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1.
Trials ; 21(1): 244, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are difficulties in carrying out research in low-income urban communities, but the methodological challenges and suggestions on how to deal with them are often undocumented. The aims of this study are to describe the challenges of recruiting and enrolling low-income pregnant women with periodontitis to a clinical trial on vitamin D/calcium milk fortification and periodontal therapy and also to describe the patient-, study protocol- and setting-related factors related to women's ineligibility and refusal to participate in the study. METHODS: A mixed-method sequential exploratory design was applied. Qualitative and quantitative data on recruitment to a 2 × 2 factorial feasibility clinical trial were used. Eighteen women attending the health centre in a low-income area in Duque de Caxias (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) took part in focus group discussions, and the data were thematically analysed. Quantitative data were analysed using appropriate descriptive statistics, including absolute and relative frequencies. RESULTS: Of all referrals (767), 548 (78.5%) did not meet the initial eligibility criteria. The main reason for exclusion (58%) was advanced gestational age (> 20 weeks) at first prenatal appointment. In the periodontal examination (dental screen), the main reason for exclusion was the presence of extensive caries (64 out of 127 exclusions). Non-participation of those eligible after the periodontal examination was approximately 24% (22 out 92 eligible women) and predominantly associated with patient-related barriers (e.g. transportation barriers, family obligations, patients being unresponsive to phone calls and disconnected telephones). The study recruited 70 women with periodontitis in 53 weeks and did not reach the benchmark of 120 women in 36 weeks (58.3% of the original target). Recruitment was severely hindered by health centre closures due to general strikes. The recruitment yields were 9.1% (70/767) of all women contacted at first prenatal visit and 76.1% (70/92) of those screened eligible and enrolled in the trial. Women did not report concerns regarding random allocation and considered fortified milk as a healthful and safe food for pregnant women. Some women reported that financial constraints (e.g. transportation costs) could hinder participation in the study. CONCLUSION: Engagement between the research team and health centre staff (e.g. nurses) facilitated referral and recruitment, yet some pregnant women failed to participate in the study largely due to significant patient-related sociodemographic barriers and setting-related factors. Our data illustrate the complexity of overcoming recruitment and enrolment challenges for clinical trials in resource-limited settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03148483. Registered on 11 May 2017.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between sleep and obesity has been suggested in several studies, but many previous studies relied on self-reported sleep and on BMI as the only adiposity measure. Moreover, a relationship between weight loss history and attained sleep duration has not been thoroughly explored. DESIGN: The study comprised of 1202 participants of the European NoHoW trial who had achieved a weight loss of ≥5% and had a BMI of ≥25 kg/m2 prior to losing weight. Information was available on objectively measured sleep duration (collected during 14 days), adiposity measures, weight loss history and covariates. Regression models were conducted with sleep duration as the explanatory variable and BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) as response variables. Analyses were conducted with 12-month weight loss, frequency of prior weight loss attempts or average duration of weight maintenance after prior weight loss attempts as predictors of measured sleep duration. RESULTS: After adjusting for physical activity, perceived stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, sex and age, sleep duration was associated to BMI (P < 0.001), with the highest BMI observed in the group of participants sleeping <6 h a day [34.0 kg/m2 (95% CI: 31.8-36.1)]. Less difference in BMI was detected between the remaining groups, with the lowest BMI observed among participants sleeping 8-<9 h a day [29.4 kg/m2 (95% CI: 28.8-29.9)]. Similar results were found for FMI (P = 0.008) and FFMI (P < 0.001). We found no association between sleep duration and WHR. Likewise, we found no associations between weight loss history and attained sleep duration. CONCLUSION: In an overweight population who had achieved a clinically significant weight loss, short sleep duration was associated with higher BMI, with similar associations for fat and lean mass. We found no evidence of association between weight loss history and attained sleep duration.

