructing a protein-protein interaction network of shared targets, and ranked the relative importance of the identified miRNAs. Our results suggest that dysregulations in miRNAs let-7b-5p, -7c-5p, miR-1307-3p, -185-3p, -8084, -331-3p and -210-3p may be detrimental for the development and function of the lungs and pulmonary vasculature, compromise cardiac function and contribute to the development of CLD in CDH. Further investigation of the biomarker and therapeutic potential of these circulating miRNAs is encouraged.

15.
Oncotarget ; 9(37): 24590-24600, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872490

RESUMO

The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene on chromosome 19q13.32, was the first, and remains the strongest, genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional signals associated with AD have been located in chromosome 19, including ABCA7 (19p13.3) and CD33 (19q13.41). The ABCA7 gene has been replicated in most populations. However, the contribution to AD of other signals close to APOE gene remains controversial. Possible explanations for inconsistency between reports include long range linkage disequilibrium (LRLD). We analysed the contribution of ABCA7 and CD33 loci to AD risk and explore LRLD patterns across APOE region. To evaluate AD risk conferred by ABCA7 rs4147929:G>A and CD33 rs3865444:C>A, we used a large Spanish population (1796 AD cases, 2642 controls). The ABCA7 rs4147929:G>A SNP effect was nominally replicated in the Spanish cohort and reached genome-wide significance after meta-analysis (odds ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.12-1.19; P = 1.60 x 10-19). CD33 rs3865444:C>A was not associated with AD in the dataset. The meta-analysis was also negative (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.93-1.04; P=0.48). After exploring LRLD patterns between APOE and CD33 in several datasets, we found significant LD (D' >0.20; P <0.030) between APOE-Ɛ2 and CD33 rs3865444C>A in two of five datasets, suggesting the presence of a non-universal long range interaction between these loci affecting to some populations. In conclusion, we provide here evidence of genetic association of the ABCA7 locus in the Spanish population and also propose a plausible explanation for the controversy on the contribution of CD33 to AD susceptibility.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2397, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921915

RESUMO

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype DRB1*15:01 is the major risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we find that DRB1*15:01 is hypomethylated and predominantly expressed in monocytes among carriers of DRB1*15:01. A differentially methylated region (DMR) encompassing HLA-DRB1 exon 2 is particularly affected and displays methylation-sensitive regulatory properties in vitro. Causal inference and Mendelian randomization provide evidence that HLA variants mediate risk for MS via changes in the HLA-DRB1 DMR that modify HLA-DRB1 expression. Meta-analysis of 14,259 cases and 171,347 controls confirms that these variants confer risk from DRB1*15:01 and also identifies a protective variant (rs9267649, p < 3.32 × 10-8, odds ratio = 0.86) after conditioning for all MS-associated variants in the region. rs9267649 is associated with increased DNA methylation at the HLA-DRB1 DMR and reduced expression of HLA-DRB1, suggesting a modulation of the DRB1*15:01 effect. Our integrative approach provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of MS susceptibility and suggests putative therapeutic strategies targeting a methylation-mediated regulation of the major risk gene.

17.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(4): 66-70, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901528

RESUMO

The clinical comorbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established, whereas genetic factors influencing co-occurrence remain unclear. A recent study using polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated based on the first-wave Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD meta-analysis (PGC-MDD1) suggests a modest shared genetic contribution to MDD and AD. Using a (~10 fold) larger discovery sample, we calculated PRS based on the second wave (PGC-MDD2) of results, in a severe AD case­control target sample. We found significant associations between AD disease status and MDD-PRS derived from both PGC-MDD2 (most informative P-threshold=1.0, P=0.00063, R2=0.533%) and PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=0.2, P=0.00014, R2=0.663%) meta-analyses; the larger discovery sample did not yield additional predictive power. In contrast, calculating PRS in a MDD target sample yielded increased power when using PGC-MDD2 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.000038, R2=1.34%) versus PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0013, R2=0.81%). Furthermore, when calculating PGC-MDD2 PRS in a subsample of patients with AD recruited explicitly excluding comorbid MDD, significant associations were still found (n=331; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.042, R2=0.398%). Meanwhile, in the subset of patients in which MDD was not the explicit exclusion criteria, PRS predicted more variance (n=999; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0003, R2=0.693%). Our findings replicate the reported genetic overlap between AD and MDD and also suggest the need for improved, rigorous phenotyping to identify true shared cross-disorder genetic factors. Larger target samples are needed to reduce noise and take advantage of increasing discovery sample size.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1340, 2018 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632299

