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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11913496, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679417

RESUMO

Arterial stiffness, represented as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD). In older populations, however, this association seems attenuated. Moreover, the prognostic values of pulse wave velocity at different arterial segments and newer parameters like cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) remain unclear, especially in US older adults. In 3034 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants (66-90 years) without CVD, we examined the associations of 4 pulse wave velocity measures (cfPWV, heart-femoral, brachial-ankle, heart-ankle) and 2 new measures of arterial stiffness (CAVI and cardio-femoral vascular index derived from heart-ankle and heart-femoral, respectively) with incident CVD (coronary disease, stroke, and heart failure) and all-cause mortality. Over a median follow-up of 4.4 years, there were 168 incident CVD events and 244 deaths. Overall, stiffness measures did not show strong associations with CVD, except cfPWV, which demonstrated a J-shaped association even after adjusting for potential confounders (hazard ratio, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.08-3.09] in top quartile and 1.97 [1.14-3.39] in bottom quartile versus second bottom quartile). When each CVD was examined separately, heart failure was most robustly associated with higher cfPWV, and stroke was strongly associated with lower cfPWV. There were no significant associations with all-cause mortality. Among different measures of pulse wave velocity, cfPWV showed the strongest associations with CVD, especially heart failure, in older adults without CVD. Other pulse wave velocity measures had no strong associations. Our findings further support cfPWV as the index measure of arterial stiffness and the link of arterial stiffness to heart failure development but also suggest somewhat limited prognostic value of arterial stiffness in older adults overall.

2.
J Appl Lab Med ; 4(1): 30-39, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the use of multiplexed aptamer-based assays for large-scale proteomic studies. However, the analytic, short- and long-term variation of the measured proteins is largely uncharacterized. METHODS: We quantified 4001 plasma protein analytes from 42 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in split samples and at multiple visits using a multiplexed modified aptamer assay. We calculated the CV, Spearman correlation, and intraclass correlation (ICC) between split samples and evaluated the short-term (4-9 weeks) and long-term (approximately 20 years) variability using paired t-tests with log-transformed protein concentrations and Bonferroni-corrected significance thresholds. We performed principal component (PC) analysis of protein analyte concentrations and evaluated their associations with age, sex, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: The mean baseline age was 57 years at the first visit, 43% of participants were male and 57% were white. Among 3693 protein analytes that passed quality control, half (n = 1846) had CVs < 5.0%, Spearman correlations > 0.89, and ICCs > 0.96 among the split samples. Over the short term, only 1 analyte had a statistically significant difference between the 2 time points, whereas, over approximately 20 years, 866 analytes (23.4%) had statistically significant differences (P < 1.4 × 10-5, 681 increased, 185 decreased). PC1 had high correlations with age (-0.73) and eGFR (0.60). PC2 had moderate correlation with male sex (0.18) and white race (0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Multiplexed modified aptamer technology can assay thousands of proteins with excellent precision. Our results support the potential for large-scale studies of the plasma proteome over the lifespan.

3.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The retinal microvasculature provides a window to the cerebral vasculature and enables examination of changes in retinal caliber that may mimic those occurring in cerebrovascular disease. The association of central arterial stiffness and retinal vessel caliber in a population sample is not fully understood. METHODS: In 1706 older adults (mean age 76.3, 58.1% women) from the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, we examined the cross-sectional association of central arterial stiffness [carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV)] with retinal vessel calibers [central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE)]. We estimated the association of cfPWV with CRAE narrowing (<25th percentile) and CRVE widening (>75th percentile) after adjustment for age, sex, race-field center, BMI, smoking, and type 2 diabetes. We tested for effect modification by sex, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Carotid-femoral PWV (m/s) was not associated with the odds of CRAE narrowing [odds ratio (OR): 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95-1.03]. The association of cfPWV with CRVE widening was stronger in those without hypertension (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01-1.20) versus those with hypertension (OR: 1.01 95% CI: 0.96-1.05) and slightly stronger in those with type 2 diabetes (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00-1.14) versus without type 2 diabetes (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.96-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, cfPWV was associated with wider retinal venular caliber, particularly in individuals without hypertension. Central arterial stiffening may be associated with cerebral microvascular changes, as exhibited in its retinal vasculature component.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(18): e012657, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495291