3.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943811

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide, and modifiable risk factors are thus important to identify. Season of birth has been associated with later myopia risk. Neonatal vitamin D status is highly dependent on season of birth due to maternal sun exposure late in gestation. We hypothesize that prenatal exposure to low levels of vitamin D can interfere with visual development in term-born infants and that this might contribute to adult visual dysfunction. The aim of this study was thus to compare neonatal vitamin D levels from stored dried blood spots taken shortly after birth among young term-born men with myopia (cases) and random controls with emmetropia. METHODS: In this case-control study, we analysed neonatal 25(OH)D3 levels of 457 myopic male cases and 1280 emmetropic male controls assessed for myopia at the mandatory Danish conscript examination. Data were analysed using logistic regression analysis and results presented as crude and adjusted for potential confounders namely maternal age, maternal ethnicity, maternal and paternal education and season of birth. RESULTS: We did not observe a seasonal variation in myopia risk, neither did we observe increased odds of myopia in relation to low neonatal 25(OH)D3 levels. CONCLUSION: The rapid increase in myopia does not seem related to neonatal vitamin D status.

4.
Fertil Steril ; 113(2): 383-391, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between extra vitamin D from a mandatory margarine fortification program and chance of live birth among infertile women. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): The study population consisted of 16,212 women diagnosed with infertility from June 1, 1980, to August 31, 1991. INTERVENTIONS(S): We took advantage of the mandatory vitamin D fortification program of margarine in Denmark that was abruptly stopped on May 31, 1985. The termination of the vitamin D fortification served as a cutoff point to separate the study population into various exposure groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between vitamin D exposure status and chance of a live birth within 12, 15, and 18 months after first infertility diagnosis. RESULT(S): Women who were diagnosed with infertility during the vitamin D-exposed period had an increased chance of a live birth compared with women diagnosed with infertility during the nonexposed period. For women diagnosed with infertility during the wash-out period, the chance of a live birth was also increased, but somewhat lower. Similar estimates were obtained with longer follow-up, in women with anovulatory infertility, and little seasonal variation was observed when calendar period of conception was applied. CONCLUSION(S): Our findings suggest that infertile women exposed to extra vitamin D from a margarine fortification program had an increased chance of live birth compared with women not exposed to extra vitamin D from fortification.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226003, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies have found an association between child behavioural problems and overweight, but the existing evidence for this relationship is inconsistent, and results from longitudinal studies are sparse. Thus, we examined the association between behavioural problems and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI) and anthropometry over a follow-up period of 1.3 years among children aged 2-6 years. DESIGN: The study was based on a total of 345 children from The Healthy Start Study; all children were healthy weight but predisposed to develop overweight. The Danish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), classified as SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) and SDQ Prosocial Behaviour (SDQ-PSB), was used to assess child behaviour. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between SDQ scores and subsequent change in BMI z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio, while taking possible confounding factors into account. RESULTS: We found an association between SDQ-PSB and subsequent change in BMI z-score (ß: 0.040 [95% CI: 0.010; 0.071, p = 0.009]). However, there was no evidence of an association between SDQ-PSB and measures of body composition or body shape. CONCLUSIONS: Among 2 to 6 years old children predisposed to overweight, the association between SDQ-scores and weight gain is either absent or marginal. The SDQ-PSB score may be associated with subsequent increases in BMI z-score, but this association does not seem driven by an increased relative fat accumulation.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Infantil , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Sobrepeso/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
7.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 56, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a link between the type of alcoholic beverage consumption and body weight. However, results from longitudinal studies have been inconsistent, and the association between adolescent alcohol consumption long-term weight gain has generally not been examined. METHODS: The study was based on data from 720 Danish adolescents aged between 15 to 19 years at baseline from the Danish Youth and Sports Study (YSS). Self-reported alcohol use, height, weight, smoking, social economic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985, and in the follow up survey which was conducted in 2005. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between alcohol consumption in adolescence and subsequent weight gain later in midlife. RESULTS: There was no significant association between total alcohol consumption during adolescence and change in BMI into midlife (P = 0.079) (ß - 0.14; 95% CI -0.28, 0.005). Wine consumption was found to be inversely associated to subsequent BMI gain (P = 0.001) (ß - 0.46; 95% CI -0.82, - 0.09) while the results were not significant for beer and spirit. The relationship did not differ by gender, but smoking status was found to modify the relationship, and the inverse association between alcohol and BMI gain was seen only among non-smokers (P = 0.01) (ß - 0.24; 95% CI -0.41, - 0.06) while no association was found among smokers. Neither adolescent nor attained socioeconomic status in adulthood modified the relationship between alcohol intake and subsequent BMI gain. CONCLUSION: Among non-smoking adolescents, consumption of alcohol, and in particular wine, seems to be associated with less weight gain until midlife. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The YSS cohort was retrospectively registered on August 2017. (Study ID number: NCT03244150 ).

