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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 697-705, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung. METHODS: BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes. RESULTS: State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vitamina E/análise , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros , Óleo de Coco/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Limoneno/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Forensic Sci ; 63(2): 592-597, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605022

RESUMO

A rapid technique using direct analysis in real-time (DART) ambient ionization coupled to a high-resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometer (HRAM-MS) was employed to analyze stains on an individual's pants suspected to have been involved in a violent crime. The victim was consuming chocolate ice cream at the time of the attack, and investigators recovered the suspect's pants exhibiting splatter stains. Liquid chromatography with mass spectral detection (LC-MS) and stereoscopic light microscopy (SLM) were also utilized in this analysis. It was determined that the stains on the pants contained theobromine and caffeine, known components of chocolate. A shard from the ceramic bowl that contained the victim's ice cream and a control chocolate ice cream sample were also found to contain caffeine and theobromine. The use of DART-HRAM-MS was useful in this case due to its rapid analysis capability and because of the limited amount of sample present as a stain.

3.
J AOAC Int ; 100(4): 1077-1085, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28477405

RESUMO

Before being designated AOAC First Action Official MethodSM 2016.04, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's method, EAM 4.10 High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Four Arsenic Species in Fruit Juice, underwent both a single-laboratory validation and a multilaboratory validation (MLV) study. Three federal and five state regulatory laboratories participated in the MLV study, which is the primary focus of this manuscript. The method was validated for inorganic arsenic (iAs) measured as the sum of the two iAs species arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) by analyses of 13 juice samples, including three apple juice, three apple juice concentrate, four grape juice, and three pear juice samples. In addition, two water Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed. The method LODs and LOQs obtained among the eight laboratories were approximately 0.3 and 2 ng/g, respectively, for each of the analytes and were adequate for the intended purpose of the method. Each laboratory analyzed method blanks, fortified method blanks, reference materials, triplicate portions of each juice sample, and duplicate fortified juice samples (one for each matrix type) at three fortification levels. In general, repeatability and reproducibility of the method was ≤15% RSD for each species present at a concentration >LOQ. The average recovery of fortified analytes for all laboratories ranged from 98 to 104% iAs, DMA, and MMA for all four juice sample matrixes. The average iAs results for SRMs 1640a and 1643e agreed within the range of 96-98% of certified values for total arsenic.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
J AOAC Int ; 94(5): 1601-16, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22165027

RESUMO

A rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the screening and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible seafood is described. The method uses quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD). The method was developed and validated in response to the massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Rapid and highly sensitive PAH screening methods are critical tools needed for oil spill response; they help to assess when seafood is safe for harvesting and consumption. Sample preparation involves SPE of edible seafood portions with acetonitrile, followed by the addition of salts to induce water partitioning. After centrifugation, a portion of the acetonitrile layer is filtered prior to analysis via HPLC-FLD. The chromatographic method uses a polymeric C18 stationary phase designed for PAH analysis with gradient elution, and it resolves 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority parent PAHs in fewer than 20 min. The procedure was validated in three laboratories for the parent PAHs using spike recovery experiments at PAH fortification levels ranging from 25 to 10 000 microg/kg in oysters, shrimp, crab, and finfish, with recoveries ranging from 78 to 99%. Additional validation was conducted for a series of alkylated homologs of naphthalene, dibenzothiophene, and phenanthrene, with recoveries ranging from 87 to 128%. Method accuracy was further assessed based on analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1974b. The method provides method detection limits in the sub to low ppb (microg/kg) range, and practical LOQs in the low ppb (microg/kg) range for most of the PAH compounds studied.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alquilação , Animais , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Peixes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Indicadores e Reagentes , Limite de Detecção , Poluição por Petróleo , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Frutos do Mar , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1202(2): 124-31, 2008 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18644601

RESUMO

The following work presents the exploration of three chromatographic separations in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products (CWADPs). The robust ionization of ICP is virtually matrix independent thus enabling the examination of sample matrices generally considered too complicated for analysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS with little to no sample preparation. The analysis was focused on detecting CWADPs in food matrices, as they present possible vehicles for terrorist contamination. Due to the specific detection of (31)P by ICP-MS, resolution of analytes of interest from other P-containing interferences (H(3)PO(4)) was a crucial part of each separation. Up to 10 CWADPs were separated in the presence of H(3)PO(4) with detection limits in the low part per billion levels using the methods described. Additionally, one method was tailored to be compatible with both ICP-MS and ESI-MS making structural verification possible.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Anal Chem ; 80(3): 775-82, 2008 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18181583

RESUMO

Anion-exchange chromatography was utilized for speciation of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), and the new As species monomethylthioarsonic acid (MMTA), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detection. MMA(III) and MMTA were identified for the first time in freeze-dried carrot samples that were collected over 25 years ago as part of a joint U.S. EPA, U.S. FDA, and USDA study on trace elements in agricultural crops. The discovery of MMA(III) and MMTA in terrestrial foods necessitated the analytical characterization of synthetic standards of both species, which were used for standard addition in carrot extracts. The negative ion mode, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) data produced molecular ions of m/z 122.9418 and 154.9152 for MMA(III) and MMTA, respectively. However, ESI-MS was not sensitive enough to directly identify MMA(III) and MMTA in the carrot extracts. Therefore, to further substantiate the identification of MMA(III) and MMTA, two additional separations using an Ion-120 column were developed using the more sensitive ICPMS detection. The first separation used 20 mM tetramethylammonium hydroxide at pH 12.2 with MMA(III) eluting in less than 7 min. In the second separation, MMTA eluted at 11.2 min by utilizing 40 mM ammonium carbonate at pH 9.0. Oxidation of MMA(III) and MMTA to MMA(V) with hydrogen peroxide was observed for standards and carrot extracts alike. Several samples of carrots collected from local markets in 2006 were also analyzed and found to contain low levels of inorganic arsenic species.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico , Arsenicais/análise , Daucus carota/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Compostos Organometálicos/análise , Arsenicais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 370(2-3): 294-301, 2006 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16875714

