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1.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-17, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527889

RESUMO

Young women in Uganda are at risk of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes, in part because of sex with older men. Theoretically grounded in the concept of liminality, this paper examines perceived markers of adolescent girls' suitability for sexual activity. In 2014, we conducted 19 focus group discussions and 44 in-depth interviews in two communities in Uganda. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured tool, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Interviews examined markers of transition between childhood, adolescence and adulthood and how these were seen as relating to girls' perceived readiness for sex. Analysis was thematic. Pre-liminal status was most often accorded to childhood. Sex with a child was strongly condemned. Physical changes during puberty and children's increasing responsibility, autonomy and awakening sexuality reflected a liminal stage during which girls and young women were not necessarily seen as children and were increasingly described as suitable for sex. Being over 18, leaving home, and occupying 'adult' spaces reflected post-liminal status and perceived appropriateness for sexual activity including for girls under the age of 18. Interventions that seek to prevent early sexual debut and sexual activity with older men have the potential to reduce sexual and reproductive health risks.

2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between 2015 and 2018, three civil society organisations in Rwanda implemented Indashyikirwa, a four-part intervention designed to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) among couples and within communities. We assessed the impact of the programme's gender transformative curriculum for couples. METHODS: Sectors (n=28) were purposively selected based on density of village savings and loan association (VLSA) groups and randomised (with stratification by district) to either the full community-level Indashyikirwa programme (n=14) or VSLA-only control (n=14). Within each sector, 60 couples recruited from VSLAs received either a 21-session curriculum or VSLA as usual. No blinding was attempted. Primary outcomes were perpetration (for men) or experience (for women) of past-year physical/sexual IPV at 24 months post-baseline, hypothesised to be reduced in intervention versus control (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03477877). RESULTS: We enrolled 828 women and 821 men in the intervention sectors and 832 women and 830 men in the control sectors; at endline, 815 women (98.4%) and 763 men (92.9%) in the intervention and 802 women (96.4%) and 773 men (93.1%) were available for intention-to-treat analysis. Women in the intervention compared with control were less likely to report physical and/or sexual IPV at 24 months (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=0.44, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.59). Men in the intervention compared with control were also significantly less likely to report perpetration of physical and/or sexual IPV at 24 months (aRR=0.54, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.75). Additional intervention benefits included reductions in acceptability of wife beating, conflict with partner, depression, and corporal punishment against children and improved conflict management, communication, trust, self-efficacy, self-rated health, household earnings, food security and actions to prevent IPV. There were no study-related harms. CONCLUSIONS: The Indashyikirwa couples' training curriculum was highly effective in reducing IPV among male/female couples in rural Rwanda. Scale-up and adaptation to similar settings should be considered.

3.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-14, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118865

RESUMO

Men's role in transactional sex is relatively unexplored, limiting initiatives to prevent exploitative transactional sex and its negative health implications for girls and women. We addressed this literature gap by conducting eight focus group discussions and twenty in-depth-interviews with boys and men aged 14 - 49 years in 2015 in Tanzania. We employed a novel combination of theoretical perspectives - gender and masculinities, and social norms - to understand how transactional sex participation contributes to perpetuating gendered hierarchies, and how reference groups influence men's behaviour. Findings signal two gender norms that men display within transactional sex: the expectation of men's provision in sexual relationships, and the expectation that men should exhibit heightened sexuality and sexual prowess. Adherence to these expectations in transactional sex relationships varied between older and younger men and created hierarchies among men and between men and women and girls. We found that approval of transactional sex was contested. Although young men were likely to object to transactional sex, they occupied a structurally weaker position than older men. Findings suggest that interventions should employ gender synchronised and gender transformative approaches and should prioritise the promotion of alternative positive norms over preventing the exchange of gifts or money in relationships.

