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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2017507, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955574

RESUMO

Importance: Living in areas with more vegetation (referred to as residential greenness) may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little data are available from low- and middle-income countries. In addition, it remains unclear whether the presence of cardiometabolic disorders modifies or mediates the association between residential greenness and CVD. Objective: To evaluate the associations between residential greenness, cardiometabolic disorders, and CVD prevalence among adults in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis was performed as part of the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study, a large population-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in 33 communities (ranging from 0.25-0.64 km2) in 3 cities within the Liaoning province of northeastern China between April 1 and December 31, 2009. Participants included adults aged 18 to 74 years who had resided in the study area for 5 years or more. Greenness levels surrounding each participant's residential community were assessed using the normalized difference vegetation index and the soil-adjusted vegetation index from 2010. Lifetime CVD status (including myocardial infarction, heart failure, coronary heart disease, cerebral thrombosis, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral embolism, and subarachnoid hemorrhage) was defined as a self-report of a physician diagnosis of CVD at the time of the survey. Cardiometabolic disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and overweight or obese status, were measured and defined clinically. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the association between residential greenness levels and CVD prevalence. A 3-way decomposition method was used to explore whether the presence of cardiometabolic disorders mediated or modified the association between residential greenness and CVD. Data were analyzed from October 10 to May 30, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime CVD status, the presence of cardiometabolic disorders, and residential greenness level. Results: Among 24 845 participants, the mean (SD) age was 45.6 (13.3) years, and 12 661 participants (51.0%) were men. A total of 1006 participants (4.1%) reported having a diagnosis of CVD. An interquartile range (1-IQR) increase in the normalized difference vegetation index within 500 m of a community was associated with a 27% lower likelihood (odds ratio [OR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.65-0.83; P < .001) of CVD prevalence, and an IQR increase in the soil-adjusted vegetation index within 500 m of a community was associated with a 26% lower likelihood (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.66-0.84; P < .001) of CVD prevalence. The presence of cardiometabolic disorders was found to mediate the association between residential greenness and CVD, with mediation effects of 4.5% for hypertension, 4.1% for type 2 diabetes, 3.1% for overweight or obese status, 12.7% for hypercholesterolemia, 8.7% for hypertriglyceridemia, and 11.1% for high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, higher residential greenness levels were associated with lower CVD prevalence, and this association may be partially mediated by the presence of cardiometabolic disorders. Further studies, preferably longitudinal, are warranted to confirm these findings.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether long-term exposure air to pollution has effects on allergic sensitization is controversial. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations of air pollution exposure at birth and at the time of later biosampling with IgE sensitization against common food and inhalant allergens, or specific allergen molecules, in children aged up to 16 years. METHODS: A total of 6163 children from 4 European birth cohorts participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy [MeDALL] consortium were included in this meta-analysis of the following studies: Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE) (Sweden), Influences of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Human Immune System and Development of Allergies in Childhood (LISA)/German Infant Study on the Influence of Nutrition Intervention PLUS Environmental and Genetic Influences on Allergy Development (GINIplus) (Germany), and Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) (The Netherlands). The following indicators were modeled by land use regression: individual residential outdoor levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm, less than 10 µm, and between 2.5 and 10 µm; PM2.5 absorbance (a measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters); and nitrogen oxides levels. Blood samples drawn at ages 4 to 6 (n = 5989), 8 to 10 (n = 6603), and 15 to 16 (n = 5825) years were analyzed for IgE sensitization to allergen extracts by ImmunoCAP. Additionally, IgE against 132 allergen molecules was measured by using the MedALL microarray chip (n = 1021). RESULTS: Air pollution was not consistently associated with IgE sensitization to any common allergen extract up to age 16 years. However, allergen-specific analyses suggested increased risks of sensitization to birch (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12 [95% CI = 1.01-1.25] per 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure). In a subpopulation with microarray data, IgE to the major timothy grass allergen Phleum pratense 1 (Phl p 1) and the cat allergen Felis domesticus 1 (Fel d 1) greater than 3.5 Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip standardized units for detection of IgE antibodies were related to PM2.5 exposure at birth (OR = 3.33 [95% CI = 1.40-7.94] and OR = 4.98 [95% CI = 1.59-15.60], respectively, per 5-µg/m3 increase in exposure). CONCLUSION: Air pollution exposure does not seem to increase the overall risk of allergic sensitization; however, sensitization to birch as well as grass pollen Phl p 1 and cat Fel d 1 allergen molecules may be related to specific pollutants.