8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221645, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454391

RESUMO

The study examined results from previous studies of early life vitamin D exposure and risk of MS in adulthood, including studies on season or month of birth and of migration. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science databases as well as checking references cited in articles. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and the AMSTAR score. Twenty-eight studies were selected for analysis. Of these, six population studies investigated early life vitamin D exposure and risk of MS, and three found inverse while the remaining found no associations. A consistent seasonal tendency for MS seemed evident from 11/15 studies, finding a reduced occurrence of MS for Northern hemisphere children who were born late autumn, and late fall for children born in the Southern hemisphere. This was also confirmed by pooled analysis of 6/15 studies. Results of the migration studies showed an increased risk of MS if migration from high to low-MS-risk areas had occurred after age 15 years, while risk of MS was reduced for those migrating earlier in life (<15years). A similar, but inverse risk pattern was observed among migrants from low to high-MS-risk areas. One study found an increased risk of MS in the second generation of migrants when migrating from low to high-MS-risk areas. An association between early life vitamin D and later risk of MS seems possible, however evidence is still insufficient to conclude that low vitamin D exposure in early life increases the risk of MS in adulthood. PROSPERO register number: CRD 42016043229.

9.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278417

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intelligence has a strong influence on life capability, and thus, identifying early modifiable risk factors related to cognitive ability is of major public health interest. During pregnancy, vitamin D is transported from the mother to the fetus through the placenta in the form of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Levels of 25(OH)D have in some studies been associated with childhood neurodevelopment; however, results from all studies are not in agreement. We investigated if neonatal 25(OH)D3 concentrations were associated with Børge Priens IQ test score (BPP) in young adulthood. METHODS: In this nested cohort study, 25(OH)D3 concentrations were measured in dried blood spots from 818 newborns. We followed the children for their IQ BPP test scores in the Danish Conscription Register, which holds information on test results from the BPP test on individuals who have been recruited for Danish mandatory military draft board examination. Using general linear models, we investigated the crude and adjusted relationship between quintiles of 25(OH)D3 concentrations and BPP IQ test results. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 95.8% men, with a mean age of 19.4 years. The median and range of the neonatal 25(OH)D3 levels were 26.2 nmol/L (0-104.7 nmol/L). The overall Wald test did not show an association between neonatal 25(OH)D3 levels and BPP IQ scores (p = 0.23); however, individuals within the 3rd (BPP IQ = 101.0, 98.0-103.9) and 4th (BPP IQ = 101.2, 99.1-104.3) quintiles had slightly higher BPP IQ scores than individuals from the first quintile (BPP IQ = 97.6, 94.6-100.6). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that individuals with the lowest levels of neonatal vitamin D might have slightly lower BPP. However, more studies are needed with larger study populations to confirm our results.