RESUMO

Background High levels of physical activity have been associated with longer life expectancy free of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but specific types of CVD and sedentary behavior have not been examined. We examined associations of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (LTPA) and television viewing with life expectancy free of 3 types of CVD. Methods and Results We included 13 534 participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) cohort. We used multistate survival models to estimate associations of LTPA in the past year (no LTPA, less than the median, equal to or greater than the median) and television viewing (often or very often, sometimes, seldom or rarely) with life expectancy at age 50 free of nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and heart failure (HF). Over 27 years of follow-up, 4519 participants developed one of the 3 nonfatal CVDs and 5475 deaths occurred. Compared with participants who engaged in no LTPA, participants who engaged in LTPA equal to or greater than the median had longer life expectancy free of nonfatal CHD (men: 1.5 years [95% CI, 1.0-2.0]; women: 1.6 years [95% CI, 1.1-2.2]), stroke (men: 1.8 years [95% CI, 1.2-2.3]; women: 1.8 years [95% CI, 1.3-2.3]), and HF (men: 1.6 years [95% CI, 1.1-2.1]; women: 1.7 years [95% CI, 1.2-2.2]). Compared with viewing more television, watching less television was associated with longer life expectancy free of CHD, stroke, and HF (≈0.8 year). Conclusions Higher levels of LTPA and less television viewing were associated with longer life expectancy free of CHD, stroke, and HF. Engaging in LTPA and watching less television may increase the number of years lived free of CHD, stroke, and HF.

5.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; : e12688, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a marker of cardiac end-organ damage and a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although clinical trials and cohort studies commonly use the electrocardiogram (ECG) for LVH assessment, the repeatability of ECG-LVH criteria has not been sufficiently examined. Therefore, we evaluated the repeatability of ECG-LVH criteria. METHODS: Participants (n = 63) underwent two standard ECGs at each of two visits, two weeks apart. The ECGs were processed centrally to calculate Cornell voltage (CV) LVH, Cornell voltage product (CVP) LVH, Sokolow-Lyon (SL) LVH, and Sokolow-Lyon product (SLP) LVH. We also used the waveforms measurements contributing to these LVH criteria as continuous variables, referred to here as CV-index, CVP-index, and SL-index. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), minimal detectable change (95% confidence), and the prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). RESULTS: ICCs (95% confidence intervals (CI)) were 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) for CV-index, 0.97 (0.95, 0.98) for CVP-index, and 0.93 (0.90, 0.96) for log of SL-index. Minimal detectable change between repeat measures of CV-index, CVP-index, and log of SL-index were ≥236.7 mV, ≥26.7 mV, and ≥0.09 mV, respectively. The within-visit PABAK was 1 for all ECG-LVH criteria, except for the first visit SLP-LVH (PABAK = 0.93). Between-visit PABAK ranged from 0.83 to 0.97 across LVH criteria. CONCLUSIONS: CV, CVP, and SL ECG-LVH as continuous variables have excellent repeatability, and as binary variables have excellent within-visit agreement and good between-visit agreement. These results alleviate concerns about the repeatability the ECG-LVH use in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.

6.
Am J Hematol ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429114

RESUMO

Sickle cell trait (SCT) has been associated with hypercoagulability, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and ischemic stroke. Whether concomitant CKD modifies long-term ischemic stroke risk in individuals with SCT is uncertain. We analyzed data from 3602 genotyped black adults (female = 62%, mean baseline age = 54 years) who were followed for a median 26 years by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Ischemic stroke was verified by physician review. Associations between SCT and ischemic stroke were analyzed using repeat-events Cox regression, adjusted for potential confounders. SCT was identified in 236 (7%) participants, who more often had CKD at baseline than noncarriers (18% vs 13%, P = .02). Among those with CKD, elevated factor VII activity was more prevalent with SCT genotype (36% vs 22%; P = .05). From 1987-2017, 555 ischemic strokes occurred in 436 individuals. The overall hazard ratio of ischemic stroke associated with SCT was 1.31 (95% CI: 0.95-1.80) and was stronger in participants with concomitant CKD (HR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.16-4.12) than those without CKD (HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.74-1.61); P for interaction = .04. The hazard ratio of composite ischemic stroke and/or death associated with SCT was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.01-1.42) overall, 1.44 (95% CI: 1.002-2.07) among those with CKD, and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.94-1.39) among those without CKD; P for interaction = .18. The long-term risk of ischemic stroke associated with SCT relative to noncarrier genotype appears to be modified by concomitant CKD.