3.
Environ Int ; 145: 106092, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916413

RESUMO

Experimental data suggests that PM1 is more toxic than PM2.5 although the epidemiologic evidence suggests that the health associations are similar. However, few objective exposure data are available to compare the associations of PM1 and PM2.5 with children lung function. Our objectives are a) to evaluate associations between long-term exposure to PM1, PM2.5 and children's lung function, and b) to compare the associations between PM1 and PM2.5. From 2012 to 2013, we enrolled 6,740 children (7-14 years), randomly recruited from primary and middle schools located in seven cities in northeast China. We measured lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) utilizing two portable electronic spirometers. We dichotomized continuous lung function measures according the expected values for gender and age. The spatial resolution at which PM1 and PM2.5 estimated were estimated using a machine learning method and the temporal average concentrations were averaged from 2009 to 2012. A multilevel regression model was used to estimate the associations of PM1, PM2.5 exposure and lung function measures, adjusted for confounding factors. Associations with lower lung function were consistently larger for PM1 than for PM2.5. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) per interquartile range greater PM1 ranged from 1.53 for MMEF (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.96) to 2.14 for FEV1 (95% CI: 1.66-2.76) and ORs for PM2.5 ranged from 1.36 for MMEF (95%CI: 1.12-1.66) to 1.82 for FEV1 (95%CI: 1.49-2.22), respectively. PM1 and PM2.5 had significant associations with FVC and FEV1 in primary school children, and on PEF and MMEF in middle school children. Long-term PM1 and PM2.5 exposure can lead to decreased lung function in children, and the associations of PM1 are stronger than PM2.5. Therefore, PM1 may be more hazardous to children's respiratory health than PM2.5 exposure.

4.
Environ Res ; 191: 110132, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether residing in places with higher greenness, more trees and more allergenic trees early in life increases the risk of allergic outcomes, and whether these associations differ depending on the concentration of air pollutants. METHODS: The analytic sample included 631 children from the German birth cohort LISA Leipzig. Asthma and allergic rhinitis, sensitization to aeroallergens and food allergens, as well as confounders, were collected prospectively up to 15 years. Greenness was assessed by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A tree registry was used to derive information on trees, which were classified into allergenic and non-allergenic. Annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone were also used. Geographic exposures were assigned to home addresses at birth. Longitudinal associations were analysed using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Medium and high numbers (tertiles) of trees and allergenic trees in a 500 m buffer around birth addresses were associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis up to 15 years regardless of NDVI. These exposures were also related to higher odds of sensitization to aeroallergens. Associations with asthma and sensitization to food allergens were less consistent. Effect estimates for allergic rhinitis were stronger in the high tertile of NO2 compared to the low tertile, while an opposite tendency was observed for ozone. CONCLUSION: We observed that early life residence in places with many trees, and allergenic trees specifically, may increase the prevalence of allergic rhinitis later in life. This association and its modification by air pollution should be pursued in further studies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806543