4.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-15, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969330

RESUMO

Gender norms serve to normalise gender inequalities and constrain girls' agency. This paper examines how girls' agency, along a continuum, is influenced by the interplay between constraining and enabling influences in the girls' environments. We analyse data from a qualitative study nested within a cluster randomised evaluation of Samata, a multi-layered programme supporting adolescent girls to stay in school and delay marriage in Karnataka, South India. Specifically, we compare agency among 22 girls from intervention communities and 9 girls in control communities using data from the final round of interviews in a qualitative cohort. Using the concept of 'thin' and 'thick' agency on a continuum, we identified shocks like mothers' death or illness, poverty stress, gender norms and poor school performance as thinning influences. Good school examination results; norms in support of education; established educational aspirations; supportive parents, siblings and teachers; and strategic government and Samata resources enabled thicker agency. The intervention programme's effect increased in parallel to the gradient from thin to thicker agency among girls in progressively supportive family contexts. Engagement with the programme was however selective; families adhering to harmful gender norms were not receptive to outreach. In line with diffusion theory, late adopters required additional peer encouragement to change norms.

5.
SSM Popul Health ; 11: 100635, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802931

RESUMO

Currently, most efforts to evaluate programmes designed to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) assume that they affect all people similarly. Understanding whether interventions are more or less effective for different subgroups of individuals, however, can yield important insights for programming. In this study, we conducted subgroup analyses to assess whether treatment effects vary by baseline reporting of IPV experience among women or perpetration among men. Results indicated that for both men and women, the Indashyikirwa intervention in Rwanda was more successful at reducing or stopping ongoing IPV than it was at preventing its onset. The SS-CF intervention in South Africa, by contrast, was more successful at preventing men from starting to perpetrate IPV than it was in reducing the intensity of men's perpetration or stopping it entirely. These results indicate that the prevention field needs to better understand the extent to which IPV interventions may have differential impacts on primary versus secondary prevention. It also emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between intervention strategies that prevent the onset of IPV versus those that reduce or stop ongoing IPV.

6.
Prev Sci ; 21(8): 1065-1080, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720188

RESUMO

We evaluated the impact of Samata, a 3-year multilayered intervention among scheduled caste/scheduled tribe (SC/ST) adolescent girls in rural northern Karnataka, on family-level (parents or guardian) attitudes and direct and indirect norms related to child marriage and girl's education. Endline data from 1840 family members were used to assess the effect of Samata on attitudes and norms related to schooling and child marriage, while data from 4097 family members (including 2257 family members at baseline) were used to understand the shifts in attitudes and norms over the period 2014-2017. Overall, we found that the programme had little impact on family-level attitudes and norms. However, there were shifts in some attitudes, norms and perceived sanctions between baseline (when girls were aged 13-14 years) and endline (when girls were aged 15-16 years), with some becoming more progressive (e.g. direct norms related to child marriage) and others more restrictive (e.g. norms around girls completing secondary education and norms related to child marriage and educational drop-out, blaming girls for eve teasing and limiting girls' mobility so as to protect family honour). Moreover, non-progressive norms related to marriage and education were strongly associated with child marriage and secondary school non-completion among adolescent girls in this rural setting. Norms hypothesised to be important for marriage and schooling outcomes were indeed associated with these outcomes, but the intervention was not able to significantly shift these norms. In part, this may have been due to the intervention focusing much of its initial efforts on working with girls alone rather than family members, the relevant reference group. Future interventions that seek to affect norms should conduct formative research to clarify the specific norms affecting the outcome(s) of interest; likewise, programme planners should ensure that all activities engage those most influential in enforcing the norm(s) from the beginning. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01996241.

7.
Child Abuse Negl ; 104: 104471, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite growing interest in the role of social norms in perpetuating the harmful practice of sexual exploitation of children and adolescents (SECA), little is known about the state of the literature on this issue. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to summarize what associated norms, attitudes and factual beliefs have been identified by the SECA literature worldwide. METHODS: Multiple database searches were conducted using controlled vocabulary and keywords referring to SECA. RESULTS: Our searches identified 3690 unique references. After applying our exclusion criteria, 49 studies, including over 14,000 participants from 37 countries and most world regions, were included. Across studies we identified six injunctive norms perpetuating SECA: owning goods as a social status marker ; being sexually active; exchanging sex for favors; contributing financially to the household; stigma and discrimination against young people who experienced SECA; and lack of social sanctions for SECA perpetrators. These norms were supported by enhanced tolerance of SECA when it involved older or more physically developed adolescents and when it occurred in poverty-affected contexts. Beliefs around markers that denote adolescents' readiness for sex; men's entitlement to sex; and the perceived benefits of intergenerational relationships, also contributed to the maintenance and reproduction of SECA. Findings from all regions suggested that marginalized young people are particularly vulnerable to SECA. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to reduce SECA must consider individual, social, and structural factors and how they interrelate. Context-specific social norms interventions are needed to address harmful norms, promote protective norms, and improve services for those who have experienced SECA.