7.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319865378, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362534

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of blood pressure categorization based on the 2017 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guideline with the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: Among 13,113 middle-aged participants, we investigated the associations of 2017 blood pressure categories (systolic <120 and diastolic <80 mmHg (normal if no anti-hypertensive medications; reference), 120-129 and <80 (elevated), 130-139 and/or 80-89 (stage 1 hypertension), and ≥140 and/or ≥90 (stage 2 hypertension)) with incident PAD (hospitalizations with a diagnosis or leg revascularization) using Cox regression models. Analyses were separately conducted in individuals with and without anti-hypertensive medications. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 25.4 years, 466 incident PAD occurred (271 cases in 9858 participants without anti-hypertensive medications). In participants without anti-hypertensive medications, we observed significant hazard ratios of PAD in elevated blood pressure (1.80 (1.28-2.51)) and stage 2 hypertension (2.40 (1.72-3.34)), but not in stage 1 hypertension. Analyzing systolic and diastolic blood pressure separately, higher systolic blood pressure categories showed significant associations with incident PAD in a graded fashion whereas, for diastolic blood pressure, only ≥90 mmHg did. Generally similar patterns were seen among participants on anti-hypertensive medication, while they had higher risk of PAD than those without at each blood pressure category. CONCLUSIONS: Systolic blood pressure, including the category of 130-139 mmHg, showed stronger associations with incident PAD than did diastolic blood pressure. Consequently, elevated blood pressure conferred similar or even greater risk of PAD than stage 1 hypertension, with implications on how to interpret new blood pressure categories in terms of leg vascular health.

8.
Am Heart J ; 216: 1-8, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but paradoxically higher burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors, has been observed among African Americans compared to Whites in studies of AF identified by mostly 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and clinically. METHODS: We performed 48-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (aECG) in a biracial sample of 1,193 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) (mean age = 78 years, 62% African Americans, 64% female). Atrial fibrillation was identified from aECG, study visit ECGs, and discharge codes from cohort hospitalizations. We used covariate-adjusted logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for AF in African Americans versus Whites, with adjustment for sampling and nonresponse. RESULTS: African Americans were more likely than Whites to have hypertension and diabetes but less likely to have coronary heart disease. The prevalence of AF detected by aECG or ARIC study ECG (adjusted for age and coronary heart disease) was lower in African Americans than Whites (2.7% vs 5.0%). White men had a higher (although not significant) AF prevalence of 7.8% compared to the other race and gender groups at 2.3%-2.8%. The adjusted OR for AF was 0.49 (0.24-0.99) comparing African Americans to Whites. Findings were similar when AF was defined to include prior AF hospitalizations (OR = 0.42, 0.25-0.72). There were no significant differences by race for asymptomatic or paroxysmal AF. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation was less prevalent in African American than white older adults, regardless of detection method. Although overall detection of new AF cases with aECG was low, future studies should consider longer-term monitoring to characterize AF by race.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 498-507, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public statements about the effect of smoking on cardiovascular disease are predominantly based on investigations of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, although smoking is recognized as a strong risk factor for peripheral artery disease (PAD). No study has comprehensively compared the long-term association of cigarette smoking and its cessation with the incidence of 3 major atherosclerotic diseases (PAD, CHD, and stroke). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify the long-term association of cigarette smoking and its cessation with the incidence of the 3 outcomes. METHODS: A total of 13,355 participants aged 45 to 64 years in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study without PAD, CHD, or stroke at baseline (1987 to 1989) were included. The associations of smoking parameters (pack-years, duration, intensity, and cessation) with incident PAD were quantified and contrasted with CHD and stroke using Cox models. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 26 years, there were 492 PAD cases, 1,798 CHD cases, and 1,106 stroke cases. A dose-response relationship was identified between pack-years of smoking and 3 outcomes, with the strongest results for PAD. The pattern was consistent when investigating duration and intensity separately. A longer period of smoking cessation was consistently related to lower risk of PAD, CHD, and stroke, but a significantly elevated risk persisted up to 30 years following smoking cessation for PAD and up to 20 years for CHD. CONCLUSIONS: All smoking measures showed significant associations with 3 major atherosclerotic diseases, with the strongest effect size for incident PAD. The risk due to smoking lasted up to 30 years for PAD and 20 years for CHD. Our results further highlight the importance of smoking prevention and early smoking cessation, and indicate the need for public statements to take PAD into account when acknowledging the impact of smoking on overall cardiovascular health.