RESUMO

We investigated if greenness and air pollution exposure in parents' childhood affect offspring asthma and hay fever, and if effects were mediated through parental asthma, pregnancy greenness/pollution exposure, and offspring exposure. We analysed 1106 parents with 1949 offspring (mean age 35 and 6) from the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Mean particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) (µg/m3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were calculated for parents 0-18 years old and offspring 0-10 years old, and were categorised in tertiles. We performed logistic regression and mediation analyses for two-pollutant models (clustered by family and centre, stratified by parental lines, and adjusted for grandparental asthma and education). Maternal medium PM2.5 and PM10 exposure was associated with higher offspring asthma risk (odds ratio (OR) 2.23, 95%CI 1.32-3.78, OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.36-3.80), and paternal high BC exposure with lower asthma risk (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.11-0.87). Hay fever risk increased for offspring of fathers with medium O3 exposure (OR 4.15, 95%CI 1.28-13.50) and mothers with high PM10 exposure (OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.19-5.91). The effect of maternal PM10 exposure on offspring asthma was direct, while for hay fever, it was mediated through exposures in pregnancy and offspring's own exposures. Paternal O3 exposure had a direct effect on offspring hay fever. To conclude, parental exposure to air pollution appears to influence the risk of asthma and allergies in future offspring.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817718

RESUMO

Concerns exist that the positive association of physical activity with better lung function, which has been suggested in previous longitudinal studies in smokers, is due to reverse causation. To investigate this, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM), an exploratory approach, and marginal structural modeling (MSM), an approach from the causal inference framework that corrects for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding and estimates causal effects, on data from participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, a multicentre European cohort study initiated in 1991-1993 with ECRHS I, and with two follow-ups: ECRHS II in 1999-2003, and ECRHS III in 2010-2014). 753 subjects who reported current smoking at ECRHS II, with repeated data on lung function at ECRHS I, II and III, physical activity at ECRHS II and III, and potential confounders at ECRHS I and II, were included in the analyses. SEM showed positive associations between physical activity and lung function in both directions. MSM suggested a protective causal effect of physical activity on lung function (overall difference in mean ß (95% CI), comparing active versus non-active individuals: 58 mL (21-95) for forced expiratory volume in one second and 83 mL (36-130) for forced vital capacity). Our results suggest bi-directional causation and support a true protective effect of physical activity on lung function in smokers, after accounting for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Exercício Físico , Pulmão/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e034854, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792426

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ambient ozone exposure may be adverse to health. Since the reported associations between ozone and health effects are heterogeneous and the underlying pathways are indistinct, the overall relationship remains unclear. Only a few overall syntheses of the evidence regarding ozone and health effects are available to date. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We plan to summarise the current evidence on ozone-related health effects systematically. First, to identify the possible associations between ambient ozone exposure and health outcomes, we will conduct an umbrella review. PubMed, Web of Science and grey literature will be searched for systematic reviews on exposure to ambient ozone and any possible health endpoints published before 31 May 2019. Data selection and extraction will be carried out by one reviewer, and a second reviewer will check the agreement of a sample of the studies. The methodological quality of the eligible systematic reviews and level of evidence regarding ozone and every specific health effect will be evaluated. Second, for each of the identified effects with a high level of evidence, comprehensive information retrievals will be conducted, considering both epidemiological and experimental studies. The study selection and data mapping will be carried out by one reviewer and checked by the second reviewer. We will summarise the information of the filtered epidemiological and experimental studies to conduct several systematic maps presenting the currently available evidence for the specific health effect. Because the association between ozone exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is relatively well investigated, we will at least conduct one systematic map of ozone and COPD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required for this study. The completed umbrella review and systematic maps will be considered for publication and presentation. We will additionally upload the relevant data to publicly accessible online databases. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019123064.

