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1.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Averaging multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements is recommended for hypertension (HTN) screening but can be impractical, especially in resource-constrained settings. We aimed to explore the implications of fewer BP measurements on BP classification and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We studied 8905 middle-aged participants without diagnosed HTN and quantified misclassified HTN (≥140/90 mmHg) by simplified BP approaches (e.g. single 1st BP, single 2nd BP, mainly 1st but 2nd BP if 1st was in a certain range) vs. the reference standard of the average of 2nd and 3rd BP. We also assessed CVD risk related to HTN status. RESULTS: There were 823 participants classified as HTN by the standard approach. With single 1st BP, 2.8% of non-HTN were overidentified as HTN, and 18.3% of HTN were identified as not having HTN. The corresponding estimates with single 2nd BP were 2.1 and 6.4%. Similar estimates were seen when 2nd BP was used if 1st BP at least 130/80 (1.9 and 8.1%), with only 27.8% requiring 2nd BP. Two thousand, one hundred and seventy-eight CVD cases were documented in this population over 30 years. HTN by either the standard approach or any of the simplified approaches conferred higher CVD risk vs. consistent no HTN by both approaches. CONCLUSION: In those without diagnosed HTN, a simplified BP measurement approach using the 2nd BP only when the 1st BP is at least 130/80 could reduce the total number of BP measurements by more than 50%, identify HTN with limited misclassification (2-8%), and predict CVD risks reasonably well.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e014669, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924735

RESUMO

Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for half of heart failure hospitalizations, with limited data on predictors of mortality by sex and race. We evaluated for differences in predictors of all-cause mortality by sex and race among hospitalized patients with HFpEF in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Community Surveillance Study. Methods and Results Adjudicated HFpEF hospitalization events from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed from the ARIC Community Surveillance Study, comprising 4 US communities. Comparisons between clinical characteristics and mortality at 1 year were made by sex and race. Of 4335 adjudicated acute decompensated heart failure cases, 1892 cases (weighted n=8987) were categorized as HFpEF. Men had an increased risk of 1-year mortality compared with women in adjusted analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06-1.52 [P=0.01]). Black participants had lower mortality compared with White participants in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.97 [P=0.02]). Age, heart rate, worsening renal function, and low hemoglobin were associated with increased mortality in all subgroups. Higher body mass index was associated with improved survival in men, with borderline interaction by sex. Higher blood pressure was associated with improved survival among all groups, with significant interaction by race. Conclusions In a diverse HFpEF population, men had worse survival compared with women, and Black participants had improved survival compared with White participants. Age, heart rate, and worsening renal function were associated with increased mortality across all subgroups; high blood pressure was associated with decreased mortality with interaction by race. These insights into sex- and race-based differences in predictors of mortality may help strategize targeted management of HFpEF.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been associated with longer chronic disease-free life expectancy, but specific cancer types have not been investigated. We examined whether leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (LTPA) and television (TV) viewing were associated with life expectancy cancer-free. METHODS: We included 14,508 participants without a cancer history from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We used multistate survival models to separately examine associations of LTPA (no LTPA,

