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1.
Scand J Psychol ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498898

RESUMO

Obesity is a major public health problem. Children of women who were obese before or during pregnancy are at increased risk for neurobehavioral developmental problems. Whether a maternal lifestyle intervention conducted before and during pregnancy in obese women affects child neurobehavioral development is unknown. This study reports on the follow-up of a subsample of two randomized controlled trials, the Finnish RADIEL (n = 216) and Dutch LIFEstyle (n = 305) trial. Women with a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥29 kg/m2 wishing to conceive or who were already pregnant (<20 weeks) were allocated to a lifestyle intervention or to care as usual. Child neurodevelopment was measured with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and child behavioral problems were measured with the Childhood Behavior Checklist (RADIEL) or the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (LIFEstyle) at age 3-6 years. We used linear and binary logistic regression analyses to assess the effects of the lifestyle interventions on children's neurobehavioral developmental scores. Follow-up data was available from 161(38%) RADIEL and 96(32%) LIFEstyle children. Child neurodevelopmental scores did not differ significantly between children in the intervention and the control group (RADIEL:median = 275 vs. 280; LIFEstyle:median = 270 vs 267). Child behavioral problem scores did not differ significantly between children in the intervention and the control group (RADIEL:median = 22 vs. 21; LIFEstyle:median = 8 vs. 8). We did not observe considerable effects of the lifestyle interventions before or during pregnancy in obese women on child neurobehavioral development. With our sample sizes, we were not able to detect subtle differences in neurobehavioral development however.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression during pregnancy increases the risk for adverse developmental outcomes in children. However, the underpinning biological mechanisms remain unknown. We tested whether depression was associated with levels of and change in the inflammatory state during pregnancy, if early pregnancy overweight/obesity or diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders accounted for/mediated these effects, and if depression added to the inflammation that typically accompanies these conditions. METHODS: We analyzed plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and glycoprotein acetyls at three consecutive stages during pregnancy, derived history of depression diagnoses before pregnancy from Care Register for Healthcare (HILMO) (N = 375) and self-reports (N = 347) and depressive symptoms during pregnancy using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale completed concurrently to blood samplings (N = 295). Data on early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders came from medical records. RESULTS: Higher overall hsCRP levels, but not change, during pregnancy were predicted by history of depression diagnosis before pregnancy [HILMO: mean difference (MD) = 0.69 standard deviation (s.d.) units; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-1.11, self-report: MD = 0.56 s.d.; 95% CI 0.17-0.94] and higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy (0.06 s.d. per s.d. increase; 95% CI 0.00-0.13). History of depression diagnosis before pregnancy also predicted higher overall glycoprotein acetyls (HILMO: MD = 0.52 s.d.; 95% CI 0.12-0.93). These associations were not explained by diabetes/hypertensive disorders, but were accounted for and mediated by early pregnancy BMI. Furthermore, in obese women, overall hsCRP levels increased as depressive symptoms during pregnancy increased (p = 0.006 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Depression is associated with a proinflammatory state during pregnancy. These associations are mediated by early pregnancy BMI, and depressive symptoms during pregnancy aggravate the inflammation related to obesity.

3.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442325

RESUMO

AIM: To describe motor development in preschool children, to identify perinatal, neonatal and social environmental risk factors of poor motor development, and to replicate results in a second cohort. METHODS: Two prospective samples in Germany (Bavarian Longitudinal Study, BLS) and Finland (Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study, AYLS) assessed 4741 and 1423 children from birth to 56 months, respectively. Motor functioning was evaluated at birth, and 5, 20 and 56 months. Perinatal, neonatal and social environmental information was collected at birth and 5 months. RESULTS: Two distinct motor trajectories were identified: low (BLS: n = 4486 (94.6%), AYLS: n = 1391 (97.8%)) and high (BLS: n = 255 (5.4%), AYLS: n = 32 (2.2%)) degree of motor difficulties. High degree of motor difficulties was predicted by neonatal complications, abnormal neonatal neurological status, duration of hospitalisation and poor parent-infant relationships. Although neonatal complications and poor parent-infant relationships did not significantly predict high degree of motor difficulties in the AYLS, the trends identified were similar to those obtained from the BLS. CONCLUSION: Early identification of children at-risk of motor difficulties across infancy and toddlerhood may help referring those children to interventions earlier. Modifiable risk factors, such as parent-infant relationships, may be addressed by intervention strategies to prevent children from developing motor difficulties.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 2785-2795, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835282

