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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153890

RESUMO

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an adverse movement disorder induced by chronic treatment with antipsychotics drugs. The contribution of common genetic variants to TD susceptibility has been investigated in recent years, but with limited success. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential contribution of rare variants to TD vulnerability. In order to identify TD risk genes, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and gene-based collapsing analysis focusing on rare (allele frequency < 1%) and putatively deleterious variants (qualifying variants). 82 Jewish schizophrenia patients chronically treated with antipsychotics were included and classified as having severe TD or lack of any abnormal movements based on a rigorous definition of the TD phenotype. First, we performed a case-control, exome-wide collapsing analysis comparing 39 schizophrenia patients with severe TD to 3118 unrelated population controls. Then, we checked the potential top candidate genes among 43 patients without any TD manifestations. All the genes that were found to harbor one or more qualifying variants in patients without any TD features were excluded from the final list of candidate genes. Only one gene, regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 2 (RIMS2), showed significant enrichment of qualifying variants in TD patients compared with unrelated population controls after correcting for multiple testing (Fisher's exact test p = 5.32E-08, logistic regression p = 2.50E-08). Enrichment was caused by a single variant (rs567070433) due to a frameshift in an alternative transcript of RIMS2. None of the TD negative patients had qualifying variants in this gene. In a validation cohort of 140 schizophrenia patients assessed for TD, the variant was also not detected in any individual. Some potentially suggestive TD genes were detected in the TD cohort and warrant follow-up in future studies. No significant enrichment in previously reported TD candidate genes was identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first WES study of TD, demonstrating the potential role of rare loss-of-function variant enrichment in this pharmacogenetic phenotype.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 181-192, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent reports have described single individuals with neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) harboring heterozygous KCNQ3 de novo variants (DNVs). We sought to assess whether pathogenic variants in KCNQ3 cause NDD and to elucidate the associated phenotype and molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Patients with NDD and KCNQ3 DNVs were identified through an international collaboration. Phenotypes were characterized by clinical assessment, review of charts, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and parental interview. Functional consequences of variants were analyzed in vitro by patch-clamp recording. RESULTS: Eleven patients were assessed. They had recurrent heterozygous DNVs in KCNQ3 affecting residues R230 (R230C, R230H, R230S) and R227 (R227Q). All patients exhibited global developmental delay within the first 2 years of life. Most (8/11, 73%) were nonverbal or had a few words only. All patients had autistic features, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was diagnosed in 5 of 11 (45%). EEGs performed before 10 years of age revealed frequent sleep-activated multifocal epileptiform discharges in 8 of 11 (73%). For 6 of 9 (67%) recorded between 1.5 and 6 years of age, spikes became near-continuous during sleep. Interestingly, most patients (9/11, 82%) did not have seizures, and no patient had seizures in the neonatal period. Voltage-clamp recordings of the mutant KCNQ3 channels revealed gain-of-function (GoF) effects. INTERPRETATION: Specific GoF variants in KCNQ3 cause NDD, ASD, and abundant sleep-activated spikes. This new phenotype contrasts both with self-limited neonatal epilepsy due to KCNQ3 partial loss of function, and with the neonatal or infantile onset epileptic encephalopathies due to KCNQ2 GoF. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:181-192.

4.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103625, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711678

RESUMO

We set out to investigate whether a de-novo paradigm could explain genetic causes of chronic ultra-refractory epilepsy, with onset later than the typical age for the epileptic encephalopathies. We performed exome sequencing on nine adult patients with MRI-negative epilepsy and no preceding intellectual disability. All had an onset of seizures after five years old and had chronic ultra-refractory epilepsy defined here as having failed more than six anti-epileptic drugs and currently experiencing ≥4 disabling seizures per month. Parents were sequenced to identify de-novo mutations and these were assessed for likelihood of pathogenicity based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) criteria. We confirmed the presence of functional and predicted-damaging de-novo mutations in 3/9 patients. One of these pathogenic de-novo mutations, in DNM1L, was previously reported in a patient with severe epilepsy and chronic pharmacoresistance adding to the evidence for DNM1L as an epilepsy gene. Exome sequencing is a successful strategy for identifying de-novo mutations in paediatric epileptic encephalopathies and rare neurological disorders. Our study demonstrates the potential benefit of considering ultra-refractory epilepsy patients with later onset for genetic testing. Identifying genetic mutations underpinning severe epilepsy of unknown aetiology may provide new insight into the underlying biology and offers the potential for therapeutic intervention in the form of precision medicine in older patients.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 117-127, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578417

