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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639843

RESUMO

The diet of Danish children is often not in accordance with dietary guidelines. We aimed to evaluate changes in the intake of selected foods and beverages during a multi-component school-based physical activity intervention, and to investigate if changes were modified by socioeconomic status (SES). The study included 307 children (intervention group: 184; comparison group: 123) with information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention as well as on SES. Linear regression models were conducted to assess the effect of the intervention on changes in dietary factors. Children from the intervention group increased their intake of whole-grain bread during the intervention (group means: 6.1 g/d (95% CI: 2.2 to 10.0) vs. 0.3 g/d (95% CI: -3.1 to 3.7) in the comparison group, p = 0.04). A significant interaction between SES and group allocation was observed to change in fruit intake (p = 0.01). Among children from low SES families, only those from the comparison group decreased their fruit intake (group means: -40.0 g/d (95% CI: -56.0 to -23.9) vs. 9.3 g/d (95% CI: -16.1 to 94) in the intervention group, p = 0.006). The present study found no convincing effect of introducing a multi-component intervention on dietary intake except a small beneficial effect on whole-grain bread consumption. However, beneficial intervention effects in fruit intake were found particularly among children from low SES families.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444082

RESUMO

This study reports age- and sex-specific incidence rates of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in complete Danish birth cohorts from 1992 through 2002. Data were obtained from the Danish registries. All persons born in Denmark, from 1992-2002, were followed from birth and until either the date of first diagnosis recording, death, emigration, 16th birthday or administrative censoring (17 May 2017), whichever came first. The number of incident JIA cases and its incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) were calculated within sex and age group for each of the birth cohorts. A multiplicative Poisson regression model was used to analyze the variation in the incidence rates by age and year of birth for boys and girls separately. The overall incidence of JIA was 24.1 (23.6-24.5) per 100,000 person-years. The rate per 100,000 person-years was higher among girls (29.9 (29.2-30.7)) than among boys (18.5 (18.0-19.1)). There were no evident peaks for any age group at diagnosis for boys but for girls two small peaks appeared at ages 0-5 years and 12-15 years. This study showed that the incidence rates of JIA in Denmark were higher for girls than for boys and remained stable over the observed period for both sexes.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil , Artrite Juvenil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sistema de Registros
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049122, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine height changes in middle-aged northern European women in relation to overall and cardiovascular mortality. DESIGN: Population-based cohort studies with longitudinally measured heights and register-based mortality. SETTING: Sweden and Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Population-based samples of 2406 Swedish and Danish women born on selected years in 1908-1952, recruited to baseline examinations at ages 30-60, and re-examined 10-13 years later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) specific mortality during 17-19 years of follow-up after last height measure. RESULTS: For each 1 cm height loss during 10-13 years, the HR (95% CI) for total mortality was 1.14 (1.05 to 1.23) in Swedish women and 1.21 (1.09 to 1.35) in Danish women, independent of key covariates. Low height and high leisure time physical activity at baseline were protective of height loss, independent of age. Considering total mortality, the HR for major height loss, defined as height loss greater than 2 cm, were 1.74 (1.32 to 2.29) in Swedish women and 1.80 (1.27 to 2.54) in Danish women. Pooled analyses indicated that height loss was monotonically associated with an increased mortality, confirming a significant effect above 2 cm height loss. For cause-specific mortality, major height loss was associated with a HR of 2.31 (1.09 to 4.87) for stroke mortality, 2.14 (1.47 to 3.12) for total CVD mortality and 1.71 (1.28 to 2.29) for mortality due to causes other than CVD. CONCLUSION: Height loss is a marker for excess mortality in northern European women. Specifically the hazard of CVD mortality is increased in women with height loss during middle age, and the results suggest that the strongest cause-specific endpoint may be stroke mortality. The present findings suggest attention to height loss in early and mid-adulthood to identify women at high risk of CVD, and that regular physical activity may prevent early onset height loss.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Atividade Motora , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360427

