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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e021801, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726067

RESUMO

Background Ankle-brachial index (ABI) is used to identify lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, its association with severe ischemic leg outcomes (eg, amputation) has not been investigated in the general population. Methods and Results Among 13 735 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants without clinical manifestations of PAD (mean age, 54 [SD, 5.8] years; 44.4% men; and 73.6% White) at baseline (1987-1989), we quantified the prospective association between ABI and subsequent severe ischemic leg outcomes, critical limb ischemia (PAD with rest pain or tissue loss) and ischemic leg amputation (PAD requiring amputation) according to discharge diagnosis. Over a median follow-up of ≈28 years, there were 221 and 129 events of critical limb ischemia and ischemic leg amputation, respectively. After adjusting for demographics, ABI ≤0.90 versus 1.11 to 1.20 had a ≈4-fold higher risk of critical limb ischemia and ischemic leg amputation (hazard ratios, 3.85 [95% CI, 2.09-7.11] and 4.39 [95% CI, 2.08-9.27]). The magnitude of the association was modestly attenuated after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratios, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.29-4.61] and 2.72 [95% CI, 1.25-5.91], respectively). ABI 0.91 to 1.00 and 1.01 to 1.10 were also associated with these severe leg outcomes, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.7 to 2.0 after accounting for potential clinical and demographic confounders. The associations were largely consistent across various subgroups. Conclusions In a middle-aged community-based cohort, lower ABI was independently and robustly associated with increased risk of severe ischemic leg outcomes. Our results further support ABI ≤0.90 as a threshold diagnosing PAD and also suggest the importance of recognizing the prognostic value of ABI 0.91 to 1.10 for limb prognosis.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 336: 39-47, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a diagnostic test for screening and detecting peripheral artery disease (PAD), as well as a risk enhancer in the AHA/ACC guidelines on the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, our understanding of the association between ABI and cardiovascular risk in contemporary older populations is limited. Additionally, the prognostic value of ABI among individuals with prior ASCVD is not well understood. METHODS: Among 5,003 older adults at ARIC visit 5 (2011-2013) (4,160 without prior ASCVD [median age 74 years, 38% male], and 843 with ASCVD [median age 76 years, 65% male]), we quantified the association between ABI and the risk of heart failure (HF), and composite coronary heart disease and stroke (CHD/stroke) using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 5.5 years, we observed 400 CHD/stroke events and 338 HF cases (242 and 199 cases in those without prior ASCVD, respectively). In participants without a history of ASCVD, a low ABI ≤0.9 (relative to ABI 1.11-1.20) was associated with both CHD/stroke and HF (adjusted hazard ratios 2.40 [95% CI: 1.55-3.71] and 2.23 [1.40-3.56], respectively). In those with prior ASCVD, low ABI was not significantly associated with CHD/stroke, but was with HF (7.12 [2.47-20.50]). The ABI categories of 0.9-1.2 and > 1.3 were also independently associated with increased HF risk. Beyond traditional risk factors, ABI significantly improved the risk discrimination of CHD/stroke in those without ASCVD and HF, regardless of baseline ASCVD. CONCLUSIONS: Low ABI was associated with CHD/stroke in those without prior ASCVD and higher risk of HF regardless of baseline ASCVD status. These results support ABI as a risk enhancer for guiding primary cardiovascular prevention and suggest its potential value in HF risk assessment for older adults.