10.
J Nutr ; 149(5): 824-830, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between eating frequency and long-term change in body weight, and the results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between eating frequency and 6-y changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), fat mass, fat-free mass, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. METHODS: The study consisted of Danish men (n = 1080) and women (n = 1044) aged 35-67 y with repeated measures of eating frequency, adiposity, and covariates during 11 y. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the associations between baseline eating frequency and subsequent change in BMI, fat mass, fat-free mass, fat percentage, and waist circumference, as well as the association between initial change in eating frequency and subsequent change in the same outcomes. RESULTS: Total baseline eating frequency was not associated with change in outcomes. However, when separately examining regular meals and snacks, each additional daily meal was associated with a subsequent 6-y change in BMI of -0.14 (95% CI: -0.27, -0.00). Similar tendencies of inverse associations were found for change in fat mass (P = 0.04), fat-free mass (P = 0.07), and waist circumference (P = 0.05). We found no association between initial change in total eating frequency and subsequent change in outcomes. However, each additional daily regular meal after 5 y was associated with a subsequent 6-y change in BMI of -0.16 (95% CI: -0.30, -0.01). Inverse associations were also seen for fat (P = 0.04) and fat-free mass (P = 0.05). In contrast, an increase in daily frequency of snacking was associated with an increase in fat mass (P = 0.04) and fat percentage (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that total frequency of eating has little or no influence on adiposity among middle-aged Danish men and women. Consumption of regular meals, but not snack consumption, showed a weak inverse association with longitudinal gains in BMI.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213573, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between chronically elevated cortisol, as measured by hair cortisol concentration (HCC), and dietary intake among children has generally not been explored. Moreover, it is unknown whether there is an association between parental HCC and dietary intake among their children. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between HCC and dietary intake among children, and to explore the association between parental HCC and dietary intake among their children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 296 children predisposed to overweight and obesity who participated in the Healthy Start study. Multiple Linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between HCC and total energy intake, macronutrients, fruit and vegetables, added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and a diet quality index (DQI). RESULTS: Among the children, we found that higher HCC was associated with a lower consumption of dietary fat (ß: -0.7 g/day [95% CI: -1.3, -0.0] per 100 pg/mg HCC). We found no statistically significant association between HCC and intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate, fruit and vegetables, added sugar, SSB or DQI. We found no association between parental HCC and intake of total energy, added sugar, selected food groups or DQI among their children. However, stratified analyses showed that paternal HCC was associated with a borderline significant lower total energy intake and significantly lower protein intake, but only among daughters (adjusted ß: -42 kcal/day [95% CI: -85, 0] and -2.6 g/day [95% CI: -4.4, -0.8] per 100 pg/mg HCC, respectively). CONCLUSION: Among children, chronic stress as measured by HCC may be associated with a lower fat consumption, and paternal HCC may be associated with a lower intake of energy and protein among their daughters. However, the associations observed were weak, and any clinical relevance of these findings remains questionable.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Cabelo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Lactente , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873290

RESUMO

Background: Periodontitis is a common oral inflammation, which is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Intakes of vitamin D and calcium are inversely associated with occurrence and progression of periodontitis. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a multi-component intervention, including provision of milk powder supplemented with calcium and vitamin D and periodontal therapy (PT), for improving maternal periodontal health and metabolic and inflammatory profiles of low-income Brazilian pregnant women with periodontitis. Methods: The IMPROVE trial is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design with a parallel process evaluation. Pregnant women with periodontitis, aged 18-40 years and with < 20 gestational weeks (n = 120) were recruited and randomly allocated into four groups: (1) fortified sachet (vitamin D and calcium) and powdered milk plus PT during pregnancy, (2) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus PT during pregnancy, (3) fortified sachet (vitamin D and calcium) and powdered milk plus PT after delivery and (4) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus PT after delivery. Dentists and participants are blinded to fortification. Acceptability of study design, recruitment strategy, random allocation, data collection procedures, recruitment rate, adherence and attrition rate will be evaluated. Data on serum levels of vitamin D, calcium and inflammatory biomarkers; clinical periodontal measurements; anthropometric measurements; and socio-demographic questionnaires are collected at baseline, third trimester and 6-8 weeks postpartum. Qualitative data are collected using focus group, for analysis of favourable factors and barriers related to study adherence. Discussion: Oral health and mineral/vitamin supplementation are much overlooked in the public prenatal assistance in Brazil and of scarcity of clinical trials addressing these issues in low and middle-income countries,. To fill this gap the present study was designed to assess the feasibility of a RCT on acceptability of a multi-component intervention combining conventional periodontal treatment and consumption of milk fortified with calcium-vitamin D for improving periodontal conditions and maternal metabolic and inflammation status, among Brazilian low-income pregnant women with periodontitis. Thus, we hope that this relatively low-cost and safe multicomponent intervention can help reduce inflammation, improve maternal periodontal health and metabolic profile and consequently prevent negative gestational outcomes. Trial registration: NCT, NCT03148483. Registered on May 11, 2017.