10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac troponin T, measured using a high-sensitive assay (hs-cTnT), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with increased stroke risk and perhaps with cognitive decline. However, few well-designed prospective studies with extended follow-up have been conducted. We aimed to estimate the association of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP with 15-year cognitive change in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Four US communities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9114 and 9108 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study for analyses of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP, respectively. MEASUREMENTS: We examined association of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP with 15-year change (1996-1998 to 2011-2013) in three cognitive tests of executive function (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), verbal learning memory (Delayed Word Recall Test), and semantic fluency (Word Fluency Test), and an overall score combining the three tests using multivariable linear mixed effect models. We conducted several sensitivity analyses including multiple imputations to address bias due to missing data and attrition, and we compared associations within groups combining hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP into a three-level categorical variable. RESULTS: At baseline (1996-1998), mean age was 63.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 5.7) years; 56.4% were women, and 17.5% were black. The hs-cTnT at baseline was not associated with cognitive change in any measure. Some evidence indicated accelerated decline in verbal learning and memory when comparing those in the highest with the lowest NT-proBNP quintiles; however, this association was not replicated when considering clinically relevant cutoffs or deciles of exposure in survivors. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with our primary analyses. There was little evidence to support effect modification by any considered factors. People with highest levels of both biomarkers had excessive decline in global z scores vs people with lowest levels (-.34; 95% confidence interval = -.63 to -.04). CONCLUSION: Markers of myocardial injury and stretch were not associated with cognitive decline following 15 years among survivors, but when combined together they were suggestive in post hoc analysis. Whether this represents targets of intervention should be examined in the future.

11.
Neurology ; 92(22): e2580-e2593, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of specific lipoproteins/inflammatory enzyme with cognitive change. METHODS: We examined the association of apolipoprotein B (ApoB), small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C), lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) activity with 15-year change in Delayed Word Recall Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Word Fluency Test (WFT), and overall summary score in 9,350 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We assessed interaction by race, sex, education, APOE ε4 status, and statin use. We also addressed questions of informative missingness, the role of stroke, and the influence of fasting status. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 63.4 (5.7) years; 56.4% were women and 17.4% were black. We observed faster cognitive decline on DSST and global z scores with every 10-mg/dL higher sdLDL-C level (Δ DSST z score, -0.010; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.017, -0.002 and Δ global z score, -0.011; -0.021, -0.001) and the highest vs the lowest ApoB quintiles (Δ DSST z score, -0.092; -0.0164, -0.019 and Δ global z score, -0.101; -0.200, -0.002). Association for the ApoB quintiles with Δ global z score (-0.10) was comparable with that of having 1 APOE ε4 allele (-0.11). Higher Lp(a) was associated with slower decline in DSST, WFT, and global z scores. LpPLA2 activity was not associated with cognitive change. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses. The associations of sdLDL-C or Lp(a) on cognitive change were more pronounced in statin users. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal control of atherogenic lipoproteins such as ApoB and sdLDL-C in midlife for cardiovascular health may also benefit late-life cognitive health.