3.
J Periodontol ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of periodontal disease with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases is well known, but not specifically with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD). Therefore, we studied the associations of periodontal disease with incident PAD in a population-based setting. METHODS: Among 9,793 participants (aged 53-75 years) without prevalent PAD, self-reported history of periodontal disease was ascertained. Of these, 5,872 participants underwent full-mouth examinations from which periodontal status was defined using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-American Academy of Periodontology (CDC-AAP) definition. We quantified the association of periodontal disease with incident PAD (defined by hospital admission diagnosis or procedures) using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 20.1 years, 360 participants (3.6%) developed PAD. In models accounting for potential confounders including diabetes and smoking pack-years, there was higher hazard of PAD in participants with self-reported tooth loss because of periodontal disease (hazard ratio:1.54 [95% CI:1.20-1.98]), history of periodontal disease treatment (1.37 [1.05-1.80]), and periodontal disease diagnosis (1.38 [1.09-1.74]), compared to their respective counterparts. The clinical measure of periodontal disease (n = 5,872) was not significantly associated with incident PAD in the fully adjusted model (e.g., 1.53 [0.94-2.50] in CDC-AAP-defined severe periodontal disease versus no disease). CONCLUSION: We observed a modest association of self-reported periodontal disease, especially when resulting in tooth loss, with incident PAD in the general population. Nonetheless, a larger study with the clinical measure of periodontal disease is warranted.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 333: 32-38, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, data on the association of asymptomatic PAD with AAA are limited. We explored the association of symptomatic and asymptomatic PAD with AAA. METHODS: We primarily assessed a prospective association of symptomatic (based on clinical history) and asymptomatic (ankle-brachial index ≤0.9) PAD at baseline (1987-89 [ages 45-64 years]) with incident AAA in a biracial community-based cohort, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. We secondarily investigated a cross-sectional association of PAD with ultrasound-based AAA (diameter≥3.0 cm) (2011-13 [ages 67-91 years]). RESULTS: Of 14,148 participants (55.1% female, 25.5% black, 0.9% with symptomatic PAD) in our prospective analysis (median follow-up 22.5 years), 530 (3.7%) developed incident AAA. Symptomatic PAD had a higher hazard ratio (HR) of incident AAA [4.91 (95%CI 2.88-8.37)], as did asymptomatic PAD with ABI≤0.9 [2.33 (1.55-3.51)], compared to the reference ABI>1.1-1.2 in demographically-adjusted models. Crude 15-year cumulative incidence of AAA in these three groups were 12.3%, 3.9%, and 1.5%, respectively. The associations remained significant after accounting for other potential confounders [corresponding HR 2.96 (95%CI 1.73-5.07) and 1.52 (95%CI 1.00-2.30), respectively]. The cross-sectional analysis demonstrated similar patterns with ultrasound-based AAA [odds ratio 2.46 (95%CI 1.26-4.81) for symptomatic PAD and 3.98 (1.96-8.08) for asymptomatic PAD in a demographically-adjusted model]. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective and cross-sectional data show elevated risk of AAA in both symptomatic and asymptomatic PAD. Our data support the current recommendation of AAA screening in symptomatic PAD patients and suggest the potential extension to asymptomatic PAD patients as well.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aterosclerose , Doença Arterial Periférica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
5.
Vasa ; 50(6): 439-445, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346252

RESUMO

Background: Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a ß-galactoside-binding lectin associated tissue fibrosis and inflammation. There is limited understanding of the relationship between gal-3 and vascular health. Our aim was to assess the association between gal-3 and arterial stiffness in older adults. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4275 participants (mean age of 75 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Central arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). We evaluated the association of gal-3 with cfPWV using multivariable linear regression. Results: The median (interquartile range) gal-3 concentration was 16.5 (13.8, 19.8) ng/mL and mean cfPWV was 1163±303 cm/s. Higher gal-3 concentration was associated with greater central arterial stiffness after adjustment for age, sex, race-center, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication use, and current smoking status (ß=36.4 cm/s change in cfPWV per log unit change in gal-3; 95% CI: 7.2, 65.5, p=0.015). The association was attenuated after adjusting for additional cardiovascular risk factors (ß=17.3, 95% CI: -14.4, 49.0). Conclusions: In community-dwelling older adults, gal-3 concentration was associated with central arterial stiffness, likely sharing common pathways with traditional cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Galectina 3/sangue , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
6.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003258, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. RESULTS: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near PHACTR1 and rs10757278 near CDKN2B) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near APOE-APOC1) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near CSNK1A1L/LINC00547/POSTN at 13q13.3) at P=2.0×10-8 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints POSTN, encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (P<3.1×10-4) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near CDKN2B-AS1 and rs11170820 near FLJ12825 for CAC, and rs7412 near APOE for cIMT). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e047356, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using free-text clinical notes and reports from hospitalised patients, determine the performance of natural language processing (NLP) ascertainment of Framingham heart failure (HF) criteria and phenotype. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective observational study design of patients hospitalised in 2015 from four hospitals participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study was used to determine NLP performance in the ascertainment of Framingham HF criteria and phenotype. SETTING: Four ARIC study hospitals, each representing an ARIC study region in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sample of hospitalisations identified using a broad range of International Classification of Disease, ninth revision, diagnostic codes indicative of an HF event and occurring during 2015 was drawn for this study. A randomly selected set of 394 hospitalisations was used as the derivation dataset and 406 hospitalisations was used as the validation dataset. INTERVENTION: Use of NLP on free-text clinical notes and reports to ascertain Framingham HF criteria and phenotype. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: NLP performance as measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value (PPV) and agreement in ascertainment of Framingham HF criteria and phenotype. Manual medical record review by trained ARIC abstractors was used as the reference standard. RESULTS: Overall, performance of NLP ascertainment of Framingham HF phenotype in the validation dataset was good, with 78.8%, 81.7%, 84.4% and 80.0% for sensitivity, specificity, PPV and agreement, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: By decreasing the need for manual chart review, our results on the use of NLP to ascertain Framingham HF phenotype from free-text electronic health record data suggest that validated NLP technology holds the potential for significantly improving the feasibility and efficiency of conducting large-scale epidemiologic surveillance of HF prevalence and incidence.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Algoritmos , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Fenótipo
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(23): 2939-2959, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112321