4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2322-2331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory markers, such as hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), have been reported to be related to peripheral artery disease (PAD). Galectin-3, a biomarker of fibrosis, has been linked to vascular remodeling and atherogenesis. However, its prospective association with incident PAD is unknown; as is the influence of inflammation on the association between galectin-3 and PAD. Approach and Results: In 9851 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants free of PAD at baseline (1996-1998), we quantified the association of galactin-3 and hs-CRP with incident PAD (hospitalizations with PAD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision: 440.2-440.4] or leg revascularization [eg, International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision: 38.18]) as well as its severe form, critical limb ischemia (PAD cases with resting pain, ulcer, gangrene, or leg amputation) using Cox models. Over a median follow-up of 17.4 years, there were 316 cases of PAD including 119 critical limb ischemia cases. Log-transformed galectin-3 was associated with incident PAD (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.17 [1.05-1.31] per 1 SD increment) and critical limb ischemia (1.25 [1.05-1.49] per 1 SD increment). The association was slightly attenuated after further adjusting for hs-CRP (1.14 [1.02-1.27] and 1.22 [1.02-1.45], respectively). Log-transformed hs-CRP demonstrated robust associations with PAD and critical limb ischemia even after adjusting for galectin-3 (adjusted hazard ratio per 1 SD increment 1.34 [1.18-1.52] and 1.34 [1.09-1.65], respectively). The addition of galectin-3 and hs-CRP to traditional atherosclerotic predictors (C statistic of the base model 0.843 [0.815-0.871]) improved the risk prediction of PAD (ΔC statistics, 0.011 [0.002-0.020]). CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and hs-CRP were independently associated with incident PAD in the general population, supporting the involvement of fibrosis and inflammation in the pathophysiology of PAD.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Galectina 3/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Claudicação Intermitente/sangue , Isquemia/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Incidência , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/epidemiologia , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(1): 139-147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) may slow the development of dementia by reducing the accumulation of amyloid. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that higher levels of leisure-time PA in mid- or late-life were associated with lower brain amyloid burden in late-life among 326 non-demented participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study of brain florbetapir positron emission tomography (ARIC-PET) ancillary. METHODS: Self-reported PA was quantified using a past-year recall, interviewer-administered questionnaire in mid-life (1987-1989, aged 45-64 years) and late-life (2011-2013, aged 67-89 years). Continuous PA estimates were classified as 1) any leisure-time PA participation (yes/no); 2) meeting the 2018 United States' PA guidelines (yes/no); and 3) per 1 standard deviation (SD) higher metabolic equivalent of task (MET) minutes per week (MET·min·wk-1). A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan with Florbetapir PET was performed in late-life. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) of elevated amyloid burden, defined as a global cortical standardized uptake value ratio (>1.2), compared to no elevated amyloid burden were estimated according to PA measures. RESULTS: Among the 326 participants (mean age: 76 years, 42% male, 41% Black), 52% had elevated brain amyloid burden. Mid-life leisure-time PA did not show a statistically significant lower odds of elevated late-life amyloid burden (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.43-1.18). A 1 SD (970 MET. min. wk-1) higher PA level in mid-life was also not significantly associated withelevated amyloid burden (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.69-1.15). Similar estimates were observed for meeting versus not meeting PA guidelines in both mid- and late-life. CONCLUSION: Self-reported higher mid- and late-life leisure-time PA were not significantly associated with lower amyloid burden. Data show a trend of an association, which is, however, imprecise, suggesting replication in larger studies.

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e035584, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use the parametric g-formula to estimate the 19-year risk of myocardial infarction (MI) under hypothetical interventions on six cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: A populations-based cohort study with repeated measurements, the Tromsø Study. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Myocardial infarction. PARTICIPANTS: We estimated the relative and absolute risk reduction under feasible and intensive risk reduction strategies for smoking, physical activity, alcohol drinking, body mass index, total serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure in 14 965 men and women with 19 years of follow-up (1994-2013). RESULTS: The estimated 19-year risk of MI under no intervention was 7.5% in individuals with baseline mean age 49.3 years (range 25-69). This risk was reduced by 30% (95% CI 19% to 39%) under joint feasible interventions on all risk factors, and 70% (60%, 78%) under a set of more intensive interventions. The most effective interventions were lowering of total cholesterol to 5.18 mmol/L and lowering of systolic blood pressure to 120 mm Hg (33% and 37% lower MI risk, respectively). The absolute risk reductions were significantly larger in men, in older participants, in smokers and in those with low education. CONCLUSION: Modification of population levels of cardiovascular risk factors could have prevented close to one-third of the cases of MI in the municipality of Tromsø during 19 years of follow-up.