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are a major cause of pediatric kidney failure. We performed a genome-wide analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) in 2,824 cases and 21,498 controls. Affected individuals carried a significant burden of rare exonic (that is, affecting coding regions) CNVs and were enriched for known genomic disorders (GD). Kidney anomaly (KA) cases were most enriched for exonic CNVs, encompassing GD-CNVs and novel deletions; obstructive uropathy (OU) had a lower CNV burden and an intermediate prevalence of GD-CNVs; and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) had the fewest GD-CNVs but was enriched for novel exonic CNVs, particularly duplications. Six loci (1q21, 4p16.1-p16.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11, 17q12 and 22q11.2) accounted for 65% of patients with GD-CNVs. Deletions at 17q12, 4p16.1-p16.3 and 22q11.2 were specific for KA; the 16p11.2 locus showed extensive pleiotropy. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we identified TBX6 as a driver for the CAKUT subphenotypes in the 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Rim/anormalidades , Sistema Urinário/anormalidades , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194818

RESUMO

De novo germline mutations in GNB1 have been associated with a neurodevelopmental phenotype. To date, 28 patients with variants classified as pathogenic have been reported. We add 18 patients with de novo mutations to this cohort, including a patient with mosaicism for a GNB1 mutation who presented with a milder phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, developmental delay in these patients was moderate to severe, and more than half of the patients were non-ambulatory and nonverbal. The most observed substitution affects the p.Ile80 residue encoded in exon 6, with 28% of patients carrying a variant at this residue. Dystonia and growth delay were observed more frequently in patients carrying variants in this residue, suggesting a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. In the new cohort of 18 patients, 50% of males had genitourinary anomalies and 61% of patients had gastrointestinal anomalies, suggesting a possible association of these findings with variants in GNB1. In addition, cutaneous mastocytosis, reported once before in a patient with a GNB1 variant, was observed in three additional patients, providing further evidence for an association to GNB1. We will review clinical and molecular data of these new cases and all previously reported cases to further define the phenotype and establish possible genotype-phenotype correlations.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 14(5): e1007281, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738522

RESUMO

Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) is a malformation of cortical development commonly associated with epilepsy. We exome sequenced 202 individuals with sporadic PVNH to identify novel genetic risk loci. We first performed a trio-based analysis and identified 219 de novo variants. Although no novel genes were implicated in this initial analysis, PVNH cases were found overall to have a significant excess of nonsynonymous de novo variants in intolerant genes (p = 3.27x10-7), suggesting a role for rare new alleles in genes yet to be associated with the condition. Using a gene-level collapsing analysis comparing cases and controls, we identified a genome-wide significant signal driven by four ultra-rare loss-of-function heterozygous variants in MAP1B, including one de novo variant. In at least one instance, the MAP1B variant was inherited from a parent with previously undiagnosed PVNH. The PVNH was frontally predominant and associated with perisylvian polymicrogyria. These results implicate MAP1B in PVNH. More broadly, our findings suggest that detrimental mutations likely arising in immediately preceding generations with incomplete penetrance may also be responsible for some apparently sporadic diseases.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
9.
Epilepsia ; 59(6): 1138-1147, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741288

RESUMO

This is the second of a 2-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we covered types of genetic variation, inheritance patterns, and their relationship to disease. In Part 2, we apply these basic principles to the case of a young boy with epileptic encephalopathy and ask 3 important questions: (1) Is the gene in question an established genetic etiology for epilepsy? (2) Is the variant in this particular gene pathogenic by established variant interpretation criteria? (3) Is the variant considered causative in the clinical context? These questions are considered and then answered for the clinical case in question.