8.
Inj Prev ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a consistent correlate of intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the magnitude of this association differs across studies, which may be due to contextual and methodological factors. This study aims to estimate and explore sources of heterogeneity in the association between alcohol use and IPV in 28 LMICs (n=109 700 couples). METHODS: In nationally representative surveys, partnered women reported on IPV victimisation and male partner's alcohol use. We estimated the relationship between alcohol use and IPV using logistic regression and full propensity score matching to account for confounding. Country-specific ORs were combined using a random-effects model. Country-level indicators of health and development were regressed on ORs to examine sources of variability in these estimates. RESULTS: Partner alcohol use was associated with a 2.55-fold increase in the odds of past-year IPV victimisation (95% CI 2.27 to 2.86) with substantial variability between regions (I2=70.0%). Countries with a low (<50%) prevalence of past-year alcohol use among men displayed larger associations between alcohol use and IPV. Exploratory analyses revealed that colonisation history, religion, female literacy levels and substance use treatment availability may explain some of the remaining heterogeneity observed in the strength of the association between alcohol use and IPV across countries. CONCLUSION: Partner alcohol use is associated with increased odds of IPV victimisation in LMICs, but to varying degrees across countries. Prevalences of male alcohol use and cultural factors were related to heterogeneity in these estimates between countries.

9.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 20(1): 13, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a human-rights violation with adverse long-term and inter-generational consequences. Redefining VAWG as legally unacceptable is one strategy for social change. The co-occurrence of national laws against VAWG is understudied, and tools to monitor the national legal environment are lacking. We developed the Laws on Violence against Women and Girls Index (LoVI) to measure global progress to develop comprehensive national legislation against child marriage, sexual harassment, domestic violence, and marital rape. METHODS: Using data from 2016 and 2018 for 189 countries from the World Bank Women, Business, and the Law database, we used factor analysis to assess the dimensionality of the LoVI. We examined the distribution of the LoVI across countries and regions, and the relationship of national rankings on the LoVI with those for other indicators from the United Nations, Demographic and Health Surveys, and World Factbook. RESULTS: A single LoVI factor showed good model fit in the factor analysis. National LoVI rankings were positively associated with gender equality in human development and economic rights-related rankings and negatively associated with rates of justifying wife beating and of lifetime and prior-year physical and/or sexual IPV. The LoVI was not associated with national indicators for human development and income inequality. CONCLUSION: The LoVI is a concise, coherent, validated index to monitor the progress of nations on adopting comprehensive legislation to advance 2030 Sustainable Development Goal 5, to eliminate VAWG.

10.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010406, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257154

RESUMO

Background: There is considerable interest in community organising and activism as a strategy to shift patriarchal gender norms, attitudes and beliefs and thus reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet there is limited insight into how activism actually translates into reduced violence, including how aspects of programme implementation or cultural context may affect impact. This study evaluates the community activism/mobilisation portion of Indashyikirwa, a multi-component, IPV prevention programme implemented in rural Rwanda. The activism part of Indashyikirwa was based on SASA!, a promising program model from Uganda with demonstrated effectiveness. Methods: We implemented two separate cross-sectional surveys as part of a larger community randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of the community portion of Indashyikirwa on preventing physical and/or sexual IPV and other secondary outcomes at a community level. The survey consisted of a random household-based sample of 1400 women and 1400 men at both waves. Surveys were conducted before community-level activities commenced and were repeated 24 months later with a new cross-sectional sample. Longitudinal, qualitative data were collected as part of an embedded process evaluation. Results: There was no evidence of an intervention effect at a community level on any of the trial's primary or secondary outcomes, most notably women's experience of physical and/or sexual IPV from a current male partner in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.92-1.70, P = 0.16), or men's perpetration of male-to-female physical and/or sexual IPV (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.72-1.45, P = 0.89). Process evaluation data suggest that delays due to challenges in adapting and implementing SASA!-style activites in rural Rwanda may account for the trial's failure to measure an effect. Additionally, the intervention strategy of informal activism was not well suited to the Rwandan context and required considerable modification. Conclusions: Failure to reduce violence when implementing an adaptation of SASA! in rural Rwanda highlights the importance of allowing sufficient time for adapting evidence-based programming (EBP) to ensure cultural appropriateness and fidelity. This evaluation held little chance of demonstrating impact since the project timeline forced endline evaluation only months after certain elements of the programme became operational. Donors must anticipate longer time horizons (5 to 7 years) when contemplating evaluations of novel or newly-adapted programmess for reducing IPV at a population level. These findings also reinforce the value of including embedded process evaluations when investing in rigorous trials of complex phenomena such as community activism. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03477877.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/etnologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/etnologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(1): 1700770, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934824