RESUMO

ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) initiated community-based surveillance in 1987 for myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and mortality and created a prospective cohort of 15,792 Black and White adults ages 45 to 64 years. The primary aims were to improve understanding of the decline in CHD mortality and identify determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis and CHD in Black and White middle-age adults. ARIC has examined areas including health disparities, genomics, heart failure, and prevention, producing more than 2,300 publications. Results have had strong clinical impact and demonstrate the importance of population-based research in the spectrum of biomedical research to improve health.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cardiologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Vigilância da População/métodos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is associated with higher risk of weight gain, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular mortality. However, the association of SSB with subclinical atherosclerosis in the general population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to investigate the association between SSB intake and prevalence of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries in The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. METHODS: We studied 1991 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study without known coronary heart disease. Intake of SSB was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by cardiac Computed Tomography (CT) and prevalent CAC was defined as an Agatston score ≥100. We used generalized estimating equations to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios of CAC. A sensitivity analysis was also performed at different ranges of cut points for CAC. RESULTS: Mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 55.0 years and 29.5 kg/m2, respectively, and 60% were female. In analysis adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, energy intake, and field center, higher SSB consumption was not associated with higher prevalence of CAC [prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of: 1.0 (reference), 1.36 (0.70-2.63), 1.69 (0.93-3.09), 1.21 (0.69-2.12), 1.05 (0.60-1.84), and 1.58 (0.85-2.94) for SSB consumption of almost never, 1-3/month, 1/week, 2-6/week, 1/day, and ≥2/day, respectively (p for linear trend 0.32)]. In a sensitivity analysis, there was no evidence of association between SSB and prevalent CAC when different CAC cut points of 0, 50, 150, 200, and 300 were used. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not provide evidence for an association between SSB consumption and prevalent CAC in adult men and women.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/epidemiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Estados Unidos
10.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 247, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stiff arteries increase left ventricular (LV) end-systolic workload, leading over time to left atrial and ventricular remodeling, and providing the substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF) development. We investigated if carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), a measure of central arterial stiffness, is associated with incident AF. METHODS: In 2011-2013, cfPWV was measured in 3882 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cohort Study (ARIC) without prevalent AF. Participants were followed through 2017 for the incidence of AF. Individuals were categorized in cfPWV quartiles based on visit measurements. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association of cfPWV with incident AF. RESULTS: Mean age was 75 years (SD 5), 60% were female and 20% were African American. Over a median follow-up of 5.5 years we identified 331 incident cases of AF. cfPWV demonstrated U-shaped associations with AF risk. In models adjusted for age, race, center, sex, education levels, and hemodynamic and clinical factors, hazard ratios (HR) of AF for participants in the first, third and fourth quartiles were 1.49 (95% CI 1.06, 2.10), 1.59 (1.14, 2.10), and 1.56(1.10, 2.19), respectively, compared to those in the second quartile. CONCLUSION: Among community-dwelling older adults, low and high central arterial stiffness is associated with AF risk.