RESUMO

Many Bangladeshi suffer from arsenic-related health concerns. Most mitigation activities focus on identifying contaminated wells and reducing the amount of arsenic ingested from well water. Food as a source of arsenic exposure has been recently documented. The objectives of this study were to measure the main types of arsenic in commonly consumed foods in Bangladesh and estimate the average daily intake (ADI) of arsenic from food and water. Total, organic and inorganic, arsenic were measured in drinking water and in cooked rice and vegetables from Bangladeshi households. The mean total arsenic level in 46 rice samples was 358 microg/kg (range: 46 to 1,110 microg/kg dry weight) and 333 microg/kg (range: 19 to 2,334 microg/kg dry weight) in 39 vegetable samples. Inorganic arsenic calculated as arsenite and arsenate made up 87% of the total arsenic measured in rice, and 96% of the total arsenic in vegetables. Total arsenic in water ranged from 200 to 500 microg/L. Using individual, self-reported data on daily consumption of rice and drinking water the total arsenic ADI was 1,176 microg (range: 419 to 2,053 microg), 14% attributable to inorganic arsenic in cooked rice. The ADI is a conservative estimate; vegetable arsenic was not included due to limitations in self-reported daily consumption amounts. Given the arsenic levels measured in food and water and consumption of these items, cooked rice and vegetables are a substantial exposure pathway for inorganic arsenic. Intervention strategies must consider all sources of dietary arsenic intake.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Oryza/química , Verduras/química , Bangladesh , Culinária , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Humanos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/análise
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 39(14): 5241-6, 2005 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16082952

RESUMO

Rice is a target food for arsenic speciation based analyses because of its relatively high arsenic concentration and per capita consumption rates. Improved speciation data for rice can be helpful in estimating inorganic arsenic exposures in the U.S. and in endemic populations. The inorganic arsenic exposure for cooked rice should include both the arsenic in raw rice plus the arsenic absorbed from the water used to prepare it. The amount of arsenic absorbed from water by rice during preparation was assessed using five different types of rice cooked in both contaminated drinking water and arsenic-free reagent water. The rice samples were extracted using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and speciated using IC-ICP-MS. The TFA procedure was able to extract 84-104% of the arsenic (As) from the five different cooked rice samples. Chromatographic recoveries ranged from 99% to 116%. The dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and inorganic arsenic concentration ranged from 22 to 270 ng of As/g of rice and from 31 to 108 ng of As/g of rice, respectively, for samples cooked in reagent water. The overall recoveries, which relate the sum of the chromatographic species back to the total digested concentration, ranged from 89% to 117%. The absorption of arsenic by rice from the total volume of water [1:1 to 4:1 (water:rice)] used in cooking was between 89% and 105% for two different contaminated drinking water samples. A comparison of the TFA extraction to an enzymatic extraction was made using the five rice samples and NIST 1568a rice flour. The two extraction procedures produced good agreement for inorganic arsenic, DMA, and the overall recovery. Through the use of IC-ESI-MS/ MS with a parent ion of m/z 153 and fragment ions of m/z 138, 123, and 105, the structure dimethylthioarsinic acid was tentatively identified in two of the rice samples using the enzymatic extraction.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/química , Culinária , Contaminação de Alimentos , Oryza/química , Absorção , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia , Espectrometria de Massas , Água
9.
J AOAC Int ; 87(1): 244-52, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15084107

RESUMO

Health risk associated with dietary arsenic intake may be different for infants and adults. Seafood is the main contributor to arsenic intake for adults while terrestrial-based food is the primary source for infants. Processed infant food products such as rice-based cereals, mixed rice/formula cereals, milk-based infant formula, applesauce and puree of peaches, pears, carrots, sweet potatoes, green beans, and squash were evaluated for total and speciated arsenic content. Arsenic concentrations found in rice-based cereals (63-320 ng/g dry weight) were similar to those reported for raw rice. Results for the analysis of powdered infant formula by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) indicated a narrow and low arsenic concentration range (12 to 17 ng/g). Arsenic content in puree infant food products, including rice cereals, fruits, and vegetables, varies from <1 to 24 ng/g wet weight. Sample treatment with trifluoroacetic acid at 100 degrees C were an efficient and mild method for extraction of arsenic species present in different food matrixes as compared to alternative methods that included sonication and accelerated solvent extraction. Extraction recoveries from 94 to 128% were obtained when the summation of species was compared to total arsenic. The ion chromatography (IC)-ICP-MS method selected for arsenic speciation allowed for the quantitative determination of inorganic arsenic [As(III) + As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and methylarsonic acid (MMA). Inorganic arsenic and DMA are the main species found in rice-based and mixed rice/formula cereals, although traces of MMA were also detected. Inorganic arsenic was present in freeze-dried sweet potatoes, carrots, green beans, and peaches. MMA and DMA were not detected in these samples. Arsenic species in squash, pears, and applesauce were not detected above the method detection limit [5 ng/g dry weight for As(III), MMA, and DMA and 10 ng/g dry weight for As(V)].


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Espectrometria de Massas , Padrões de Referência , Solventes
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