8.
Environ Int ; 143: 105967, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the effect of residential greenness on respiratory health in children with inconsistent results. However, there are no studies investigating the association between greenness around schools, a representative environment for children and childhood asthma. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between greenness surrounding schools and asthma in schoolchildren. METHODS: We recruited 59,754 schoolchildren from 94 schools in 2012-2013 from the Seven Northeast Cities Study, China. Greenness surrounding schools was measured using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) at buffers from 30 to 1000 m. Asthma symptoms were collected from validated self-reported questionnaires. Logistic mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the associations between greenness surrounding school and childhood asthma after adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We found that greenness surrounding schools in all buffered sizes was negatively associated with the prevalence of asthmatic symptoms in schoolchildren. A 0.1-unit increase in NDVI1000m was associated with lower odds of current asthma (odds ratio: 0.81, 95% confidential interval: 0.75, 0.86) and current wheeze (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.94) in children after covariate adjustments. Higher greenness was associated with less asthma symptoms in a dose-response pattern (P for trend < 0.05). The estimated associations appeared to be stronger in children exposure to higher air pollution level. The observed associations varied across seven cities. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest beneficial associations of greenness surrounding schools with childhood asthma. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most women live to experience menopause and will spend 4-8 years transitioning from fertile age to full menstrual stop. Biologically, reproductive ageing is a continuous process, but by convention, it is defined categorically as pre-, peri- and postmenopause; categories that are sometimes supported by measurements of sex hormones in blood samples. We aimed to develop and validate a new tool, a reproductive ageing score (RAS), that could give a simple and yet precise description of the status of reproductive ageing, without hormone measurements, to be used by health professionals and researchers. METHODS: Questionnaire data on age, menstrual regularity and menstrual frequency was provided by the large multicentre population-based RHINE cohort. A continuous reproductive ageing score was developed from these variables, using techniques of fuzzy mathematics, to generate a decimal number ranging from 0.00 (nonmenopausal) to 1.00 (postmenopausal). The RAS was then validated with sex hormone measurements (follicle stimulating hormone and 17ß-estradiol) and interview-data provided by the large population-based ECRHS cohort, using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). RESULTS: The RAS, developed from questionnaire data of the RHINE cohort, defined with high precision and accuracy the menopausal status as confirmed by interview and hormone data in the ECRHS cohort. The area under the ROC curve was 0.91 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.93) to distinguish nonmenopausal women from peri- and postmenopausal women, and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.83-0.88) to distinguish postmenopausal women from nonmenopausal and perimenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The RAS provides a useful and valid tool for describing the status of reproductive ageing accurately, on a continuous scale from 0.00 to 1.00, based on simple questions and without requiring blood sampling. The score allows for a more precise differentiation than the conventional categorisation in pre-, peri- and postmenopause. This is useful for epidemiological research and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perimenopausa , Pós-Menopausa , Reprodução/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Obes Rev ; 21(11): e13078, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677149

RESUMO

Several reviews have been conducted to assess the association between greenspace and overweight or obesity, but the conclusions were inconsistent. However, an updated comprehensive review and meta-analysis is warranted, because several high-quality papers have been published more recently. The objectives of this study are to systematically and quantitatively assess the evidence for a link between greenspace with overweight/obesity and to make specific recommendations for further research. We searched three English language databases, four Chinese language databases and the reference lists of previously published reviews for epidemiological studies on greenspace and overweight/obesity published before January 2020. We developed inclusion criteria, screened the literature and extracted key data from selected papers. We assessed methodological quality and risk of bias, and we graded the credibility of the pooled evidence. We also performed sensitivity analyses. Fifty-seven records met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Most studies were cross-sectional designs (81%) and were from developed nations (88%). More than half (55%) of the included studies found beneficial associations between greenspace and overweight/obesity in overall or subpopulations. Our meta-analytical results showed that greater normalized difference vegetation index was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity in a statistically significant fashion (odds ratio [OR]: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.91) but not residential proximity to greenspace (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.00), proportion of greenspace (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.08) or number of parks in an area (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.01). However, we detected high between-study heterogeneity in two of the four meta-analyses, which reduced the credibility of the pooled evidence. Current evidence indicates that there might be an association between greater access to greenspace and lower odds of overweight/obesity. However, additional high-quality studies are needed to more definitively assess the evidence for a causal association.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645895