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and prepregnancy overweight/obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2] might adversely affect offspring cardiometabolic health. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between maternal GDM and prepregnancy overweight/obesity with adult offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study (ESTER Maternal Pregnancy Disorders Study and the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study). SETTING: Province of Uusimaa and Northern Finland. PARTICIPANTS: At a mean age of 24.1 ± 1.3 years, we classified offspring as offspring of mothers with GDM regardless of the prepregnancy BMI (OGDM; n = 193); normoglycemic mothers with prepregnancy overweight/obesity (ONO; n = 157); and normoglycemic mothers with prepregnancy BMI <25 kg/m2 (controls; n = 556). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed the cardiometabolic biomarkers from blood and measured the blood pressure at rest and heart rate. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, the OGDM and ONO groups had greater fasting glucose (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.1% to 3.1%; and 2.3%; 95% CI, 0.5% to 4.3%, respectively) and insulin (12.7%; 95% CI, 4.4% to 21.9%; and 8.7%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 17.8%). These differences attenuated to nonsignificance when adjusted for confounders and/or current offspring characteristics, including BMI or body fat percentage. The OGDM group had lower SHBG (men, -12.4%; 95% CI, -20.2% to -3.9%; women, -33.2%; 95% CI, -46.3% to -16.8%), high-density lipoprotein (-6.6%; 95% CI, -10.9% to -2.2%), and apolipoprotein A1 (-4.5%; 95% CI, -7.5% to -1.4%). These differences survived the adjustments. The heart rate and other biomarkers were similar among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Adult offspring of mothers with GDM have increased markers of insulin resistance and a more atherogenic lipid profile. These were only partly explained by confounders or current offspring adiposity. Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with impaired offspring glucose regulation, which was explained by confounders and/or current adiposity.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4395, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867476

RESUMO

Early life stress (ELS) may increase the risk of anxiety throughout the life course. Whether this effect extends to late adulthood is poorly known. In our study comprising 1872 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in 1934-1944, we investigated the association of various forms of ELS and their accumulation with self-reported anxiety symptoms at the age of 65-77 years. Data on childhood socioeconomic status and separation from parents were based on national registers for all participants. Information on self-reported emotional and physical trauma, parental divorce, and death of a family member in childhood was obtained from 1277 participants. We found that experiencing emotional trauma, physical trauma, and low socioeconomic status in childhood were associated with increased anxiety symptoms in late adulthood [B = 0.44 (95% CI = 0.31-0.58); B = 0.33 (95% CI = 0.20-0.46); B = 0.10 (95% CI = 0.01-0.19), respectively]. These associations remained significant even after controlling for other forms of ELS. Accumulation of early life stress also increased the levels of late-adulthood anxiety symptoms and the risk of anxiety regarded as clinically significant. Screening for potentially stressful childhood experiences in elderly populations may help identifying individuals with increased anxiety symptoms and planning preventive and therapeutic interventions for those exposed to ELS.