7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(10): 1134-1142, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383452

RESUMO

We examined associations of individual- and neighborhood-level life-course (LC) socioeconomic status (SES) with incident dementia in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Individual- and neighborhood-level SES were assessed at 3 life epochs (childhood, young adulthood, midlife) via questionnaire (2001-2002) and summarized into LC-SES scores. Dementia was ascertained through 2013 using cognitive exams, telephone interviews, and hospital and death certificate codes. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of dementia by LC-SES scores in race-specific models. The analyses included data from 12,599 participants (25% Black) in the United States, with a mean age of 54 years and median follow-up of 24 years. Each standard-deviation greater individual LC-SES score was associated with a 14% (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.92) lower risk of dementia in White and 21% (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.87) lower risk in Black participants. Education was removed from the individual LC-SES score and adjusted for separately to assess economic factors of LC-SES. A standard-deviation greater individual LC-SES score, without education, was associated with a 10% (HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.97) lower dementia risk in White and 15% (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.96) lower risk in Black participants. Neighborhood LC-SES was not associated with dementia. We found that individual LC-SES is a risk factor for dementia, whereas neighborhood LC-SES was not associated.

8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 217, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown insulin resistance is associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function measured at rest, but few studies have determined whether insulin resistance is associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function measured during daily activities. METHODS: We examined older adults without diabetes with 48-h ambulatory electrocardiography (n = 759) in an ancillary study of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Insulin resistance, the exposure, was defined by quartiles for three indexes: 1) the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2) the triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), and 3) the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C). Low heart rate variability, the outcome, was defined by <25th percentile for four measures: 1) standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), a measure of total variability; 2) root mean square of successive differences in normal-to-normal R-R intervals (RMSSD), a measure of vagal activity; 3) low frequency spectral component (LF), a measure of sympathetic and vagal activity; and 4) high frequency spectral component (HF), a measure of vagal activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals weighted for sampling/non-response, adjusted for age at ancillary visit, sex, and race/study-site. Insulin resistance quartiles 4, 3, and 2 were compared to quartile 1; high indexes refer to quartile 4 versus quartile 1. RESULTS: The average age was 78 years, 66% (n = 497) were women, and 58% (n = 438) were African American. Estimates of association were not robust at all levels of HOMA-IR, TyG, and TG/HDL-C, but suggest that high indexes were associated consistently with indicators of vagal activity. High HOMA-IR, high TyG, and high TG/HDL-C were consistently associated with low RMSSD (OR: 1.68 (1.00, 2.81), OR: 2.03 (1.21, 3.39), and OR: 1.73 (1.01, 2.91), respectively). High HOMA-IR, high TyG, and high TG/HDL-C were consistently associated with low HF (OR: 1.90 (1.14, 3.18), OR: 1.98 (1.21, 3.25), and OR: 1.76 (1.07, 2.90), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults without diabetes, insulin resistance was associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function - specifically and consistently for indicators of vagal activity - measured during daily activities. Primary prevention of insulin resistance may reduce the related risk of cardiac autonomic dysfunction.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(5): 4592-4602, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170049

RESUMO

Mitigating age-related disease and disability presents challenges. Physical activity (PA) may be influential for prolonging health and functioning, warranting characterization of its patterns over the life course in population-based data. With the availability of up to three self-reported assessments of past year leisure-time PA (LTPA) over multiple decades in 15,036 participants (26% African American; 55% women; mean baseline age=54; median follow-up=23 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study sampled from four U.S. communities, race-sex-stratified trajectories of average weekly intensity (metabolic equivalent of task (MET)), duration (hours), and energy expenditure or volume (MET-h) of LTPA were developed from age 45 to 90 using joint models to accommodate expected non-ignorable attrition. Declines in weekly LTPA intensity, duration, and volume from age 70 to 90 were observed in white women (2.9 to 1.2 MET; 2.5 to 0.6 h; 11.1 to 2.6 MET-h), white men (2.5 to 1.0 MET; 3.5 to 1.8 h; 15.5 to 6.4 MET-h), African American women (2.5 to 2.4 MET; 0.8 to 0.1 h; 6.7 to 6.0 MET-h), and African American men (2.3 to 1.4 MET; 1.5 to 0.6 h; 8.0 to 2.3 MET-h). These data reveal population-wide shifts towards less active lifestyles in older adulthood.