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests adults living in greener areas tend to have more favourable sleep-related outcomes, but children and adolescents are under-researched. We hypothesised that children and adolescents living in greener areas would have better quality and more sufficient levels of sleep on average, especially within the context of high traffic noise exposure. These hypotheses were tested using multilevel logistic regressions fitted on samples from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (10-11 years old, n = 3469, and 14-15 years old, n = 2814) and the GINIplus and LISA cohorts (10 years old, n = 1461, and 15 years old, n = 4172) from the Munich, Wesel, and Leipzig areas of Germany. Questionnaire-based binary indicators of sleep sufficiency and sleep quality in each cohort were assessed with respect to objectively measured green space exposures adjusting for age, sex, and maternal education. Models were augmented with proxy measures of traffic noise and two-way interaction terms to test for effect modification. Cross-tabulations illustrated little convincing evidence of association between green space and insufficient sleep or poor sleep quality in either sample, except for insufficient sleep among 10 year old participants in Germany. These null findings were replicated in adjusted models. The proxy for traffic noise was associated with poor quality sleep in 15 year old participants in Germany, but no convincing evidence of modified association with green space was observed.


Assuntos
Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Ambiente Construído , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510134

RESUMO

A restrictive spirometry pattern is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Whether practicing regular physical activity protects against this pattern has never been studied. We estimated the association between regular physical activity and the incidence of restrictive spirometry pattern. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and physical activity were assessed between 2000-2002 in the ECRHS (n=2,757, 39-67 years) and SAPALDIA (n=2,610, 36-82 years) population-based European cohorts, and again approximately 10-years later (2010-2013). Subjects with restrictive or obstructive spirometry pattern at baseline were excluded. We assessed the association of being active at baseline (defined as being physically active ≥2-3 times/wk for ≥1 h) with restrictive spirometry pattern at follow-up (defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ≥Lower Limit of Normal and FVC<80% predicted) using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for relevant confounders. After 10 years of follow-up, 3.3% of participants had developed restrictive spirometry pattern. Being physically active was associated with a lower risk of developing this phenotype (RR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.98). This association was stronger among those overweight and obese, compared to those with normal weight (Pinteraction=0.06). In two large European studies, adults practicing regular physical activity were at lower risk of developing restrictive spirometry pattern after 10 years.

13.
Environ Int ; 140: 105749, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residing in greener areas is increasingly linked to beneficial health outcomes, but little is known about its effect on respiratory health. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between residential greenness and nearby green spaces with lung function up to 24 years in the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. METHODS: Lung function was measured by spirometry at eight, 15 and 24 years of age. Greenness levels within circular buffers (100-1000 m) around the birth, eight-, 15- and 24-year home addresses were calculated using the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and averaged (lifetime greenness). The presence and proportion of green spaces (urban green spaces, forests and agricultural land) within a 300 m buffer was determined. First, associations between repeated greenness and green space variables and repeated lung function parameters were assessed using generalized estimation equations (N = 7094, 47.9% male). Second, associations between lifetime average greenness and lifetime average proportion of green spaces with lung function at 24-years were assessed using linear regression models (N = 1763, 39.6% male). All models were adjusted for individual and environmental covariates. RESULTS: Using repeated greenspace and lung function data at eight, 15 and 24 years, greenness in a 100 m buffer was associated with higher FEV1 and FVC (11.4 ml [2.6, 20.3] and 12.2 ml [1.8, 22.7], respectively, per interquartile range increase), as was the presence of urban green spaces in a 300 m buffer (20.3 ml [-0.1, 40.7] and 23.1 ml [-0.3, 46.5] for FEV1 and FVC, respectively). These associations were independent of air pollution, urbanicity and socio-economic status. Lifetime average greenness within a 100 m buffer and proportion of agricultural land within a 300 m buffer were associated with better lung function at 24 years but adjusting for asthma attenuated these associations. DISCUSSION: This study provides suggestive evidence that children whose homes are in more vegetated places or are in close proximity of green spaces have better lung function up to 24 years of age.