6.
Sleep Med ; 56: 201-210, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been associated with poor offspring sleep. Yet, it remains unknown whether depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are more harmful to the child than depressive symptoms only during certain time periods in pregnancy, whether associations are specific to pregnancy stage, whether maternal symptomatology after pregnancy mediates or adds to the prenatal effects, and whether any effects are specific to some child sleep characteristics. METHODS: A total of 2321 mothers from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly between gestational weeks + days 12 + 0/13 + 6 and 38 + 0/39 + 6. At child's mean age of 3.5 (standard deviation = 0.7) years, mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and answered questions on child sleep quantity and quality using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) and sleep disorders using the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. RESULTS: Maternal depressive symptoms showed high stability throughout pregnancy. Children of mothers with clinically significant symptomatology throughout pregnancy had shorter mother-rated sleep duration, longer sleep latency, higher odds for waking up two or more times during the night and for total and several specific sleep disorders. These associations were robust to covariates. However, maternal depressive symptoms at the child follow-up fully mediated the associations with sleep duration and awakenings, partially mediated those with sleep latency and disorders, and added to the effects on sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: Maternal depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are associated with mother-rated child sleep quantity, quality, and disorders. Maternal depressive symptoms at child follow-up mediate and add to the prenatal adverse effects on child sleep characteristics.

7.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 104: 89-99, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826632

RESUMO

Background Maternal early pregnancy overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) are associated with mental and physical health adversities in the offspring. Prenatal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been put forward as one of the mechanisms that may play pathophysiological role. However, evidence linking maternal overweight and obesity with offspring HPA-axis activity is scarce. We studied if maternal early pregnancy BMI is associated with diurnal salivary cortisol, a marker of HPA-axis activity, in young adult offspring. Methods At a mean age of 25.3 (standard deviation [SD) = 0.6) years, 653 Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study participants collected saliva samples for cortisol analyses, at awakening, 15 and 30 min thereafter, 10:30AM, 12:00PM, 5:30PM and at bedtime. Maternal BMI was calculated from weight and height verified by a measurement in the first antenatal clinic visit before 12 weeks of gestation derived from healthcare records. Results Per each one kg/m2 higher maternal early pregnancy BMI offspring diurnal average salivary cortisol was -1.4% (95% CI:-2.6, -0.2, pFDR = 0.033) lower, at awakening it was -2.4% (95% CI:-4.0, -0.7, pFDR = 0.025) lower and the morning average salivary cortisol was -2.0% (95% CI:-3.4, -0.5, pFDR=0.017) lower. These associations were independent of the offspring's own young adulthood BMI, and other important covariates. Conclusion Our findings show that young adult offspring born to mothers with higher early pregnancy BMI show lower average levels of diurnal cortisol, especially in the morning. Whether these findings reflect prenatal programming of the offspring HPA-axis activity warrants further investigation.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synthetic glucocorticoids, to enhance fetal maturation, are a standard treatment when preterm birth before 34 gestational weeks is imminent. While morbidity- and mortality-related benefits may outweigh potential neurodevelopmental harms in children born preterm (<37 gestational weeks), this may not hold true when pregnancy continues to term (⩾37 gestational weeks). We studied the association of antenatal betamethasone exposure on child mental health in preterm and term children. METHODS: We included 4708 women and their children, born 2006-2010, from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction Study with information on both antenatal betamethasone treatment and child mental and behavioral disorders from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from the child's birth to 31 December 2016. Additional follow-up data on mother-reported psychiatric problems and developmental milestones were available for 2640 children at 3.5 (s.d. = 0.07) years-of-age. RESULTS: Of the children, 187 were born preterm (61 betamethasone-exposed) and 4521 at term (56 betamethasone-exposed). The prevalence of any mental and behavioral, psychological development, emotional and behavioral, and comorbid disorders was higher in the betamethasone-exposed, compared to non-exposed children [odds ratio 2.76 (95% confidence interval 1.76-4.32), 3.61 (2.19-5.95), 3.29 (1.86-5.82), and 6.04 (3.25-11.27), respectively]. Levels of psychiatric problems and prevalence of failure to meet the age-appropriate development in personal-social skills were also higher in mother-reports of betamethasone-exposed children. These associations did not vary significantly between preterm and term children. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal betamethasone exposure may be associated with mental health problems in children born preterm and in those who end up being born at term.