10.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(11): 1878-1885, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association of magnesium levels with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD) despite emerging evidence of magnesium contributing to vascular calcification. Moreover, no data are available on whether the magnesium-PAD relationship is independent of or modified by kidney function. METHODS: A cohort of 11 839 participants free of PAD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study at Visit 2 (1990-92) was studied. We investigated the association of serum magnesium and other bone-mineral metabolism markers [calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and intact fibroblast growth factor-23] with incident PAD using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Over a median of 23 years, there were 471 cases of incident PAD. The hazard ratio for incident PAD in Quartile 1 (<1.5 mEq/L) versus Quartile 4 (>1.7 mEq/L) of magnesium was 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.40-2.74) after adjustment for potential confounders. Lower magnesium levels were associated with greater incidence of PAD, particularly in those with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 11 606). In contrast, the association was largely flat in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 233) with P-for-interaction 0.03. Among bone-mineral metabolism markers, only higher iPTH showed an interaction with kidney function (P-for-interaction 0.01) and iPTH >65 pg/mL was significantly related to PAD only in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSIONS: Lower magnesium was independently associated with incident PAD, but this association was significantly weaker in those with reduced kidney function. In contrast, higher iPTH levels were particularly related to PAD risk in this clinical population.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(6): e014868, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157957

RESUMO

Background Changes in white matter microstructural integrity are detectable before appearance of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging as a manifestation of cerebral small-vessel disease. The information relating poor white matter microstructural integrity to aortic stiffness, a hallmark of aging, is limited. We aimed to examine the association between aortic stiffness and white matter microstructural integrity among older adults. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the association between aortic stiffness and white matter microstructural integrity among 1484 men and women (mean age, 76 years) at the 2011 to 2013 examination of the ARIC-NCS (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study). Aortic stiffness was measured as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Cerebral white matter microstructural integrity was measured as fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity using diffusion tensor imaging. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity with fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of the overall cerebrum and at regions of interest. Each 1-m/s higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was associated with lower overall fractional anisotropy (ß=-0.03; 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.02) and higher overall mean diffusivity (ß=0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.04). High carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (upper 25th percentile) was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (ß=-0.40; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.20) and higher overall mean diffusivity (ß=0.27; 95% CI, 0.10-0.43). Similar associations were observed at individual regions of interest. Conclusions High aortic stiffness is associated with low cerebral white matter microstructural integrity among older adults. Aortic stiffness may serve as a target for the prevention of poor cerebral white matter microstructural integrity.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e012214, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067578

RESUMO

Background Excess adiposity, which affects 69% of US adults, increases coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in an association that manifests below conventional obesity cut points. The population-level impact on CHD risk that is attainable through modest adiposity reductions in populations is not well characterized. We estimated the effect of hypothetical reductions in both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on CHD incidence. Methods and Results The study population included 13 610 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) participants. Our hypothetical reduction in BMI or WC was applied relative to the temporal trend, with no hypothetical reduction among those with BMI >24 or WC >88 cm, respectively. This threshold for hypothetical reduction is near the clinical guidelines for excess adiposity. CHD risk differences compared the hypothetical reduction with no reduction. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the effect of applying the hypothetical BMI reduction at the established overweight cut point of 25. Cumulative 12-year CHD incidence with no intervention was 6.3% (95% CI, 5.9-6.8%). Risk differences following the hypothetical BMI and WC reductions were -0.6% (95% CI, -1.0% to -0.1%) and -1.0% (95% CI, -1.4% to -0.5%), respectively. These results were robust for the sensitivity analyses. Consequently, we estimated that this hypothetical reduction of 5% in BMI and WC, respectively, could have prevented 9% and 16%, respectively, of the CHD events occurring in this study population over 12 years, after adjustment for established CHD risk factors. Conclusions Meaningful CHD risk reductions could derive from modest reductions in adiposity attainable through lifestyle modification.