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have advanced our understanding of susceptibility to B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL); however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here, we perform a GWAS and conduct a meta-analysis with two existing GWAS, totaling 2442 cases and 14,609 controls. We identify risk loci for BCP-ALL at 8q24.21 (rs28665337, P = 3.86 × 10-9, odds ratio (OR) = 1.34) and for ETV6-RUNX1 fusion-positive BCP-ALL at 2q22.3 (rs17481869, P = 3.20 × 10-8, OR = 2.14). Our findings provide further insights into genetic susceptibility to ALL and its biology.

19.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 290, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has severe adverse health consequences in adults and in the offspring of mothers who smoke during pregnancy. One of the most widely reported effects of smoking during pregnancy is reduced birth weight which is in turn associated with chronic disease in adulthood. Epigenome-wide association studies have revealed that smokers show a characteristic "smoking methylation pattern", and recent authors have proposed that DNA methylation mediates the impact of maternal smoking on birth weight. The aims of the present study were to replicate previous reports that methylation mediates the effect of maternal smoking on birth weight, and for the first time to investigate whether the observed mediation effects are sex-specific in order to account for known sex-specific differences in methylation levels. METHODS: Methylation levels in the cord blood of 313 newborns were determined using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K Beadchip. A total of 5,527 CpG sites selected on the basis of evidence from the literature were tested. To determine whether the observed association between maternal smoking and birth weight was attributable to methylation, mediation analyses were performed for significant CpG sites. Separate analyses were then performed in males and females. RESULTS: Following quality control, 282 newborns eventually remained in the analysis. A total of 25 mothers had smoked consistently throughout the pregnancy. The birthweigt of newborns whose mothers had smoked throughout pregnancy was reduced by >200g. After correction for multiple testing, 30 CpGs showed differential methylation in the maternal smoking subgroup including top "smoking methylation pattern" genes AHRR, MYO1G, GFI1, CYP1A1, and CNTNAP2. The effect of maternal smoking on birth weight was partly mediated by the methylation of cg25325512 (PIM1); cg25949550 (CNTNAP2); and cg08699196 (ITGB7). Sex-specific analyses revealed a mediating effect for cg25949550 (CNTNAP2) in male newborns. CONCLUSION: The present data replicate previous findings that methylation can mediate the effect of maternal smoking on birth weight. The analysis of sex-dependent mediation effects suggests that the sex of the newborn may have an influence. Larger studies are warranted to investigate the role of both the identified differentially methylated loci and the sex of the newborn in mediating the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth weight.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Metilação de DNA , Fumar , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cadeias beta de Integrinas/genética , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/genética
20.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(10): 871-882, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft palate only (nsCPO) is a common and multifactorial form of orofacial clefting. In contrast to successes achieved for the other common form of orofacial clefting, that is, nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (nsCL/P), genome wide association studies (GWAS) of nsCPO have identified only one genome wide significant locus. Aim of the present study was to investigate whether common variants contribute to nsCPO and, if so, to identify novel risk loci. METHODS: We genotyped 33 SNPs at 27 candidate loci from 2 previously published nsCPO GWAS in an independent multiethnic sample. It included: (i) a family-based sample of European ancestry (n = 212); and (ii) two case/control samples of Central European (n = 94/339) and Arabian ancestry (n = 38/231), respectively. A separate association analysis was performed for each genotyped dataset, and meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: After association analysis and meta-analyses, none of the 33 SNPs showed genome-wide significance. Two variants showed nominally significant association in the imputed GWAS dataset and exhibited a further decrease in p-value in a European and an overall meta-analysis including imputed GWAS data, respectively (rs395572: PMetaEU = 3.16 × 10-4 ; rs6809420: PMetaAll = 2.80 × 10-4 ). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is a limited contribution of common variants to nsCPO. However, the individual effect sizes might be too small for detection of further associations in the present sample sizes. Rare variants may play a more substantial role in nsCPO than in nsCL/P, for which GWAS of smaller sample sizes have identified genome-wide significant loci. Whole-exome/genome sequencing studies of nsCPO are now warranted.

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