12.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 52-57, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous community-based studies have demonstrated sex and race-based disparities in the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to examine the association of sex and race with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD-) and critical limb ischemia (CLI-) related hospitalizations. METHODS: In 13,451 Black and White ARIC participants without prevalent PAD at baseline (1987-89), we estimated the cumulative incidence of PAD- and CLI-related hospitalization over a median follow-up of 26 years. We quantified hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox models across four sex- and race-groups. PAD and CLI were defined by hospitalization discharge codes. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of PAD-related hospitalization was higher in males than females in Whites (5.1% vs. 2.7%; p<0.001) but not in Blacks (5.7% vs. 5.0%; p=0.39). The cumulative incidence of CLI-related hospitalization differed significantly by race more than sex, occurring in 3.1% Black males, 3.1% Black females, 1.4% White males, and 0.8% White females (p<0.001). After risk factor adjustment, the risk of incident PAD-related hospitalization was similar for White males vs. White females [HR 1.14, 95%CI 0.90-1.45], and slightly higher for Black males [HR 1.26, 95%CI 0.92-1.72] and Black females [HR 1.39, 95%CI 1.03-1.87] compared to White females. The adjusted risk of incident CLI-related hospitalization was similar for White males vs. White females [HR 1.15, 95%CI 0.75-1.76], and significantly higher for Black males [HR 1.96, 95%CI 1.22-3.16] and Black females [HR 2.06, 95%CI 1.31-3.24] compared to White females. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that there are both sex- and race-specific patterns of PAD-related hospitalization that lead to differences in clinical disease risk and presentation.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doença Arterial Periférica , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 146: 15-21, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539861

RESUMO

Membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is important in regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but the association of cleaved soluble ACE2 (sACE2) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. We evaluated the association of sACE2 with cardiac biomarkers, structure, and function and cardiovascular events in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. sACE2 was measured in a subset of 497 participants (mean age 78±5.4 years, 53% men, 27% black); Cox regression analyses assessed prospective associations of sACE2 with time to first CVD event at median 6.1-year follow-up. sACE2 was higher in men, blacks, and participants with prevalent CVD, diabetes, or hypertension. Higher sACE2 levels were associated with significantly higher biomarkers of cardiac injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), greater left ventricular mass index, and impaired diastolic function in linear regression analyses, and with increased risk for heart failure hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio per natural log unit increase [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10 to 1.58), CVD events (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.60), and all-cause death (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.57). In an elderly biracial cohort, sACE2 was positively associated with biomarkers reflecting myocardial injury and neurohormonal activation, left ventricular mass index, impaired diastolic function, CVD, events and all-cause death.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Hypertens ; 39(5): 987-993, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the longitudinal relationships between blood pressure measured over 24 years and arterial stiffness in late life measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV). METHODS: Carotid--femoral (cf) and femoral--ankle (fa) PWV were measured in 4166 adults at the visit 5 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study cohort examination (2011-2013). Participants were categorized into tertiles of PWV measurements. Blood pressure measurements were made at baseline (1987-1989), three subsequent triennial examinations, and visit 5. RESULTS: Partial correlation coefficients between visit 5 cfPWV and SBP ranged from 0.13 for visit 1 SBP to 0.32 for visit 5 SBP. For visit 5 faPWV, correlations were ∼0 for visits 1 to 4 SBP, but was 0.20 for visit 5 SBP. Over 24 years of follow-up, those with higher average SBP were more likely to fall in the middle and upper tertiles of visit 5 cfPWV. Average pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure over 24 years had similar but weaker associations with cfPWV tertiles. DBP had no clear association with cfPWV. Blood pressure measurements were positively associated with faPWV tertiles only cross-sectionally at visit 5. CONCLUSION: Adult life-course measures of SBP, more so than mean arterial and pulse pressure, were associated with later life central arterial stiffness. By contrast, only contemporaneous measures of blood pressure were associated with peripheral arterial stiffness. Although arterial stiffness was only measured at later life, these results are consistent with the notion that elevated blood pressure over time is involved in the pathogenesis of arterial stiffening.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Artérias Carótidas , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso
15.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 26(3): e12829, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) represents preclinical cardiovascular disease and predicts cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. While the newly developed Peguero-Lo Presti ECG-LVH criteria have greater sensitivity for LVH than the Cornell voltage and Sokolow-Lyon criteria, its short-term repeatability is unknown. Therefore, we characterized the short-term repeatability of Peguero-Lo Presti ECG-LVH criteria and evaluate its agreement with Cornell voltage and Sokolow-Lyon ECG-LVH criteria. METHODS: Participants underwent two resting, standard, 12-lead ECGs at each of two visits one week apart (n = 63). We defined a Peguero-Lo Presti index as a sum of the deepest S wave amplitude in any single lead and lead V4 (i.e., SD  + SV4 ) and defined Peguero-Lo Presti LVH index as ≥ 2,300 µV among women and ≥ 2,800 µV among men. We estimated repeatability as an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), agreement as a prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa coefficient (κ), and precision using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The Peguero-Lo Presti index was repeatable: ICC (95% CI) = 0.94 (0.91-0.97). Within-visit agreement of Peguero-Lo Presti LVH was high at the first and second visits: κ (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.91-1.00) and 1.00 (1.00-1.00). Between-visit agreement of the first and second measurements at each visit was comparable: κ (95% CI) = 0.90 (0.80-1.00) and 0.93 (0.85-1.00). Agreement of Peguero-Lo Presti and Cornell or Sokolow-Lyon LVH on any one of the four ECGs was slightly lower: κ (95% CI) = 0.71 (0.54-0.89). CONCLUSION: The Peguero-Lo Presti index and LVH have excellent repeatability and agreement, which support their use in clinical and epidemiological studies.