RESUMO

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Uganda are at risk of early sexual debut, unwanted pregnancy, violence, and disproportionally high HIV infection rates, driven in part by transactional sex. This paper examines the extent to which AGYW's participation in transactional sex is perceived to be coerced. We conducted 19 focus group discussions and 44 in-depth interviews using semi-structured tools. Interviews were audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis. While AGYW did not necessarily use the language of coercion, their narratives describe a number of coercive aspects in their relationships. First, coercion by force as a result of "de-toothing" a man (whereby they received money or resources but did not wish to provide sex as "obligated" under the implicit "terms" of the relationships). Second, they described the coercive role that receiving resources played in their decision to have sex in the face of men's verbal insistence. Finally, they discussed having sex as a result of coercive economic circumstances including poverty, and because of peer pressure to uphold modern lifestyles. Support for income-generation activities, microfinance and social protection programmes may help reduce AGYW's vulnerability to sexual coercion in transactional sex relationships. Targeting gender norms that contribute to unequal power dynamics and social expectations that obligate AGYW to provide sex in return for resources, critically assessing the meaning of consensual sex, and normative interventions building on parents' efforts to ascertain the source of their daughters' resources may also reduce AGYW's vulnerability to coercion.


Assuntos
Coerção , Coito , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Saúde Sexual , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Poder Psicológico , Trabalho Sexual , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda , Sexo sem Proteção , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Violence Against Women ; 26(15-16): 2062-2082, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948380

RESUMO

This study examines the link between the loss of men's status as breadwinners and their use of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Kirumba (Mwanza city, Tanzania), mediated by the entry of women into the cash work force. Using qualitative data from 20 in-depth interviews and eight focus groups with men (n = 58) and women (n = 58), this article explores how the existing gender-related social norm linked to male breadwinning was threatened when women were forced to enter into paid work (linked to the family's impoverishment), and how these changes eventually increased partner violence. The study draws implications for IPV reduction strategies in patriarchal contexts experiencing declining economic opportunities for men.

13.
Cult Health Sex ; 22(2): 166-183, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885069

RESUMO

Inequitable gender norms can be harmful to girls' and boys' health and sexuality. Programmatic approaches that help renegotiate gendered power relationships are sorely needed. This qualitative study reveals how Parivartan, a sport-based intervention in a Mumbai informal settlement, helped families resist inequitable gender norms that limited girls' mobility in public spaces. Fifteen girl athletes were interviewed in two rounds of face-to-face in-depth interviews. Results identify the strategies girls' mothers used to support their daughters' participation in the programme when they feared their husbands' disapproval. Rather than openly confronting their husbands, mothers worked from within the patriarchal gender order, through its 'cracks', for instance initially hiding their daughters' participation from their husbands. At an appropriate moment, girls' mothers revealed to their husbands about their daughters playing sports, convincing them of the usefulness of the programme. Girls' participation profoundly and positively affected relationships between daughters, mothers and fathers. Over time, parents' trust that girls would not compromise family honour increased, eventually changing the acceptability of girls' playing sport in public in spite of the patriarchal gender order. Concluding remarks offer key implications for effective interventions, highlighting the historical nature of gender transformation processes.