14.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 228: 113562, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety have complex etiologies and are associated with a significant burden of disease. Although air pollution has been hypothesized as a possible risk factor of these disorders, the associations are still under-investigated. We aimed to analyze associations between long-term exposure to ambient ozone and particulate matter with diameter <10 µm (PM10) and diagnoses of depression and anxiety in a general population. METHODS: We utilized data from a large statutory health insurance company from Saxony, Germany. Information on outpatient clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety was available for the years 2005-2014. We assigned ambient ozone and PM10 estimates to residential districts of 1.13 million individuals aged 16 and older. Depression and anxiety were defined as diagnoses counts. Associations with depression and anxiety were assessed using adjusted generalized estimating equations models. RESULTS: In the ten-year study period, the observed prevalences of depression and anxiety were 7.40% and 3.82%, respectively. In the two-pollutant model, 10 more days with a maximum 8-h average ozone concentration exceeding 120 µg/m³ resulted in a relative risk (RR) of 1.010 with 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.005, 1.014) for depression and an RR of 1.007 (95% CI (1.000, 1.014)) for anxiety. The effect estimates of PM10 for depression and anxiety were 1.180 (95% CI (1.160, 1.201)) and 1.176 (95% CI (1.148, 1.205)) per 10 µg/m³ increase in PM10 concentration, respectively. Age, sex, and access to healthcare of the individual were also associated with the diagnosis of the disorders. The associations were consistent across one- and two-pollutant models. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that increased levels of ambient ozone and PM10 may elevate the risk of a depression or anxiety diagnosis in the general population. However, given the lack of data on individual air pollutant exposure and socioeconomic status, our results should be interpreted with caution. Further well-designed epidemiological studies should replicate our findings.

15.
Environ Res ; 187: 109624, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure and influenza virus infection have been documented to be independently associated with reduced lung function previously. Influenza vaccination plays an important role in protecting against influenza-induced severe diseases. However, no study to date has focused on whether influenza vaccination may modify the associations between ambient air pollution exposure and lung function. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 6740 children aged 7-14 years into Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study in China during 2012-2013. We collected information from parents/guardians about sociodemographic factors and influenza vaccination status in the past three years. Lung function was measured using portable electronic spirometers. Machine learning methods were used to predict 4-year average ambient air pollutant exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1 µm (PM1), <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10). Two-level linear and logistic regression models were used to assess interactions between influenza vaccination and long-term ambient air pollutants exposure on lung function reduction, controlling for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Ambient air pollution were observed significantly associated with reductions in lung function among children. We found significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on lung function, suggesting greater vulnerability to air pollution among unvaccinated children. For example, an interaction (pinteraction = 0.002) indicated a -283.44 mL (95% CI: -327.04, -239.83) reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 concentrations among unvaccinated children, compared with the -108.24 mL (95%CI: -174.88, -41.60) reduction in FVC observed among vaccinated children. Results from logistic regression models also showed stronger associations between per IQR increase in PM1 and lung function reduction measured by FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF) among unvaccinated children than the according ORs among vaccinated children [i.e., Odds Ratio (OR) for PM1 and impaired FVC: 2.33 (95%CI: 1.79, 3.03) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.20, 2.28); OR for PM2.5 and impaired PEF: 1.45 (95%CI: 1.12,1.87) vs 1.04 (95%CI: 0.76,1.43)]. The heterogeneity of the modification by influenza vaccination of the associations between air pollution exposure and lung function reduction appeared to be more substantial in girls than in boys. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that influenza vaccination may moderate the detrimental effects of ambient air pollution on lung function among children. This study provides new insights into the possible co-benefits of strengthening and promoting global influenza vaccination programs among children.