RESUMO

By utilizing historical changes in Danish legislation related to mandatory vitamin D fortification of margarine, which was implemented in the mid 1930s and abruptly abandoned in June 1985, the studies in the D-tect project investigated the effects of vitamin D on health outcomes in individuals, who during gestation were exposed or unexposed to extra vitamin D from fortified margarine. This paper reviews and narratively summarizes the analytic approaches alongside the results of the societal fortification experiment studies from the D-tect project and addresses the challenges in designing societal experiment studies and evaluating their results. The latter are discussed as lessons learned that may be useful for designers of similar studies, expected to be extensively utilized while researching the health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing individuals born before and after the epidemic. In the D-tect project, 16 articles based on the societal fortification experiment were published analyzing 10 different outcomes and using different statistical approaches. Lessons learned included the detail of the analysis of the historical information on the exposure, availability and validity of the outcome data, variety of analytical approaches, and specifics concerning vitamin D effect evaluation, such as consideration of the influence of sunshine or season. In conclusion, the D-tect project clearly demonstrated the cost-effectiveness and research potential of natural- or societal-experiment-based studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vitamina D , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 861-872, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420151

RESUMO

Human health effects of airborne lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) are largely unexplored. Since PCBs may cross the placenta, maternal exposure could potentially have negative consequences for fetal development. We aimed to determine if exposure to airborne PCB during pregnancy was associated with adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, exposed women had lived in PCB contaminated apartments at least one year during the 3.6 years before conception or the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The women and their children were followed for birth outcomes in Danish health registers. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) for changes in secondary sex ratio, preterm birth, major congenital malformations, cryptorchidism, and being born small for gestational age. We performed linear regression to estimate difference in birth weight among children of exposed and unexposed mothers. All models were adjusted for maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and calendar time. We identified 885 exposed pregnancies and 3327 unexposed pregnancies. Relative to unexposed women, exposed women had OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15) for secondary sex ratio, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.76, 1.67) for preterm birth, OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.81, 2.01) for having a child with major malformations, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.01, 2.95) for cryptorchidism and OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.88, 1.72) for giving birth to a child born small for gestational age. The difference in birth weight for children of exposed compared to unexposed women was - 32 g (95% CI-79, 14). We observed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys after maternal airborne LC-PCB exposure, but due to the proxy measure of exposure, inability to perform dose-response analyses, and the lack of comparable literature, larger cohort studies with direct measures of exposure are needed to investigate the safety of airborne LC-PCB exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
6.
J Nutr Sci ; 10: e47, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267893

RESUMO

Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are prevalent conditions in older people and may adversely influence the intake of certain foods, notably fruit and vegetables. Here, we aimed to investigate whether xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction were associated with a lower intake of fruit and vegetables. The study included 621 community-dwelling adults, mean age 75⋅2 ± 6⋅4 years, 58⋅9 % female, who had participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study follow-up, and undergone interviews regarding food intake (preceding month), oral and general health (xerostomia, taste alterations, diseases, medication, alcohol consumption and smoking), clinical oral examination and measurements of unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva flow rates. The average total energy intake (8⋅4 ± 2⋅7 MJ) and protein energy percentage (14⋅8 ± 3⋅1 %) were slightly below recommendations. The average fruit (234⋅7 ± 201⋅2 g/d) and vegetables (317⋅3 ± 157⋅4 g/d) intakes were within recommendations. Xerostomia and hyposalivation were more prevalent in women than in men (16⋅4 v. 7⋅1 %, P < 0⋅001 and 40⋅7 v. 27⋅5 %, P < 0⋅001). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that older age (ß -0⋅009, se 0⋅003, P = 0⋅005), smoking (ß -0⋅212, se 0⋅060, P = 0⋅0005) and wearing complete dentures/being partially or fully edentulous (ß -0⋅141, se 0⋅048, P = 0⋅003), but neither xerostomia nor salivary flow rates were associated with an inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, after adjustment for covariates. Older age, smoking, tooth loss and denture-wearing were stronger determinants of low fruit and vegetable intakes than xerostomia and salivary hypofunction supporting the importance of dietary counselling and maintenance of oral health and an adequate masticatory performance.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e050582, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193503

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 may progress to severe pulmonary disease, COVID-19. Currently, patients admitted to hospital because of COVID-19 have better prognosis than during the first period of the pandemic due to improved treatment. However, the overall societal susceptibility of being infected makes it pivotal to prevent severe courses of disease to avoid high mortality rates and collapse of the healthcare systems. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) self-care is used in chronic pulmonary disease and has been shown to prevent pneumonia in a high-risk cohort of patients with leukaemia. PEP flute self-care to prevent respiratory deterioration and hospitalisation in early COVID-19: a randomised trial (The PEP-CoV trial) examines the effectiveness on respiratory symptoms and need of hospital admission by regular PEP flute use among non-hospitalised individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 symptoms. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that daily PEP flute usage as add-on to usual care is superior to usual care as regards symptom severity measured by the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) at 30-day follow-up (primary outcome) and hospital admission through register data (secondary outcome). We expect to recruit 400 individuals for the trial. Participants in the intervention group receive a kit of 2 PEP flutes and adequate resistances and access to instruction videos. A telephone hotline offers possible contact to a nurse. The eight-item CAT score measures cough, phlegm, chest tightness, dyspnoea, activities of daily living at home, feeling safe at home despite symptoms, sleep quality and vigour. The CAT score is measured daily in both intervention and control arms by surveys prompted through text messages. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was registered prospectively at www.clinicaltrials.gov on 27 August 2020 (NCT04530435). Ethical approval was granted by the local health research ethics committee (Journal number: H-20035929) on 23 July 2020. Enrolment of participants began on 6 October 2020. Results will be published in scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04530435; Pre-results.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atividades Cotidianas , Hospitalização , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Autocuidado , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198900