14.
Cult Health Sex ; 22(sup1): 13-30, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686618

RESUMO

This paper explores the relationship between changes in individual beliefs and behaviours, couple relationship dynamics and gender norms - and how interventions can influence these. It draws on longitudinal qualitative research with heterosexual couples who participated in the Indashyikirwa programme in Rwanda. The couples followed a curriculum designed to improve relationship skills and reduce the gender-inequitable beliefs, behaviours and norms that underpin intimate partner violence. Qualitative findings show that the programme resulted in moderate, but significant, positive 'shifts' in individual beliefs and behaviours, couple relationship dynamics and levels of inequality - increasing men's engagement in domestic duties, women's participation in household decision making, and women's access to economic resources. They also suggest which parts of the couples' curriculum were most effective in catalysing these changes. However, the data also show that these 'shifts' occurred without fully transforming deeply-entrenched beliefs and norms around gender roles and male authority over economic resources. The paper suggests that the persistence of these beliefs and norms constrained the extent of changes among couples - and could potentially constrain their longevity and act as an obstacle to longer-term, larger-scale changes in gender inequalities and violence.

15.
Sociol Health Illn ; 42(2): 407-422, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833073

RESUMO

Two streams of theory and practice on gender equity have begun to elide. The first is work conducted to change social norms, particularly using theory that emerged from studies in social psychology. The second is work done on gender norms, emerging historically from feminist scholars working to counter gender inequality. As these two streams of work intersect, conceptual clarity is needed to understand differences and similarities between these two traditions. Increased clarity will improve efforts to address harmful norms and practices. In this article, we review similarities and differences between social and gender norms, reviewing the history of the concepts and identifying key tension points of contrast. We identified six areas of comparison that might be helpful for practitioners working for the promotion of global health as they make sense of social and gender norms. We then offer a definition of gender norms for practitioners and researchers working at the intersection between these two theories. Our definition draws from the two different streams of thought of how norms influence people's actions, acknowledging the double nature of gender norms: beliefs nested in people's minds and embedded in institutions that profoundly affect health-related behaviours and shape differential access to health services.

16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(6): e001546, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798984

RESUMO

Introduction: Samvedana Plus is a multilevel intervention working with sex workers, their intimate partners (IPs) and communities to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) and to increase condom use within intimate relationships of sex workers in Northern Karnataka, India. Methods: A cluster randomised controlled trial in 47 villages. Female sex workers with IPs in the last 6 months were eligible for baseline (2014), midline (2016) and endline (2017) surveys. 24 villages were randomised to Samvedana Plus and 23 to a wait-list control. Primary outcomes among sex workers included experience of physical and/or sexual IPV or severe physical/sexual IPV in the last 6 months and consistent condom use with their IP in past 30 days. Analyses adjusted for clustering and baseline cluster-level means of outcomes. Result: Baseline (n=620) imbalance was observed with respect to age (33.9 vs 35.2) and IPV (31.4% vs 45.0%). No differences in physical/sexual IPV (8.1% vs 9.0%), severe physical/sexual IPV (6.9% vs 8.7%) or consistent condom use with IPs (62.5% vs 57.3%) were observed by trial arm at end line (n=547). Samvedana Plus was associated with decreased acceptance of IPV (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.94, p=0.025), increased awareness of self-protection strategies (AOR=1.73, 95% CI=1.04-2.89, p=0.035) and solidarity of sex workers around issues of IPV (AOR=1.69, 95% CI=1.02-2.82, p=0.042). We observed an increase in IPV between baseline (25.9%) and midline (63.5%) among women in Samvedana Plus villages but lower in comparison villages (41.8%-44.3%) and a sharp decrease at end line in both arms (~8%). Conclusion: We found no evidence that Samvedana Plus reduced IPV or increased condom use, but it may impact acceptance of IPV, increase knowledge of self-protection strategies and increase sex worker solidarity. Inconsistencies in reported IPV undermined the ability of the trial to assess effectiveness. Trial registration number: NCT02807259.