16.
Environ Res ; 187: 109679, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454311

RESUMO

Elevated blood homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A growing number of studies have evaluated the link between air pollution and blood Hcy levels, but the results are inconsistent. To date, no systematic review of the published studies has been conducted yet. We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of these studies. We systematically searched three international databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase) and four Chinese databases (Wanfang, CNKI, CBM, and VIP) for peer-reviewed epidemiological studies investigating associations between ambient air pollutants and Hcy levels published before December 2019. We screened literature, extracted data, assessed methodological quality, and evaluated the risk of bias of the included studies. Of 1157 identified articles, 10 were finally included in this systematic review. Most were cross-sectional studies and were performed in developed countries. Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and/or 10 µm (PM10) were investigated in all of the included studies. Overall, the evidence generally supports a positive association between higher PM concentrations and elevated Hcy levels. However, high heterogeneity in terms of study participants, study design, exposure duration, and particle components and sources, low methodological quality and probable high risk of bias in some studies, and limited literature number precluded us from drawing a robust conclusion. Associations between Hcy and gaseous pollutants were explored in only one or two studies, and the results were inconclusive. Additional, well-designed studies remain required to validate the association between air pollution and Hcy.

17.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e032511, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of different insomnia subtypes among middle-aged adults from Europe and Australia and to explore the cross-sectional relationship between insomnia subtypes, respiratory symptoms and lung function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based, multicentre cohort study. SETTING: 23 centres in 10 European countries and Australia. METHODS: We included 5800 participants in the third follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III (ECRHS III) who answered three questions on insomnia symptoms: difficulties falling asleep (initial insomnia), waking up often during the night (middle insomnia) and waking up early in the morning and not being able to fall back asleep (late insomnia). They also answered questions on smoking, general health and chronic diseases and had the following lung function measurements: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the FEV1/FVC ratio. Changes in lung function since ECRHS I about 20 years earlier were also analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of insomnia subtypes and relationship to respiratory symptoms and function. RESULTS: Overall, middle insomnia (31.2%) was the most common subtype followed by late insomnia (14.2%) and initial insomnia (11.2%). The highest reported prevalence of middle insomnia was found in Iceland (37.2%) and the lowest in Australia (22.7%), while the prevalence of initial and late insomnia was highest in Spain (16.0% and 19.7%, respectively) and lowest in Denmark (4.6% and 9.2%, respectively). All subtypes of insomnia were associated with significantly higher reported prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Only isolated initial insomnia was associated with lower FEV1, whereas no association was found between insomnia and low FEV1/FVC ratio or decline in lung function. CONCLUSION: There is considerable geographical variation in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Middle insomnia is most common especially in Iceland. Initial and late insomnia are most common in Spain. All insomnia subtypes are associated with respiratory symptoms, and initial insomnia is also associated with lower FEV1.

18.
Allergy ; 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases often occur in combination (multimorbidity). Human blood transcriptome studies have not addressed multimorbidity. Large-scale gene expression data were combined to retrieve biomarkers and signaling pathways to disentangle allergic multimorbidity phenotypes. METHODS: Integrated transcriptomic analysis was conducted in 1233 participants with a discovery phase using gene expression data (Human Transcriptome Array 2.0) from whole blood of 786 children from three European birth cohorts (MeDALL), and a replication phase using RNA Sequencing data from an independent cohort (EVA-PR, n = 447). Allergic diseases (asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis) were considered as single disease or multimorbidity (at least two diseases), and compared with no disease. RESULTS: Fifty genes were differentially expressed in allergic diseases. Thirty-two were not previously described in allergy. Eight genes were consistently overexpressed in all types of multimorbidity for asthma, dermatitis, and rhinitis (CLC, EMR4P, IL5RA, FRRS1, HRH4, SLC29A1, SIGLEC8, IL1RL1). All genes were replicated the in EVA-PR cohort. RT-qPCR validated the overexpression of selected genes. In MeDALL, 27 genes were differentially expressed in rhinitis alone, but none was significant for asthma or dermatitis alone. The multimorbidity signature was enriched in eosinophil-associated immune response and signal transduction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis identified IL5/JAK/STAT and IL33/ST2/IRAK/TRAF as key signaling pathways in multimorbid diseases. Synergistic effect of multimorbidity on gene expression levels was found. CONCLUSION: A signature of eight genes identifies multimorbidity for asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis. Our results have clinical and mechanistic implications, and suggest that multimorbidity should be considered differently than allergic diseases occurring alone.