10.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1133-1146, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Somatic variants are a recognized cause of epilepsy-associated focal malformations of cortical development (MCD). We hypothesized that somatic variants may underlie a wider range of focal epilepsy, including nonlesional focal epilepsy (NLFE). Through genetic analysis of brain tissue, we evaluated the role of somatic variation in focal epilepsy with and without MCD. METHODS: We identified somatic variants through high-depth exome and ultra-high-depth candidate gene sequencing of DNA from epilepsy surgery specimens and leukocytes from 18 individuals with NLFE and 38 with focal MCD. RESULTS: We observed somatic variants in 5 cases in SLC35A2, a gene associated with glycosylation defects and rare X-linked epileptic encephalopathies. Nonsynonymous variants in SLC35A2 were detected in resected brain, and absent from leukocytes, in 3 of 18 individuals (17%) with NLFE, 1 female and 2 males, with variant allele frequencies (VAFs) in brain-derived DNA of 2 to 14%. Pathologic evaluation revealed focal cortical dysplasia type Ia (FCD1a) in 2 of the 3 NLFE cases. In the MCD cohort, nonsynonymous variants in SCL35A2 were detected in the brains of 2 males with intractable epilepsy, developmental delay, and magnetic resonance imaging suggesting FCD, with VAFs of 19 to 53%; Evidence for FCD was not observed in either brain tissue specimen. INTERPRETATION: We report somatic variants in SLC35A2 as an explanation for a substantial fraction of NLFE, a largely unexplained condition, as well as focal MCD, previously shown to result from somatic mutation but until now only in PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway genes. Collectively, our findings suggest a larger role than previously recognized for glycosylation defects in the intractable epilepsies. Ann Neurol 2018.

11.
PLoS Genet ; 13(11): e1007104, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186148

RESUMO

Trio exome sequencing has been successful in identifying genes with de novo mutations (DNMs) causing epileptic encephalopathy (EE) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we evaluate how well a case-control collapsing analysis recovers genes causing dominant forms of EE originally implicated by DNM analysis. We performed a genome-wide search for an enrichment of "qualifying variants" in protein-coding genes in 488 unrelated cases compared to 12,151 unrelated controls. These "qualifying variants" were selected to be extremely rare variants predicted to functionally impact the protein to enrich for likely pathogenic variants. Despite modest sample size, three known EE genes (KCNT1, SCN2A, and STXBP1) achieved genome-wide significance (p<2.68×10-6). In addition, six of the 10 most significantly associated genes are known EE genes, and the majority of the known EE genes (17 out of 25) originally implicated in trio sequencing are nominally significant (p<0.05), a proportion significantly higher than the expected (Fisher's exact p = 2.33×10-17). Our results indicate that a case-control collapsing analysis can identify several of the EE genes originally implicated in trio sequencing studies, and clearly show that additional genes would be implicated with larger sample sizes. The case-control analysis not only makes discovery easier and more economical in early onset disorders, particularly when large cohorts are available, but also supports the use of this approach to identify genes in diseases that present later in life when parents are not readily available.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Munc18/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Canais de Potássio/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 516-524, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942967

RESUMO

Exome sequencing has readily enabled the discovery of the genetic mutations responsible for a wide range of diseases. This success has been particularly remarkable in the severe epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental diseases for which rare, often de novo, mutations play a significant role in disease risk. Despite significant progress, the high genetic heterogeneity of these disorders often requires large sample sizes to identify a critical mass of individuals with disease-causing mutations in a single gene. By pooling genetic findings across multiple studies, we have identified six individuals with severe developmental delay (6/6), refractory seizures (5/6), and similar dysmorphic features (3/6), each harboring a de novo mutation in PPP3CA. PPP3CA encodes the alpha isoform of a subunit of calcineurin. Calcineurin encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a role in a wide range of biological processes, including being a key regulator of synaptic vesicle recycling at nerve terminals. Five individuals with de novo PPP3CA mutations were identified among 4,760 trio probands with neurodevelopmental diseases; this is highly unlikely to occur by chance (p = 1.2 × 10-8) given the size and mutability of the gene. Additionally, a sixth individual with a de novo mutation in PPP3CA was connected to this study through GeneMatcher. Based on these findings, we securely implicate PPP3CA in early-onset refractory epilepsy and further support the emerging role for synaptic dysregulation in epilepsy.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/patologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Lennox Gastaut/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Espasmos Infantis/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864461

RESUMO

Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a heterogeneous cortical malformation characterized by enlargement of one cerebral hemisphere. Somatic variants in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulatory genes have been implicated in some HME cases; however, ∼70% have no identified genetic etiology. Here, we screened two HME patients to identify disease-causing somatic variants. DNA from leukocytes, buccal swabs, and surgically resected brain tissue from two HME patients were screened for somatic variants using genome-wide genotyping arrays or sequencing of the protein-coding regions of the genome. Functional studies were performed to evaluate the molecular consequences of candidate disease-causing variants. Both HME patients evaluated were found to have likely disease-causing variants in DNA extracted from brain tissue but not in buccal swab or leukocyte DNA, consistent with a somatic mutational mechanism. In the first case, a previously identified disease-causing somatic single nucleotide in MTOR was identified. In the second case, we detected an overrepresentation of the alleles inherited from the mother on Chromosome 16 in brain tissue DNA only, indicative of somatic uniparental disomy (UPD) of the p-arm of Chromosome 16. Using methylation analyses, an imprinted locus on 16p spanning ZNF597 was identified, which results in increased expression of ZNF597 mRNA and protein in the brain tissue of the second case. Enhanced mTOR signaling was observed in tissue specimens from both patients. We speculate that overexpression of maternally expressed ZNF597 led to aberrant hemispheric development in the patient with somatic UPD of Chromosome 16p possibly through modulation of mTOR signaling.