17.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010430, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448111

RESUMO

Background: Secondary education and delayed marriage provide long-term socio-economic and health benefits to adolescent girls. We tested whether a structural and norms-based intervention, which worked with adolescent girls, their families, communities, and secondary schools to address poverty, schooling quality and gender norms, could reduce secondary school drop-out and child marriage among scheduled-caste/scheduled-tribe (SC/ST) adolescent girls in rural settings of southern India. Methods: 80 of 121 villages in Vijayapura and Bagalkote districts, Karnataka State, were randomly selected (control = 40; intervention = 40). All 12-13 year-old SC/ST girls in final year of primary school (standard 7th) were enrolled and followed for 3 years (2014-2017) until the end of secondary school (standard 10th). Primary trial outcomes were proportion of girls who completed secondary school and were married, by trial end-line (15-16 years). Analyses were intention-to-treat and used individual-level girl data. Results: 92.6% (2275/2457) girls at baseline and 72.8% (1788/2457) at end-line were interviewed. At end-line, one-fourth had not completed secondary school (control = 24.9%; intervention = 25.4%), and one in ten reported being married (control = 9.6%; intervention = 10.1%). These were lower than expected based on district-level data available before the trial, with no difference between these, or other schooling or sexual and reproductive outcomes, by trial arm. There was a small but significant increase in secondary school entry (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 3.58, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.36-9.44) and completion (AOR=1.54, 95%CI = 1.02-2.34) in Vijayapura district. The sensitivity and attrition analyses did not impact the overall result indicating that attrition of girls at end-line was random without much bearing on overall result. Conclusions: Samata intervention had no overall impact, however, it added value in one of the two implementation districts- increasing secondary school entry and completion. Lower than expected school drop-out and child marriage rates at end-line reflect strong secular changes, likely due to large-scale government initiatives to keep girls in school and delay marriage. Although government programmes may be sufficient to reach most girls in these settings, a substantial proportion of SC/ST girls remain at-risk of early marriage and school drop-out, and require targeted programming. Addressing multiple forms of clustered disadvantage among hardest to reach will be key to ensuring India "leaves no-one behind" and achieves its gender, health and education Sustainable Development Goal aspirations. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01996241.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
19.
Lancet ; 393(10189): 2440-2454, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155275

RESUMO

Gender is not accurately captured by the traditional male and female dichotomy of sex. Instead, it is a complex social system that structures the life experience of all human beings. This paper, the first in a Series of five papers, investigates the relationships between gender inequality, restrictive gender norms, and health and wellbeing. Building upon past work, we offer a consolidated conceptual framework that shows how individuals born biologically male or female develop into gendered beings, and how sexism and patriarchy intersect with other forms of discrimination, such as racism, classism, and homophobia, to structure pathways to poor health. We discuss the ample evidence showing the far-reaching consequences of these pathways, including how gender inequality and restrictive gender norms impact health through differential exposures, health-related behaviours and access to care, as well as how gender-biased health research and health-care systems reinforce and reproduce gender inequalities, with serious implications for health. The cumulative consequences of structured disadvantage, mediated through discriminatory laws, policies, and institutions, as well as diet, stress, substance use, and environmental toxins, have triggered important discussions about the role of social injustice in the creation and maintenance of health inequities, especially along racial and socioeconomic lines. This Series paper raises the parallel question of whether discrimination based on gender likewise becomes embodied, with negative consequences for health. For decades, advocates have worked to eliminate gender discrimination in global health, with only modest success. A new plan and new political commitment are needed if these global health aspirations and the wider Sustainable Development Goals of the UN are to be achieved.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Sexismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Lancet ; 393(10190): 2550-2562, 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155276

RESUMO

The Sustainable Development Goals offer the global health community a strategic opportunity to promote human rights, advance gender equality, and achieve health for all. The inability of the health sector to accelerate progress on a range of health outcomes brings into sharp focus the substantial impact of gender inequalities and restrictive gender norms on health risks and behaviours. In this paper, the fifth in a Series on gender equality, norms, and health, we draw on evidence to dispel three myths on gender and health and describe persistent barriers to progress. We propose an agenda for action to reduce gender inequality and shift gender norms for improved health outcomes, calling on leaders in national governments, global health institutions, civil society organisations, academic settings, and the corporate sector to focus on health outcomes and engage actors across sectors to achieve them; reform the workplace and workforce to be more gender-equitable; fill gaps in data and eliminate gender bias in research; fund civil-society actors and social movements; and strengthen accountability mechanisms.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública , Sexismo/legislação & jurisprudência
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