19.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 81, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs) are known to be cariogenic, but this association has not been well investigated in population-based repeated cross-sectional studies in recent years. Therefore, this study examined whether SSD intake is associated with higher caries experience in 10- and 15-year-olds. METHODS: The study sample included participants from the Munich study centre of two birth cohorts with data on non-cavitated caries lesions (NCCL/S), caries experience (DMF/S index), overall caries burden (DMF + NCCL/S) and SSD intake. In total, 915 and 996 children were included from the 10- and 15-year follow-ups, respectively. Intake (g/day) of SSDs, comprising cola, lemonade, ice-tea, sport/energy drinks, fruit squashes and nectars, was calculated from food frequency questionnaires. For analyses, the SSD intake was converted into portions (250 ml/day). Multiple logistic regression and prospective analysis models were performed to test associations between SSD intake and various definitions of caries, adjusting for sex, parental education, body mass index (BMI) categories, study cohort, plaque-affected sextants, mode of SSD consumption, energy content of SSDs, and total energy intake. RESULTS: The mean overall caries burden at 10 and 15 years of age was 1.81 (SD: 2.71) and 6.04 (SD: 8.13), respectively. The average consumption of SSDs at the 10- and 15-year follow-ups was 0.48 (SD: 0.85) and 0.83 (SD 1.40) portions/day, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, in 10-year-olds, SSD intake was significantly associated with higher caries experience based on the indices DMF/S (adjusted odds ratio: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57), NCCL/S (1.24; 1.03-1.49) and DMF + NCCL/S (1.27; 1.05-1.55). At the 15-year follow-up, SSD consumption was significantly associated with increased DMF/S index (1.12; 1.01-1.25) only. Prospective model associating 10-year SSD intake with 15-year caries experience was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: SSD intake significantly increases the caries burden in 10-year-olds, with attenuated effects in 15-year-olds. To prevent caries, SSD consumption should be reduced, especially in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Sacarose na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(5): 1353-1359, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048027

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with several co-morbidities and non-infectious rhinitis (NIR) has emerged as a new possible co-morbidity. The primary aim of this study is to confirm a previously reported association between NIR and COPD in a multicentre population over time. The secondary aim is to investigate the course over time of such an association through a comparison between early- and late-onset COPD. METHODS: This study is part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). A random adult population from 25 centres in Europe and one in Australia was examined with spirometry and answered a respiratory questionnaire in 1998-2002 (ECRHS II) and in 2008-2013 (ECRHS III). Symptoms of non-infectious rhinitis, hay fever and asthma, and smoking habits were reported. Subjects reporting asthma were excluded. COPD was defined as a spirometry ratio of FEV1/FVC < 0.7. A total of 5901 subjects were included. RESULTS: Non-infectious rhinitis was significantly more prevalent in subjects with COPD compared with no COPD (48.9% vs 37.1%, p < 0.001) in ECRHS II (mean age 43) but not in ECHRS III (mean age 54). In the multivariable regression model adjusted for COPD, smoking, age, BMI, and gender, non-infectious rhinitis was associated with COPD in both ECRHS II and III. CONCLUSION: Non-infectious rhinitis was significantly more common in subjects with COPD at a mean age of 43. Ten years later, the association was weaker. The findings indicate that NIR could be associated with the early onset of COPD.

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