9.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 157: 106-113, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553020

RESUMO

ADHD and its subclinical symptoms have been associated with both disturbed sleep and weakened overnight memory consolidation. As sleep spindle activity during NREM sleep plays a key role in both sleep maintenance and memory consolidation, we examined the association between subclinical ADHD symptoms and sleep spindle activity. Furthermore, we hypothesized that sleep spindle activity mediates the effect of ADHD symptoms on overnight learning outcome in a procedural memory task. We studied these questions in a community-based cohort of 170 adolescents (58% girls, mean age = 16.9, SD = 0.1 years), who filled in the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1), and underwent an overnight sleep EEG coupled with a mirror tracing task before and after sleep. Elevated ADHD symptoms were associated with weaker fast sleep spindle activity, and poorer overnight learning in the procedural memory test. However, sleep spindles, contrary to the hypothesis, did not mediate the association between ADHD symptoms and overnight learning. Our results showed that a higher level of ADHD symptoms in adolescence is associated with similar alterations in sleep spindle activity as observed in many neuropsychiatric conditions and might contribute to altered synaptic connectivity and sleep fragmentation observed in ADHD.

10.
Eur J Pain ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals born preterm are at risk of later developmental problems and long-term morbidities. There is conflicting evidence regarding musculoskeletal pain in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal pain in young adults born across the range of preterm birth compared with a term-born reference group. METHODS: From two Finnish birth cohorts, 184 individuals born early preterm (<34 weeks), 350 late preterm (34 to <37 weeks) and 641 at term completed a self-report questionnaire of musculoskeletal pain at mean age 24.1 (SD: 1.4) years. Group differences were examined by logistic regression models adjusting for sex, age and cohort (Model 1), potential early life confounders (Model 2) and lifestyle factors related to physical (Model 3) and mental health (Model 4). RESULTS: The late preterm group had lower odds for reporting neck pain (0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56-0.96), which was further reduced when adjusting for early life confounders and lifestyle factors (Model 4). Odds for reporting peripheral pain were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.48-0.99, Model 4) in the early preterm group. The odds for reporting any pain, shoulder, low back or widespread pain did not differ significantly between groups, although odds for reporting widespread pain were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.58-1.03, Model 4) in the late preterm group. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of increased prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in adults born early or late preterm. In contrast, our results suggest that adults born preterm have a slightly lower risk of reporting musculoskeletal pain, also when we adjusted for lifestyle factors. SIGNIFICANCE: Young adults born preterm do not have increased rates of musculoskeletal pain. Our findings rather suggest that these rates may be slightly lower than among those born at term.

11.
Pediatr Res ; 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression complicates a large proportion of pregnancies. Current evidence shows numerous harmful effects on the offspring. Reviews, which include depression, concluded that stress has harmful effects on the offspring's outcomes neuro-cognitive development, temperament traits, and mental disorders. OBJECTIVE: This mini review of recent studies, sought to narrow the scope of exposure and identify studies specifically assessing prenatal depression and offspring neuropsychiatric outcomes. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: The review included longitudinal, cohort, cross-sectional, clinical, quasi-experimental, epidemiological, or intervention study designs published in English from 2014 to 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Study populations included mother-child dyads, mother-father-child triads, mother-alternative caregiver-child triads, and family studies utilizing sibling comparisons. METHODS: We searched PubMED and Web of Science. Study inclusion and data extraction were based on standardized templates. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). RESULTS: Thirteen studies examining neuropsychiatric outcomes were included. We judged the evidence to be moderate to high quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our review supports that maternal prenatal depression is associated with neuropsychiatric adversities in children. IMPLICATIONS: Future investigations should unravel the biological underpinnings and target timely interventions as early in pregnancy as possible to prevent offspring neuropsychiatric harms.