12.
Circulation ; 139(23): 2642-2653, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether plasma troponin I measured by a high-sensitivity assay (hs-TnI) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in a community-based sample without prior CVD. METHODS: ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) participants aged 54 to 74 years without baseline CVD were included in this study (n=8121). Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to determine associations between hs-TnI and incident coronary heart disease (CHD; myocardial infarction and fatal CHD), ischemic stroke, atherosclerotic CVD (CHD and stroke), heart failure hospitalization, global CVD (atherosclerotic CVD and heart failure), and all-cause mortality. The comparative association of hs-TnI and high-sensitivity troponin T with incident CVD events was also evaluated. Risk prediction models were constructed to assess prediction improvement when hs-TnI was added to traditional risk factors used in the Pooled Cohort Equation. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was ≈15 years. Detectable hs-TnI levels were observed in 85% of the study population. In adjusted models, in comparison to low hs-TnI (lowest quintile, hs-TnI ≤1.3 ng/L), elevated hs-TnI (highest quintile, hs-TnI ≥3.8 ng/L) was associated with greater incident CHD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; 95% CI, 1.64-2.95), ischemic stroke (HR, 2.99; 95% CI, 2.01-4.46), atherosclerotic CVD (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.86-3.00), heart failure hospitalization (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 3.28-5.37), global CVD (HR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.50-3.63), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.56-2.14). hs-TnI was observed to have a stronger association with incident global CVD events in white than in black individuals and a stronger association with incident CHD in women than in men. hs-TnI and high-sensitivity troponin T were only modestly correlated ( r=0.47) and were complementary in prediction of incident CVD events, with elevation of both troponins conferring the highest risk in comparison with elevation in either one alone. The addition of hs-TnI to the Pooled Cohort Equation model improved risk prediction for atherosclerotic CVD, heart failure, and global CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated hs-TnI is strongly associated with increased global CVD incidence in the general population independent of traditional risk factors. hs-TnI and high-sensitivity troponin T provide complementary rather than redundant information.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212892, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness independently predicts cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have evaluated the associations of central and peripheral pulse wave velocity (PWV) with biomarkers of both myocardial stress (natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) and damage (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T [hs-cTnT]) among persons without cardiac disease. METHODS: We examined 3,348 participants (67-90 years) without prevalent cardiac disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (2011-13). The cross-sectional associations of PWV quartiles for central arterial segments (carotid-femoral, heart-carotid, heart-femoral) and peripheral artery (femoral-ankle) with NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were evaluated accounting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Most PWV measures demonstrated J- or U-shaped associations with the two cardiac biomarkers. The highest (Q4) vs. second lowest (Q2) quartile of central PWV measures (carotid-femoral, heart-carotid, heart-femoral PWV) were associated with higher levels of NT-proBNP independently of demographic characteristics. The associations were less evident for hs-cTnT. These associations were attenuated after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, but the heart-carotid PWV-NT-proBNP relationship remained borderline significant (difference in log-NT-proBNP = 0.08 [-0.01, 0.17] in Q4 vs. Q2, p = 0.07). Peripheral PWV demonstrated inverse associations. Higher values of NT-proBNP were seen in the lowest vs. second lowest quartile of all PWV measures. CONCLUSIONS: Central stiffness measures showed stronger associations with cardiac biomarkers (particularly NT-proBNP) than peripheral measures among older adults without cardiac disease. Our findings are consistent with the concept of ventricular-vascular coupling and suggest that central rather than peripheral arterial hemodynamics are more closely related to myocardial stress rather than damage.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(2): e011045, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646799

RESUMO

Background Central arterial stiffening and increased pulsatility, with consequent cerebral hypoperfusion, may result in structural brain damage and cognitive impairment. Methods and Results We analyzed a cross-sectional sample of ARIC - NCS (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities-Neurocognitive Study) participants (aged 67-90 years, 60% women) with measures of cognition (n=3703) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (n=1255). Central arterial hemodynamics were assessed as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pressure pulsatility (central pulse pressure). We derived factor scores for cognitive domains. Brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3-Tesla scanners quantified lacunar infarcts; cerebral microbleeds; and volumes of white matter hyperintensities, total brain, and the Alzheimer disease signature region. We used logistic regression, adjusted for demographics, apolipoprotein E ɛ4, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and select cardiovascular risk factors, to estimate the odds of lacunar infarcts or cerebral microbleeds. Linear regression, additionally adjusted for intracranial volume, estimated the difference in log-transformed volumes of white matter hyperintensities , total brain, and the Alzheimer disease signature region. We estimated the mean difference in cognitive factor scores across quartiles of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity or central pulse pressure using linear regression. Compared with participants in the lowest carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity quartile, participants in the highest quartile of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity had a greater burden of white matter hyperintensities ( P=0.007 for trend), smaller total brain volumes (-18.30 cm3; 95% CI , -27.54 to -9.07 cm3), and smaller Alzheimer disease signature region volumes (-1.48 cm3; 95% CI , -2.27 to -0.68 cm3). These participants also had lower scores in executive function/processing speed (ß=-0.04 z score; 95% CI , -0.07 to -0.01 z score) and general cognition (ß=-0.09 z score; 95% CI , -0.15 to -0.03 z score). Similar results were observed for central pulse pressure . Conclusions Central arterial hemodynamics were associated with structural brain damage and poorer cognitive performance among older adults.