16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(4): 1775-1784, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the low physiologic range, surrogate markers for reduced liver metabolic function, are associated with cerebral hypometabolism, impairment in neurotransmitter production and synaptic maintenance, and a higher prevalence of dementia. It is unknown whether a prospective association exists between low liver enzyme levels and incident dementia. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether low levels of ALT and AST are associated with higher risk of incident dementia. METHODS: Plasma ALT and AST were measured on 10,100 study participants (mean age 63.2 years, 55% female, 22% black) in 1996-1998. Dementia was ascertained from comprehensive neuropsychological assessments, annual contact, and medical record surveillance. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.3 years (maximum 21.9 years), 1,857 individuals developed dementia. Adjusted for demographic factors, incidence rates of dementia were higher at the lower levels of ALT and AST. Compared to the second quintile, ALT values <10th percentile were associated with a higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.65). The corresponding HR was 1.22 (0.99-1.51) for AST. CONCLUSION: Plasma aminotransferases <10th percentile of the physiologic range at mid-life, particularly ALT, were associated with greater long-term risk of dementia, advocating for attention to the putative role of hepatic function in the pathogenesis of dementia.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Demência/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Neurology ; 96(7): e964-e974, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that greater levels of leisure-time moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) in midlife or late life are associated with larger gray matter volumes, less white matter disease, and fewer cerebrovascular lesions measured in late life, we utilized data from 1,604 participants enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. METHODS: Leisure-time MVPA was quantified using a past-year recall, interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and 25 years later and classified as none, low, middle, and high at each time point. The presence of cerebrovascular lesions, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), white matter integrity (mean fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD]), and gray matter volumes were quantified with 3T MRI in late life. The odds of cerebrovascular lesions were estimated with logistic regression. Linear regression estimated the mean differences in WMH, mean FA and MD, and gray matter volumes. RESULTS: Among 1,604 participants (mean age 53 years, 61% female, 27% Black), 550 (34%), 176 (11%), 250 (16%), and 628 (39%) reported no, low, middle, and high MVPA in midlife, respectively. Compared to no MVPA in midlife, high MVPA was associated with more intact white matter integrity in late life (mean FA difference 0.13 per SD [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.004, 0.26]; mean MD difference -0.11 per SD [95% CI -0.21, -0.004]). High MVPA in midlife was also associated with a lower odds of lacunar infarcts (odds ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.46, 0.99). High MVPA was not associated with gray matter volumes. High MVPA compared to no MVPA in late life was associated with most brain measures. CONCLUSION: Greater levels of physical activity in midlife may protect against cerebrovascular sequelae in late life.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Atividades de Lazer , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia
18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(3): 1229-1238, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to comprehensively assess the association of multiple lipid measures with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD). Approach and Results: We used Cox proportional hazards models to characterize the associations of each of the fasting lipid measures (total cholesterol, LDL-C [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol], HDL-C [high-density lipoprotein cholesterol], triglycerides, RLP-C [remnant lipoprotein cholesterol], LDL-TG [LDL-triglycerides], sdLDL-C [small dense LDL-C], and Apo-E-HDL [Apo-E-containing HDL-C]) with incident PAD identified by pertinent International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) hospital discharge codes (eg, 440.2) among 8330 Black and White ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) participants (mean age 62.8 [SD 5.6] years) free of PAD at baseline (1996-1998) through 2015. Since lipid traits are biologically correlated to each other, we also conducted principal component analysis to identify underlying components for PAD risk. There were 246 incident PAD cases with a median follow-up of 17 years. After accounting for potential confounders, the following lipid measures were significantly associated with PAD (hazard ratio per 1-SD increment [decrement for HDL-C and Apo-E-HDL]): triglycerides, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.08-1.36); RLP-C, 1.18 (1.08-1.29); LDL-TG, 1.18 (1.05-1.33); HDL-C, 1.39 (1.16-1.67); and Apo-E-HDL, 1.27 (1.07-1.51). The principal component analysis identified 3 components (1: mainly loaded by triglycerides, RLP-C, LDL-TG, and sdLDL-C; 2: by HDL-C and Apo-E-HDL; and 3: by LDL-C and RLP-C). Components 1 and 2 showed independent associations with incident PAD. CONCLUSIONS: Triglyceride-related and HDL-related lipids were independently associated with incident PAD, which has implications on preventive strategies for PAD. However, none of the novel lipid measures outperformed conventional ones. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
J Hypertens ; 39(3): 447-452, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Averaging multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements is recommended for hypertension (HTN) screening but can be impractical, especially in resource-constrained settings. We aimed to explore the implications of fewer BP measurements on BP classification and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We studied 8905 middle-aged participants without diagnosed HTN and quantified misclassified HTN (≥140/90 mmHg) by simplified BP approaches (e.g. single 1st BP, single 2nd BP, mainly 1st but 2nd BP if 1st was in a certain range) vs. the reference standard of the average of 2nd and 3rd BP. We also assessed CVD risk related to HTN status. RESULTS: There were 823 participants classified as HTN by the standard approach. With single 1st BP, 2.8% of non-HTN were overidentified as HTN, and 18.3% of HTN were identified as not having HTN. The corresponding estimates with single 2nd BP were 2.1 and 6.4%. Similar estimates were seen when 2nd BP was used if 1st BP at least 130/80 (1.9 and 8.1%), with only 27.8% requiring 2nd BP. Two thousand, one hundred and seventy-eight CVD cases were documented in this population over 30 years. HTN by either the standard approach or any of the simplified approaches conferred higher CVD risk vs. consistent no HTN by both approaches. CONCLUSION: In those without diagnosed HTN, a simplified BP measurement approach using the 2nd BP only when the 1st BP is at least 130/80 could reduce the total number of BP measurements by more than 50%, identify HTN with limited misclassification (2-8%), and predict CVD risks reasonably well.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Hipertensão , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e014669, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924735