12.
J Sleep Res ; : e12762, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156343

RESUMO

Schizophrenia has been associated with disturbed sleep, even before the onset of the disorder, and also in non-schizophrenic first-order relatives. This may point to an underlying genetic influence. Here we examine whether weighted polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia are associated with sleep spindle activity in healthy adolescents. Our sample comes from a community-based cohort of 157 non-schizophrenic adolescents (57% girls) having both genetic data and an overnight sleep EEG measurement available. Based on a recent genome-wide association study, we calculated PRS for schizophrenia across the whole genome. We also calculated PRS for the CACNA1l gene region, which has been associated with both schizophrenia and sleep spindle formation. We performed an overnight sleep EEG at the homes of the participants. Stage two sleep spindles were detected using an automated algorithm. Sleep spindle amplitude, duration, intensity and density were measured separately for central and frontal derivations and for fast (13-16 Hz) and slow (10-13 Hz) spindles. PRS for schizophrenia was associated with higher fast spindle amplitude (p = 0.04), density (p = 0.006) and intensity (p = 0.04) at the central derivation, and PRS in the CACNA1l region associated with higher slow spindle amplitude (p = 0.01), duration (p = 0.03) and intensity (p = 0.002) at the central derivation. A positive association between genetic variants for schizophrenia and sleep spindle activity among healthy adolescents supports a view that sleep spindles and schizophrenia share similar genetic pathways. This study suggests that altered sleep spindle activity might serve as an endophenotype of schizophrenia.

13.
Sleep Med ; 50: 36-41, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed new genetic variants behind self-reported individual circadian preference, a distinct biological trait that is fairly stable during adulthood. In this study we analyze whether these genetic variants associate with objectively measured sleep timing from childhood to adolescence, over a nine-year period, with self-reported circadian preference during late adolescence. METHODS: The participants (N = 100, 61% girls) came from a community cohort from Finland born in 1998. Sleep midpoint was measured with actigraphy at 8, 12 and 17 years. Circadian preference was self-reported at the age of 17 years. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were extracted at 12 years of age from the Illumina OmniExpress Exome 1.2 bead array data. Weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated based on top SNPs from a recent GWAS for morningness-eveningness in an adult population. RESULTS: The PRS for circadian preference towards morningness was associated with earlier sleep midpoint from childhood to adolescence. When the time points were analyzed separately, the association between genetic tendency towards morning preference and earlier sleep midpoint was strongest among the 17-year-olds. Furthermore, the shift towards later sleep rhythm from early to late adolescence was milder for those with a higher PRS for morning preference. PRS for morning preference was also associated with self-reported circadian preference towards morningness in late adolescence. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that genetic variants found for circadian preference in adults are already associated with objective sleep timing during childhood and adolescence, and predict individual developmental sleep trajectories from childhood onwards.

14.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(8): 1136-1141, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that the temperament traits are related to risk factors for chronic diseases, which could be partly explained by lifestyle habits. However, little is known whether temperament traits associate with diet. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between temperament traits and the whole diet. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 1668 men and women, aged 56-70, from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Temperament was measured using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Information on diet was collected by a validated 128-item food frequency questionnaire. The associations of temperament traits; novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (P), with diet were tested by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, greater HA was related to poorer diet quality, including lower consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish and several vitamins. RD was associated with healthier diet quality, including higher consumption of vegetables and intake of vitamin E and lower intake of alcohol. NS was significantly related to higher intake of fish, fat and alcohol and lower consumption of cereals, milk products and carbohydrates. No significant associations between P and intake of foods and nutrients were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is an association between temperament traits and diet. Especially greater HA seems to associate with poorer diet quality and greater RD with healthier diet quality.