13.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(2): 188-199, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic (SES) factors underlying disparities in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and consequently, type 2 diabetes among Hispanics/Latino populations are of considerable clinical and public health interest. However, incomplete and/or imprecise measurement of the multidimensional SES construct has impeded a full understanding of how SES contributes to disparities in metabolic disease. Consequently, a latent-variable model of the SES-MetSyn association was investigated and compared with the more typical proxy-variable model. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional probability sample (2008-2011) of 14,029 Hispanic/Latino individuals of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central American, South American, and Mexican ancestry living in the USA was used. SES proxy's education, income, and employment were examined as effect indicators of a latent variable, and as individual predictors. MetSyn was defined using 2009 harmonized guidelines, and MetSyn components were also examined individually. RESULTS: In multivariate regression analyses, the SES latent variable was associated with 9% decreased odds of MetSyn (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.96, P < .001) and was associated with all MetSyn components, except diastolic blood pressure. Additionally, greater income, education, and employment status were associated with 4%, 3%, and 24% decreased odds of having MetSyn, respectively (Ps < .001). The income-MetSyn association was only significant for women and those with current health insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic/Latinos exhibit an inverse association between SES and MetSyn of varying magnitudes across SES variables. Public health research is needed to further probe these relationships, particularly among Hispanic/Latina women, to ultimately improve healthcare access to prevent diabetes in this underserved population.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 11, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance may contribute to aortic stiffening that leads to end-organ damage. We examined the cross-sectional association and prospective association of insulin resistance and aortic stiffness in older adults without diabetes. METHODS: We analyzed 2571 men and women at Visit 5 (in 2011-2013), and 2350 men and women at repeat examinations from baseline at Visit 1 (in 1987-1989) to Visit 5 (in 2011-2013). Linear regression was used to estimate the difference in aortic stiffness per standard unit of HOMA-IR, TG/HDL-C, and TyG at Visit 5. Linear mixed effects were used to assess if high, as opposed to non-high, aortic stiffness (> 75th percentile) was preceded by a faster annual rate of change in log-HOMA-IR, log-TG/HDL-C, and log-TyG from Visit 1 to Visit 5. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 75 years, 37% (n = 957) were men, and 17% (n = 433) were African American. At Visit 5, higher HOMA-IR, higher TG/HDL-C, and higher TyG were associated with higher aortic stiffness (16 cm/s per SD (95% CI 6, 27), 29 cm/s per SD (95% CI 18, 40), and 32 cm/s per SD (95% CI 22, 42), respectively). From Visit 1 to Visit 5, high aortic stiffness, compared to non-high aortic stiffness, was not preceded by a faster annual rate of change in log-HOMA-IR from baseline to 9 years (0.030 (95% CI 0.024, 0.035) vs. 0.025 (95% CI 0.021, 0.028); p = 0.15) or 9 years onward (0.011 (95% CI 0.007, 0.015) vs. 0.011 (95% CI 0.009, 0.013); p = 0.31); in log-TG/HDL-C from baseline to 9 years (0.019 (95% CI 0.015, 0.024) vs. 0.024 (95% CI 0.022, 0.026); p = 0.06) or 9 years onward (- 0.007 (95% CI - 0.010, - 0.005) vs. - 0.009 (95% CI - 0.010, - 0.007); p = 0.08); or in log-TyG from baseline to 9 years (0.002 (95% CI 0.002, 0.003) vs. 0.003 (95% CI 0.003, 0.003); p = 0.03) or 9 years onward (0 (95% CI 0, 0) vs. 0 (95% CI 0, 0); p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults without diabetes, insulin resistance was associated with aortic stiffness, but the putative role of insulin resistance in aortic stiffness over the life course requires further study.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina , Rigidez Vascular , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/etnologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(8): 788-800, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971233