Assuntos
Hemimegalencefalia/genética , Alelos , Encéfalo/citologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Impressão Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Dissomia Uniparental/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 236, 2017 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794409

RESUMO

Identifying the underlying causes of disease requires accurate interpretation of genetic variants. Current methods ineffectively capture pathogenic non-coding variants in genic regions, resulting in overlooking synonymous and intronic variants when searching for disease risk. Here we present the Transcript-inferred Pathogenicity (TraP) score, which uses sequence context alterations to reliably identify non-coding variation that causes disease. High TraP scores single out extremely rare variants with lower minor allele frequencies than missense variants. TraP accurately distinguishes known pathogenic and benign variants in synonymous (AUC = 0.88) and intronic (AUC = 0.83) public datasets, dismissing benign variants with exceptionally high specificity. TraP analysis of 843 exomes from epilepsy family trios identifies synonymous variants in known epilepsy genes, thus pinpointing risk factors of disease from non-coding sequence data. TraP outperforms leading methods in identifying non-coding variants that are pathogenic and is therefore a valuable tool for use in gene discovery and the interpretation of personal genomes.While non-coding synonymous and intronic variants are often not under strong selective constraint, they can be pathogenic through affecting splicing or transcription. Here, the authors develop a score that uses sequence context alterations to predict pathogenicity of synonymous and non-coding genetic variants, and provide a web server of pre-computed scores.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Humanos , Íntrons , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
15.
Ann Neurol ; 81(1): 161-162, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27977874
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(2): 423-9, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27453577

RESUMO

Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) with gelastic epilepsy is a well-recognized drug-resistant epilepsy syndrome of early life.(1) Surgical resection allows limited access to the small deep-seated lesions that cause the disease. Here, we report the results of a search for somatic mutations in paired hamartoma- and leukocyte-derived DNA samples from 38 individuals which we conducted by using whole-exome sequencing (WES), chromosomal microarray (CMA), and targeted resequencing (TRS) of candidate genes. Somatic mutations were identified in genes involving regulation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway in 14/38 individuals (37%). Three individuals had somatic mutations in PRKACA, which encodes a cAMP-dependent protein kinase that acts as a repressor protein in the Shh pathway, and four subjects had somatic mutations in GLI3, an Shh pathway gene associated with HH. In seven other individuals, we identified two recurrent and three single brain-tissue-specific, large copy-number or loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) variants involving multiple Shh genes, as well as other genes without an obvious biological link to the Shh pathway. The Shh pathway genes in these large somatic lesions include the ligand itself (SHH and IHH), the receptor SMO, and several other Shh downstream pathway members, including CREBBP and GLI2. Taken together, our data implicate perturbation of the Shh pathway in at least 37% of individuals with the HH epilepsy syndrome, consistent with the concept of a developmental pathway brain disease.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Hamartoma/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/genética , Mutação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Subunidades Catalíticas da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco , Proteína Gli3 com Dedos de Zinco
17.
Epilepsia ; 57(6): 861-8, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226047

RESUMO

This is the first of a two-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we cover the foundations of epilepsy genetics including genetic epidemiology and the range of genetic variants that can affect the risk for developing epilepsy. We discuss various epidemiologic study designs that have been applied to the genetics of the epilepsies including population studies, which provide compelling evidence for a strong genetic contribution in many epilepsies. We discuss genetic risk factors varying in size, frequency, inheritance pattern, effect size, and phenotypic specificity, and provide examples of how genetic risk factors within the various categories increase the risk for epilepsy. We end by highlighting trends in epilepsy genetics including the increasing use of massive parallel sequencing technologies.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/história , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , História do Século XX , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular/história
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 1001-1010, 2016 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108799