15.
BMC Psychol ; 6(1): 24, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental language disorder (DLD, also called specific language impairment, SLI) is a common developmental disorder comprising the largest disability group in pre-school-aged children. Approximately 7% of the population is expected to have developmental language difficulties. However, the specific etiological factors leading to DLD are not yet known and even the typical linguistic features appear to vary by language. We present here a project that investigates DLD at multiple levels of analysis and aims to make the reliable prediction and early identification of the difficulties possible. Following the multiple deficit model of developmental disorders, we investigate the DLD phenomenon at the etiological, neural, cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial levels, in a longitudinal study of preschool children. METHODS: In January 2013, we launched the Helsinki Longitudinal SLI study (HelSLI) at the Helsinki University Hospital ( http://tiny.cc/HelSLI ). We will study 227 children aged 3-6 years with suspected DLD and their 160 typically developing peers. Five subprojects will determine how the child's psychological characteristics and environment correlate with DLD and how the child's well-being relates to DLD, the characteristics of DLD in monolingual versus bilingual children, nonlinguistic cognitive correlates of DLD, electrophysiological underpinnings of DLD, and the role of genetic risk factors. Methods include saliva samples, EEG, computerized cognitive tasks, neuropsychological and speech and language assessments, video-observations, and questionnaires. DISCUSSION: The project aims to increase our understanding of the multiple interactive risk and protective factors that affect the developing heterogeneous cognitive and behavioral profile of DLD, including factors affecting literacy development. This accumulated knowledge will form a heuristic basis for the development of new interventions targeting linguistic and non-linguistic aspects of DLD.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(5): 995-1007, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have linked maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) with suboptimal neurodevelopment in her offspring; however, the literature is not entirely consistent. Whether these effects are muddled by maternal self-reports of pre-pregnancy weight and height, or are driven or amplified by the well often comorbid hypertensive and diabetic pregnancy and pre-pregnancy disorders, remains unclear. We examined whether maternal early pregnancy obesity is associated with developmental delay in her offspring, and if the associations are driven or amplified by diabetic and hypertensive pregnancy and pre-pregnancy disorders. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 2504 mother-child dyads participated in the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study. Data on maternal early pregnancy obesity, pre-pregnancy, and gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, type 1 and gestational diabetes were derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. At the child's mean age of 42.1 (SD = 8.2) months the mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) Third edition for developmental milestones. RESULTS: Children of obese mothers had 1.81-2.74 (p-values <0.02) higher odds of failing to meet the development that is typical for a child's age (developmental domain score ≤-2SD below the child's age) on the communication, fine and gross motor, problem solving and personal/social skills and children of overweight mothers had 2.14 (p = 0.002) higher odds of failing to meet the development that is typical for the child's age on communication skills. Odds of developmental delay were also higher for children of mothers with pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes. The associations were robust to covariates and confounders, the effects of overweight/obesity and pre-eclampsia were not driven by the other disorders, and overweight/obesity and hypertensive and diabetic disorders did not show additive effects. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal early pregnancy overweight, obesity, and pre-eclampsia are independently associated with neurodevelopmental delay in her offspring. Further studies unraveling the underlying mechanisms are warranted.

17.
Depress Anxiety ; 35(8): 732-741, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy predict poorer child neurodevelopment. The effects of timing, symptom severity, and additive influences remain unclear. METHODS: A total of 2,231 mothers of the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly up to 14 times during pregnancy and twice up to 12 months after pregnancy. At child's age 1.9-5.7 years, the mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II on their concurrent depressive symptoms and Ages and Stages Questionnaire on child developmental milestones. RESULTS: Higher mean maternal depressive symptoms, each biweekly score, and consistently clinically relevant symptomatology during pregnancy predicted lower total developmental milestones, fine and gross motor, communication, problem solving, and personal/social skills scores in children. Although maternal depressive symptoms up to 12 months after pregnancy and in early childhood also predicted lower developmental milestones scores, developmental milestones scores were the lowest in children whose mothers' depressive symptoms were above the clinical cutoff either only during pregnancy, both during and up to 12 months after pregnancy, or at each three time-points. CONCLUSION: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, in the first year postpartum and in early childhood are associated with poorer child neurodevelopment. Our findings further suggest that antenatal and postpregnancy depression have additive effects on neurodevelopment. Children of mothers with the most chronic and severe depressive symptoms during pregnancy had the most neurodevelopmental disadvantages. Our findings emphasize the adverse effects of maternal depression during and after pregnancy and in early childhood on child neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
J Sleep Res ; : e12692, 2018 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655216