14.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 73(12): 1561-1578, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fetal brain starts developing early and animal studies have suggested that iron plays several roles for the development, but results from epidemiological studies investigating associations between gestational iron and offspring neurodevelopment are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To systematically examine results from observational studies and RCTs on gestational iron and offspring neurodevelopment, with focus on the importance of four domains: iron status indicators, exposure timing, neurodevelopmental outcomes, and offspring age. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were followed. Embase, PsychInfo, Scopus, and The Cochrane library were searched in September 2017 and February 2018. Overall, 3307 articles were identified and 108 retrieved for full-text assessment. Pre-specified eligibility criteria were used to select studies and 27 articles were included;19 observational and 8 RCTs. RESULTS: Iron status in pregnancy was associated with offspring behavior, cognition, and academic achievement. The direction of associations with behavioral outcomes were unclear and the conclusions related to cognition and academic achievement were based on few studies, only. Little evidence was found for associations with motor development. Observed associations were shown to persist beyond infancy into adolescence, and results depended on iron status indicator type but not on the timing of exposure. CONCLUSION: We conclude that there is some evidence that low pregnancy iron, possibly particularly in the 3rd trimester, may be associated with adverse offspring neurodevelopment. As most previous research used Hemoglobin, inferring results to iron deficiency should be done with caution. No conclusions could be reached regarding associations beyond early childhood, and supplementation with iron during pregnancy did not seem to influence offspring neurodevelopment.

15.
Nutr Rev ; 77(5): 330-349, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806662

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Vitamin D plays an important role in the development of the brain, which is one of the earliest fetal organs to develop. Results from epidemiological studies investigating associations between maternal levels of vitamin D during pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment are mixed and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review of studies that examined vitamin D levels in pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment used 3 specific domains-timing of exposure during pregnancy trimesters, neurodevelopmental outcomes, and offspring age at assessment of outcomes-to determine whether vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with offspring neurodevelopment. DATA SOURCES: A search of the Embase, PsychInfo, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library databases in September 2017 and February 2018 identified 844 articles, of which 46 were retrieved for full-text assessment. STUDY SELECTION: Eligibility criteria were used to select studies. All authors examined the studies, and consensus was reached through discussion. Results were divided according to the 3 domains. DATA EXTRACTION: Authors examined the studies independently, and data from eligible studies were extracted using a modified version of the Cochrane data collection form. Using the modified Downs and Black checklist, 2 authors assessed the quality of the studies independently and were blinded to each other's assessment. Consensus was reached upon discussion and with the involvement of the third author. RESULTS: Fifteen observational studies were included. Vitamin D in pregnancy was associated with offspring language and motor skills in young children. Associations persisted into adolescence, and results were not dependent on the timing of vitamin D exposure during pregnancy. No supplementation studies were identified. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence that low vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with offspring language and motor development, particularly in young children. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42017078312.

16.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(2): 351-361, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the wide availability of effective weight loss programmes, maintenance of weight loss remains challenging. Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with binge eating and may represent one barrier to long-term intervention effectiveness in obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation difficulties and the extent of weight regain in a sample of adults who had lost, and then regained, weight, and to examine the characteristics associated with emotional difficulties. METHODS: 2000 adults from three European countries (UK, Portugal, and Denmark) completed an online survey assessing self-reported weight loss and regain following their most recent weight loss attempt. They also completed a binge eating disorder screening questionnaire and, if they had regained weight, were asked if they attributed it to any emotional factors (a proxy for emotion regulation difficulties). Spearman's correlations and logistic regression were used to assess the associations between emotion regulation, weight regain, and strategy use. RESULTS: Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with greater weight regain (N = 1594 who lost and regained weight). Attribution to emotional reasons was associated with younger age, female gender, loss of control and binge eating, lower perceptions of success at maintenance, using more dietary and self-regulatory strategies in weight loss, and fewer dietary strategies in maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-related emotion regulation difficulties are common amongst regainers and are associated with regaining more weight. Affected individuals are already making frequent use of behavioural strategies during weight loss, but do not apply these consistently beyond active attempts. Simply encouraging the use of more numerous strategies, without concurrently teaching emotion regulation skills, may not be an effective means to improving weight outcomes in this group. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, descriptive (cross-sectional) study.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Autocontrole , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 208: 18-24, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753930