15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(5): 917-927, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698634

RESUMO

Exposure to total hydrocarbons (THC) and volatile organic compounds from air pollution is associated with risk of coronary heart disease. THC exposure from oil spills might be similarly associated, but no research has examined this. We assessed the relationship between THC exposure during the response and cleanup of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (Gulf of Mexico) and heart attack risk among 24,375 oil spill workers enrolled in the Gulf Long-Term Follow-up Study. There were 312 first heart attacks (self-reported physician-diagnosed myocardial infarction, or fatal coronary heart disease) ascertained during the study period (2010-2016). THC exposures were estimated using a job-exposure matrix incorporating self-reported activities and personal air measurements. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios, with inverse-probability weights to account for confounding and censoring. Maximum THC levels of ≥0.30 parts per million (ppm) were associated with heart attack risk, with a 1.8-fold risk for exposure of ≥3.00 ppm versus <0.30 ppm (hazard ratio = 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.95). The risk difference for highest versus lowest THC level was 10 excess cases per 1,000 workers. This is the first study of the persistent health impacts of THC exposure during oil spill work, and results support increased protection against oil exposure during cleanup of future spills.

16.
Environ Res ; 168: 70-79, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemical, physical and psychological stressors due to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill may impact coronary heart disease (CHD) among exposed populations. Using longitudinal information from two interviews in the Gulf Long Term Follow-up (GuLF) STUDY, we assessed CHD among oil spill workers and community members. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between duration of oil spill clean-up work, residential proximity to the oil spill, and incidence of self-reported myocardial infarction or fatal CHD. METHODS: Among respondents with two GuLF STUDY interviews (n = 21,256), there were 395 first incident heart disease events (self-reported myocardial infarction or fatal CHD) across 5 years. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for associations with duration of oil spill clean-up work and residential proximity to the oil spill. To assess potential impacts of non-response, we compared covariate distributions for those who did (n = 21,256) and did not (n = 10,353) complete the second interview and used inverse probability (IP) of censoring weights to correct for potential non-response bias. RESULTS: Living in proximity to the oil spill (vs. living further away) was associated with heart disease, with [HR(95%CI) = 1.30(1.01-1.67)] and without [1.29(1.00-1.65)] censoring weights. For work duration, hazard of heart disease appeared to be higher for those who worked > 180 days (vs. 1-30 days), with and without censoring weights [1.43(0.91-2.25) and 1.36(0.88-2.11), respectively]. Associations persisted throughout the 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Residential proximity to the spill and duration of clean-up work were associated with a suggested 29-43% higher hazard of heart disease events. Associations were robust to censoring.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Exposição Ambiental , Infarto do Miocárdio , Poluição por Petróleo , Adulto , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Golfo do México , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Autorrelato
17.
Kidney Int Rep ; 3(6): 1276-1284, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450454

RESUMO

Introduction: Although sleep-disordered breathing has been found to be associated with higher urine albumin excretion, this association has not been evaluated in Hispanic/Latino populations, which experience a high burden of end-stage renal disease compared with non-Hispanics. We evaluated the association of sleep-disordered breathing with prevalent albuminuria among US Hispanics/Latinos. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of baseline data from participants in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a population-based study that enrolled 16,415 adults in 4 US communities. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed using a home sleep apnea monitor for overnight recording and was defined using 3 thresholds of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; 3% desaturation): ≥5, ≥15, and ≥30. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g. Results: There were 12,572 participants with complete data available for analysis. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of albuminuria was 9.1%. Mean age was 41 years, and 48% were men. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was higher among individuals with albuminuria compared with those without albuminuria (36% vs. 25% had AHI ≥5, 18% vs. 9% had AHI ≥15, and 9% vs. 4% had AHI ≥30). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, AHIs ≥5, ≥15, and ≥30 were associated with greater odds of albuminuria compared with those with AHIs <5, <15, and <30 (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.76; OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.33-2.20; and OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.34-2.79), respectively. This association varied by Hispanic/Latino background group. Conclusion: In US Hispanic/Latinos, sleep-disordered breathing was independently associated with higher odds of prevalent albuminuria.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(16): e008644, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369315