RESUMO

Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for half of heart failure hospitalizations, with limited data on predictors of mortality by sex and race. We evaluated for differences in predictors of all-cause mortality by sex and race among hospitalized patients with HFpEF in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Community Surveillance Study. Methods and Results Adjudicated HFpEF hospitalization events from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed from the ARIC Community Surveillance Study, comprising 4 US communities. Comparisons between clinical characteristics and mortality at 1 year were made by sex and race. Of 4335 adjudicated acute decompensated heart failure cases, 1892 cases (weighted n=8987) were categorized as HFpEF. Men had an increased risk of 1-year mortality compared with women in adjusted analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06-1.52 [P=0.01]). Black participants had lower mortality compared with White participants in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.97 [P=0.02]). Age, heart rate, worsening renal function, and low hemoglobin were associated with increased mortality in all subgroups. Higher body mass index was associated with improved survival in men, with borderline interaction by sex. Higher blood pressure was associated with improved survival among all groups, with significant interaction by race. Conclusions In a diverse HFpEF population, men had worse survival compared with women, and Black participants had improved survival compared with White participants. Age, heart rate, and worsening renal function were associated with increased mortality across all subgroups; high blood pressure was associated with decreased mortality with interaction by race. These insights into sex- and race-based differences in predictors of mortality may help strategize targeted management of HFpEF.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Volume Sistólico , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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