RESUMO

Faster rates of age-related cognitive decline might result in early onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. The relationship between ethanol intake and cognitive decline, although studied extensively, remains poorly understood. Previous studies used single measurements of ethanol, and few were conducted in diverse populations. We assessed the association of 9-year trajectories of ethanol intake (1987-1998) with 15-year rate of decline in cognitive performance from mid- to late life (1996-2013) among 2,169 Black and 8,707 White participants of the US Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study using multivariable linear regression models. We hypothesized that stable, low to moderate drinking would be associated with lesser 15-year cognitive decline, and stable, heavy drinking with greater 15-year cognitive decline. Stable, low to moderate drinking (for Blacks, adjusted mean difference (MD) = 0.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.13, 0.19); for Whites, adjusted MD = 0.02 (95% CI: -0.05, 0.08)) and stable, heavy drinking (for Blacks, adjusted MD = 0.08 (95% CI: -0.34, 0.50); for Whites, adjusted MD = -0.03 (95% CI: -0.18, 0.11)) in midlife compared with stable never-drinking were not associated with 15-year decline in general cognitive function from mid- to late life. No association was observed for the stable former and "mostly" drinking trajectories with 15-year cognitive decline. Stable low, low to moderate, and stable heavy drinking in midlife are not associated with lesser and greater cognitive decline, respectively, from mid- to late life among Black and White adults.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(1): 51-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362534

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of blood pressure categorization based on the 2017 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guideline with the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: Among 13,113 middle-aged participants, we investigated the associations of 2017 blood pressure categories (systolic <120 and diastolic <80 mmHg (normal if no anti-hypertensive medications; reference), 120-129 and <80 (elevated), 130-139 and/or 80-89 (stage 1 hypertension), and ≥140 and/or ≥90 (stage 2 hypertension)) with incident PAD (hospitalizations with a diagnosis or leg revascularization) using Cox regression models. Analyses were separately conducted in individuals with and without anti-hypertensive medications. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 25.4 years, 466 incident PAD occurred (271 cases in 9858 participants without anti-hypertensive medications). In participants without anti-hypertensive medications, we observed significant hazard ratios of PAD in elevated blood pressure (1.80 (1.28-2.51)) and stage 2 hypertension (2.40 (1.72-3.34)), but not in stage 1 hypertension. Analyzing systolic and diastolic blood pressure separately, higher systolic blood pressure categories showed significant associations with incident PAD in a graded fashion whereas, for diastolic blood pressure, only ≥90 mmHg did. Generally similar patterns were seen among participants on anti-hypertensive medication, while they had higher risk of PAD than those without at each blood pressure category. CONCLUSIONS: Systolic blood pressure, including the category of 130-139 mmHg, showed stronger associations with incident PAD than did diastolic blood pressure. Consequently, elevated blood pressure conferred similar or even greater risk of PAD than stage 1 hypertension, with implications on how to interpret new blood pressure categories in terms of leg vascular health.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 294: 62-71, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) is usually considered large artery disease. Interestingly, retinal microvascular findings were shown to predict PAD progression in diabetes. However, it is unknown whether retinal microvascular parameters are associated with incident PAD and its severe form, critical limb ischemia (CLI), in a community-based cohort. METHODS: Among 9371 ARIC participants (aged 49-72 years) free of a history of PAD, we quantified the associations of several retinal measures by retinal photography during the period 1993-1995 with PAD risk using Cox models. Incident PAD was defined as the first hospitalization with PAD diagnosis or leg revascularization (considered CLI if an additional diagnosis of ulcer, gangrene, or amputation). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.8 years, 303 participants developed PAD (including 91 CLI cases). Although generalized retinal arteriolar narrowing was not associated with PAD, most measures of retinopathy demonstrated strong associations with PAD beyond potential confounders including diabetes, with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 3.26 (95% CI 2.18-4.90) for blot-shaped hemorrhages, 3.11 (1.83-5.29) for hard exudates, and 2.18 (1.62-2.95) for any retinopathy. Adjusted HRs were significantly greater for CLI (ranging from 3.2 to 5.9) than for PAD (all p-values <0.05). Retinopathy measures showed particularly strong associations in participants with diabetes (p-value for interaction [vs. those without diabetes] <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Several retinopathy measures were strongly associated with PAD, especially with CLI and in diabetes. Our results support the contribution of microvascular abnormalities to the development and progression of PAD and would have implications on its preventive and therapeutic approaches.