RESUMO

Background We conducted an analysis of data from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study to assess the independent association of obesity with peripheral artery disease ( PAD ) and critical limb ischemia ( CLI ). Methods and Results All black and white ARIC participants without prevalent PAD at baseline (1987-1989) were included. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders and then potential mediators to quantify the association between body mass index ( BMI ) and incident hospitalizations related to PAD without CLI and with CLI through 2013. Our analysis included 13 988 men and women followed for a median of 24 years. Incident PAD without CLI and PAD with CLI occurred in 373 and 201 participants, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, higher BMI at baseline was associated with increased risk of PAD without CLI when BMI was modeled continuously (hazard ratio per 1- SD increment in BMI: 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.37) and with PAD with CLI regardless of whether BMI was modeled categorically ( P<0.05) or continuously (hazard ratio per 1- SD increment in BMI: 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.69). The associations of BMI with PAD without CLI and with CLI were attenuated after further accounting for potential mediators but remained significant for PAD with CLI when BMI was linearly modeled (hazard ratio per 1- SD increment in BMI: 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.36). The positive association between BMI and PAD with CLI was stronger than the association between BMI and PAD without CLI for all models ( P<0.001). Conclusions In the general population, BMI is positively associated with incident hospitalized PAD after adjusting for potential confounders, particularly its most severe form of CLI . Maintaining an optimal weight, in addition to controlling other cardiovascular risk factors, may play a role in reducing risk of PAD with CLI .

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(15): e009578, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371241

RESUMO

Background To understand how blood pressure ( BP ) from midlife and beyond is related to cognition in older age, a lifespan approach is needed. We assessed the associations of BP levels and variability from midlife on with subsequent cognitive change. Methods and Results The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study participants underwent 4 clinic BP measurements (visit 1, 2, 3, and 4 BP s) between 1987 and 1998, and their mean levels and average real variability ( ARV ) were assessed as exposures. A global cognitive z score, estimated from the Delayed Word Recall Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, and Word Fluency Test scores, was calculated at 1996 to 1998 (visit 4) and 2011 to 2013 (visit 5). Among 11 408 participants (mean age, 54 years; 56% women; 21% black race), mean systolic BP ( SBP )/diastolic BP ( DBP ) level was 123/72 mm Hg, and ARVSBP / ARVDBP was 11/7 mm Hg. With linear mixed models, 1- SD increases of ARVSBP (standardized regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], -0.03 [-0.04 to -0.01] points) and ARVDBP (standardized regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], -0.02 [-0.03 to -0.002] points; both P<0.05), but not mean SBP or DBP levels, were associated with lower global cognitive z scores at visit 4. In contrast, mean SBP (standardized regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], -0.04 [-0.06 to -0.02] points) or DBP (standardized regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.04 [0.02-0.06] points; both P<0.001) level, but not ARVSBP or ARVDBP , was associated with change in global cognitive z scores from visits 4 to 5. Conclusions Greater visit-to-visit SBP or DBP variability from midlife on is modestly associated with lower cognitive function, whereas higher mean SBP and lower DBP levels from midlife to later life are modestly associated with cognitive decline in later life.

20.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(5): 642-649, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 includes seven metrics of ideal cardiovascular health to target for cardiovascular disease prevention. This study determined the relationship between Life's Simple 7 and incident peripheral artery disease in a biracial cohort of middle- and older-aged adults. METHODS: This analysis included 12,865 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study recruited between 1987 and 1989 (mean age=54years, 55% women, 25% black) and free of peripheral artery disease or other cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, Life's Simple 7 score was calculated as the sum of the Life's Simple 7 component scores (two points if ideal, one point if intermediate, and zero if poor) and classified as inadequate (zero to four), average (five to nine), or optimal (ten to 14) cardiovascular health and linked to incident peripheral artery disease identified by hospital discharge diagnosis and leg revascularization. Analysis was conducted in 2017. RESULTS: A total of 434 incident peripheral artery disease cases occurred over a median follow-up of 24.4years. Compared with the inadequate category (n=1,008), participants in the average (n=8,395) and optimal (n=3,462) categories each had a substantially lower risk of developing peripheral artery disease in a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for potential confounders (hazard ratio=0.36, 95% CI=0.28, 0.46 for average, and hazard ratio=0.09, 95% CI=0.06, 0.15 for optimal). In a similar model, a one-point higher Life's Simple 7 score was associated with a 25% lower risk of incident peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio=0.75, 95% CI=0.72, 0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Better cardiovascular health, as defined by higher Life's Simple 7 score, is associated with a substantially lower risk of peripheral artery disease.

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