RESUMO

Research suggests an association between schizophrenia and a decrease in sleep spindle activity, as well as a change in sleep architecture. It is unknown how the continuum of psychotic symptoms relates to different features in the sleep electroencephalogram. We set out to examine how sleep architecture and stage 2 spindle activity are associated with schizotypy in a healthy adolescent population. The participants in our study (n = 176, 61% girls) came from a community-based cohort. Schizotypal traits were evaluated using the Schizotypal Personality Scale (STA) in early adolescence (mean age 12.3 years, SD = 0.5) and the participants underwent ambulatory overnight polysomnography at mean age 16.9 years (SD = 0.1). Sleep was scored in 30-s epochs into stages 1, 2, 3 and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Stage 2 spindles were detected using an automated algorithm. Spindle analyses from central and frontal derivations included spindle duration and density for slow (10-13 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) ranges. Covariates included sex and age. Those with the highest STA scores had a higher percentage of REM (B = 2.07 [95% CI, 0.17, 4.0]; p = .03) than those with the lowest scores. Those with the highest scores had shorter spindle duration, as derived from the frontal regions, and a slower oscillation range (B = -0.04 [95% CI, -0.07, -0.01]; p = .023) than those with the lowest scores. We conclude that high levels of schizotypy characteristics measured in early adolescence may be associated with distinguished features of sleep architecture, namely with spindle morphology and a higher proportion of REM sleep.

19.
Chronobiol Int ; 35(4): 555-564, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381407

RESUMO

A preference for eveningness (being a "night owl") and preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation) are associated with similar adversities, such as elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose regulation, poorer physical fitness, and lower mood. Yet, it remains unclear if and how preterm birth is associated with circadian preference. The aim of this study was to assess this association across the whole gestation range, using both objective and subjective measurements of circadian preference. Circadian preference was measured among 594 young adults (mean age 24.3 years, SD 1.3) from two cohorts: the ESTER study and the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study. We compared 83 participants born early preterm (<34 weeks) and 165 late preterm (34 to <37 weeks) with those born at term (≥37 weeks, n = 346). We also compared very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) participants with term-born controls. We obtained objective sleep data with actigraphs that were worn for a mean period of 6.8 (SD 1.4) nights. Our primary outcome was sleep midpoint during weekdays and weekend. The sleep midpoint is the half-way time between falling asleep and waking up, and it represents sleep timing. We also investigated subjective chronotype with the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) in 688 (n = 138/221/329) ESTER participants. The MEQ consists of 19 questions, which estimates the respondent to be of a "morning", "evening," or "intermediate" chronotype, based on the Morningness-Eveningness Score (MES). We analyzed the data from the actigraphs and the MES with three linear regression models, and analyzed distribution of the chronotype class with Pearson χ2. There were no consistent differences across the study groups in sleep midpoint. As compared with those born at term, the mean differences in minutes:seconds and 95% confidence intervals for the sleep midpoint were: early preterm weekdays 11:47 (-8:34 to 32:08), early preterm weekend 4:14 (-19:45 to 28:13), late preterm weekdays -10:28 (-26:16 to 5:21), and late preterm weekend -1:29 (-20:36 to 17:37). There was no difference in sleep timing between VLBW-participants and controls either. The distribution of chronotype in the MEQ among all participants was 12.4% morningness, 65.4% intermediate, and 22.2% eveningness. The distribution of the subjective chronotype class did not differ between the three gestational age groups (p = 0.98). The linear regression models did not show any influence of gestational age group or VLBW status on the MES (all p > 0.5). We found no consistent differences between adults born early or late preterm and those born at term in circadian preference. The earlier circadian preference previously observed in those born smallest is unlikely to extend across the whole range of preterm birth.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1662, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29362407

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

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