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Whether self-regulation of food intake in weight loss maintenance (WLM) differs between being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) and a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining at least 12 months) is under-researched. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the self-regulatory strategies and self-efficacy beliefs applied by short- and long-term maintainers to the complex set of behaviours comprising food intake in WLM, and to obtain a better understanding of their challenges in the various food-intake processes in WLM. METHOD: Individual interviews (14 female/4 male) were conducted with nine Danish short- and nine long-term weight loss maintainers. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied post-hoc to organise data and support analyses, since the approach focuses on both the cognitions (e.g., self-efficacy, the nature of which differs depending on the phase of behaviour change) and self-regulatory strategies (e.g., action planning and coping planning) involved in behaviour change. RESULTS: Self-regulatory strategies and self-efficacy beliefs varied between the food-related behaviours and between short- and long-term maintainers. Consistent with the progression suggested by HAPA, with repeated use of action and coping planning, long-term maintainers had formed habitual routines, not only allowing them more flexibility, but also providing them stronger self-control in the behaviours related to WLM such as buying and storing food, and eating at social gatherings. The short-term maintainers often displayed a 'weight loss mind-set.' The short-term maintainers focused on the avoidance of certain behaviours, showed less self-regulatory flexibility, and exhibited more detailed action planning, but their interviews also inferred that they had ambitions to build strong WLM-habits, maintenance, and recovery self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: The contribution of this study is a more comprehensive view on food intake as an outcome of a set of complex behaviours, revealing insights into the differences in cognitions and strategies applied to the task of WLM, between short- and long-term maintainers.


Assuntos
Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Autocontrole/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoeficácia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Br J Nutr ; 119(12): 1416-1423, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690937

RESUMO

Studies have suggested that vitamin D status at birth may be associated with a range of neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the association between neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentration and gestational age, birth weight, Ponderal Index and size for gestational age. Neonatal capillary blood stored as dried blood spots was used to assess 25(OH)D3 concentrations among 2686 subjects selected from a random population sub-sample of individuals, born in Denmark from 1 May 1981 to 31 December 2002. There was an inverse association between 25(OH)D3 concentration and gestational age at birth of -0·006 (95 % CI -0·009, -0·003, P<0·001) weeks of gestation per 1 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D3 concentration. An inverted U-shaped association between 25(OH)D3 and birth weight and Ponderal Index (P=0·04) was found, but no association with size for gestational age was shown. This study suggests that neonatal 25(OH)D3 concentration is associated with anthropometric measures at birth known to be correlated with many subsequent health outcomes such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Antropometria , Peso ao Nascer , Dinamarca , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino
20.
BMJ Open ; 8(2): e018166, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439003

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) are frequently treated with biological medications, specifically tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi)). These medications inhibit the pro-inflammatory molecule TNF alpha, which has been strongly implicated in the aetiology of these diseases. Up to one-third of patients do not, however, respond to biologics, and lifestyle factors are assumed to affect treatment outcomes. Little is known about the effects of dietary lifestyle as a prognostic factor that may enable personalised medicine. The primary outcome of this multidisciplinary collaborative study will be to identify dietary lifestyle factors that support optimal treatment outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective cohort study will enrol 320 patients with CID who are prescribed a TNFi between June 2017 and March 2019. Included among the patients with CID will be patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), rheumatic disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis), inflammatory skin diseases (psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa) and non-infectious uveitis. At baseline (pretreatment), patient characteristics will be assessed using patient-reported outcome measures, clinical assessments of disease activity, quality of life and lifestyle, in addition to registry data on comorbidity and concomitant medication(s). In accordance with current Danish standards, follow-up will be conducted 14-16 weeks after treatment initiation. For each disease, evaluation of successful treatment response will be based on established primary and secondary endpoints, including disease-specific core outcome sets. The major outcome of the analyses will be to detect variability in treatment effectiveness between patients with different lifestyle characteristics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The principle goal of this project is to improve the quality of life of patients suffering from CID by providing evidence to support dietary and other lifestyle recommendations that may improve clinical outcomes. The study is approved by the Ethics Committee (S-20160124) and the Danish Data Protecting Agency (2008-58-035). Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, patient associations and presentations at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03173144; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Inflamação , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Dieta , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Estilo de Vida , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Doenças Reumáticas/terapia , Dermatopatias/terapia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Uveíte/terapia
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