18.
J Hypertens ; 38(2): 266-273, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The retinal microvasculature provides a window to the cerebral vasculature and enables examination of changes in retinal caliber that may mimic those occurring in cerebrovascular disease. The association of central arterial stiffness and retinal vessel caliber in a population sample is not fully understood. METHODS: In 1706 older adults (mean age 76.3, 58.1% women) from the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, we examined the cross-sectional association of central arterial stiffness [carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV)] with retinal vessel calibers [central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE)]. We estimated the association of cfPWV with CRAE narrowing (<25th percentile) and CRVE widening (>75th percentile) after adjustment for age, sex, race-field center, BMI, smoking, and type 2 diabetes. We tested for effect modification by sex, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Carotid-femoral PWV (m/s) was not associated with the odds of CRAE narrowing [odds ratio (OR): 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95-1.03]. The association of cfPWV with CRVE widening was stronger in those without hypertension (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01-1.20) versus those with hypertension (OR: 1.01 95% CI: 0.96-1.05) and slightly stronger in those with type 2 diabetes (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00-1.14) versus without type 2 diabetes (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.96-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, cfPWV was associated with wider retinal venular caliber, particularly in individuals without hypertension. Central arterial stiffening may be associated with cerebral microvascular changes, as exhibited in its retinal vasculature component.

19.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 25(2): e12688, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a marker of cardiac end-organ damage and a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although clinical trials and cohort studies commonly use the electrocardiogram (ECG) for LVH assessment, the repeatability of ECG-LVH criteria has not been sufficiently examined. Therefore, we evaluated the repeatability of ECG-LVH criteria. METHODS: Participants (n = 63) underwent two standard ECGs at each of two visits, two weeks apart. The ECGs were processed centrally to calculate Cornell voltage (CV) LVH, Cornell voltage product (CVP) LVH, Sokolow-Lyon (SL) LVH, and Sokolow-Lyon product (SLP) LVH. We also used the waveforms measurements contributing to these LVH criteria as continuous variables, referred to here as CV-index, CVP-index, and SL-index. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), minimal detectable change (95% confidence), and the prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). RESULTS: ICCs (95% confidence intervals (CI)) were 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) for CV-index, 0.97 (0.95, 0.98) for CVP-index, and 0.93 (0.90, 0.96) for log of SL-index. Minimal detectable change between repeat measures of CV-index, CVP-index, and log of SL-index were ≥236.7 mV, ≥26.7 mV, and ≥0.09 mV, respectively. The within-visit PABAK was 1 for all ECG-LVH criteria, except for the first visit SLP-LVH (PABAK = 0.93). Between-visit PABAK ranged from 0.83 to 0.97 across LVH criteria. CONCLUSIONS: CV, CVP, and SL ECG-LVH as continuous variables have excellent repeatability, and as binary variables have excellent within-visit agreement and good between-visit agreement. These results alleviate concerns about the repeatability the ECG-LVH use in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.

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