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing of 13 individuals with developmental delay commonly accompanied by abnormal muscle tone and seizures identified de novo missense mutations enriched within a sub-region of GNB1, a gene encoding the guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-1, Gß. These 13 individuals were identified among a base of 5,855 individuals recruited for various undiagnosed genetic disorders. The probability of observing 13 or more de novo mutations by chance among 5,855 individuals is very low (p = 7.1 × 10(-21)), implicating GNB1 as a genome-wide-significant disease-associated gene. The majority of these 13 mutations affect known Gß binding sites, which suggests that a likely disease mechanism is through the disruption of the protein interface required for Gα-Gßγ interaction (resulting in a constitutively active Gßγ) or through the disruption of residues relevant for interaction between Gßγ and certain downstream effectors (resulting in reduced interaction with the effectors). Strikingly, 8 of the 13 individuals recruited here for a neurodevelopmental disorder have a germline de novo GNB1 mutation that overlaps a set of five recurrent somatic tumor mutations for which recent functional studies demonstrated a gain-of-function effect due to constitutive activation of G protein downstream signaling cascades for some of the affected residues.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Subunidades beta da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Subunidades beta da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/química , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Convulsões/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Epilepsia ; 57(3): 376-85, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common neuropathologic finding in cases of medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of dentate granule cells of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis to show that next-generation sequencing methods can produce interpretable genomic data from RNA collected from small homogenous cell populations, and to shed light on the transcriptional changes associated with hippocampal sclerosis. METHODS: RNA was extracted, and complementary DNA (cDNA) was prepared and amplified from dentate granule cells that had been harvested by laser capture microdissection from surgically resected hippocampi from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis. Sequencing libraries were sequenced, and the resulting sequencing reads were aligned to the reference genome. Differential expression analysis was used to ascertain expression differences between patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis. RESULTS: Greater than 90% of the RNA-Seq reads aligned to the reference. There was high concordance between transcriptional profiles obtained for duplicate samples. Principal component analysis revealed that the presence or absence of hippocampal sclerosis was the main determinant of the variance within the data. Among the genes up-regulated in the hippocampal sclerosis samples, there was significant enrichment for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. SIGNIFICANCE: By analyzing the gene expression profiles of dentate granule cells from surgically resected hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis, we have demonstrated the utility of next-generation sequencing methods for producing biologically relevant results from small populations of homogeneous cells, and have provided insight on the transcriptional changes associated with this pathology.


Assuntos
Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Giro Denteado/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos , Adulto , Giro Denteado/cirurgia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose , Adulto Jovem
20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 10: 123, 2015 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26410222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the gene ATP1A3 have recently been identified to be prevalent in patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC2). Based on a large series of patients with AHC, we set out to identify the spectrum of different mutations within the ATP1A3 gene and further establish any correlation with phenotype. METHODS: Clinical data from an international cohort of 155 AHC patients (84 females, 71 males; between 3 months and 52 years) were gathered using a specifically formulated questionnaire and analysed relative to the mutational ATP1A3 gene data for each patient. RESULTS: In total, 34 different ATP1A3 mutations were detected in 85 % (132/155) patients, seven of which were novel. In general, mutations were found to cluster into five different regions. The most frequent mutations included: p.Asp801Asn (43 %; 57/132), p.Glu815Lys (16 %; 22/132), and p.Gly947Arg (11 %; 15/132). Of these, p.Glu815Lys was associated with a severe phenotype, with more severe intellectual and motor disability. p.Asp801Asn appeared to confer a milder phenotypic expression, and p.Gly947Arg appeared to correlate with the most favourable prognosis, compared to the other two frequent mutations. Overall, the comparison of the clinical profiles suggested a gradient of severity between the three major mutations with differences in intellectual (p = 0.029) and motor (p = 0.039) disabilities being statistically significant. For patients with epilepsy, age at onset of seizures was earlier for patients with either p.Glu815Lys or p.Gly947Arg mutation, compared to those with p.Asp801Asn mutation (p < 0.001). With regards to the five mutation clusters, some clusters appeared to correlate with certain clinical phenotypes. No statistically significant clinical correlations were found between patients with and without ATP1A3 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, demonstrate a highly variable clinical phenotype in patients with AHC2 that correlates with certain mutations and possibly clusters within the ATP1A3 gene. Our description of the clinical profile of patients with the most frequent mutations and the clinical picture of those with less common mutations confirms the results from previous studies, and further expands the spectrum of genotype-phenotype correlations. Our results may be useful to confirm diagnosis and may influence decisions to ensure appropriate early medical intervention in patients with AHC. They provide a stronger basis for the constitution of more homogeneous groups to be included in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Hemiplegia/genética , Mutação , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hemiplegia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
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