RESUMO

To examine associations between fruit and vegetable intake in young childhood and height attainment during preschool and at school entry. Data for this study was based on "The Healthy Start" primary intervention study, which included 635 obesity-prone children, (58% boys), from the greater Copenhagen area, with a mean (SD) age of 4.0 (1.1) years (age range 2-6 years) at baseline. In the current study, 553 children (57% boys) were included with information on dietary intake at baseline and height measured at baseline (preschool age), and 511 children (56.8% boys) with the height measured at school entry (~6 years old). Height was measured by trained health professionals during the intervention and by school nurses at school entry. Information on intakes of fruit and vegetables, separately and combined, was gathered with four-day dietary records reported by parents. Participants were grouped into tertiles for their intakes at baseline. Compared to boys with low consumption, those with a moderate and high intakes of fruit and vegetables (F&V) had a greater attained height at preschool of 1.3 cm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3; 2.3) and at school entry of 2.4 cm (95% CI: 0.8; 3.9) and 1.8 cm (95% CI: 0.2; 3.4), respectively, also after adjustment for differences in age, body mass index (BMI), and total energy intake. Additional adjustment for mid-parental height and parents' education did not alter the significant associations between moderate consumption of F&V and attained height at preschool and school entry. There was no association among girls. Our results showed that a moderate consumption of F&V was directly associated with higher attainment in height at preschool and school entry in boys. From a public health perspective, it should be prioritized to continue developing intervention programs to improve fruit and vegetable intake.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Registros de Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070271

RESUMO

Pickiness is an eating behavior that many families with young children face. Having joint family meals may impact the child's pickiness, for instance by influencing their willingness to try novel foods. Moreover, picky children have been shown to display greater emotionality. The aim of this study was to investigate if children's mental well-being and parent-reported conflicts during mealtime were associated with pickiness among obesity-prone children. Data was obtained from the baseline examination of the Healthy Start intervention study, the Danish Medical Birth registry and the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database, and included 635 children aged 2-6 years that were all at high risk for becoming overweight later in life. Children's mental well-being was measured by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Crude and adjusted ordinal logistic regressions were used to investigate the cross-sectional associations. Children had a higher odds associated with changing from a category of less pickiness to a category of more pickiness for each one point higher SDQ score (ORadj. = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14; 1.61) and lower odds (ORadj. = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.38; 0.86) associated with changing pickiness category towards more pickiness for each one point higher SDQ prosocial score. Moreover, children with conflicts during mealtime had higher odds of being in a worse pickiness category compared to children without conflicts (ORadj. = 3.37, 95% CI = 2.27; 5.01). This study showed that among obesity-prone children, behavioral problems, as well as conflicts during mealtime, were associated with more picky behaviors. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the findings, as are studies including general child population subsets.


Assuntos
Seletividade Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Refeições , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Obes Facts ; 14(3): 320-333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective interventions and commercial programmes for weight loss (WL) are widely available, but most people regain weight. Few effective WL maintenance (WLM) solutions exist. The most promising evidence-based behaviour change techniques for WLM are self-monitoring, goal setting, action planning and control, building self-efficacy, and techniques that promote autonomous motivation (e.g., provide choice). Stress management and emotion regulation techniques show potential for prevention of relapse and weight regain. Digital technologies (including networked-wireless tracking technologies, online tools and smartphone apps, multimedia resources, and internet-based support) offer attractive tools for teaching and supporting long-term behaviour change techniques. However, many digital offerings for weight management tend not to include evidence-based content and the evidence base is still limited. The Project: First, the project examined why, when, and how many European citizens make WL and WLM attempts and how successful they are. Second, the project employed the most up-to-date behavioural science research to develop a digital toolkit for WLM based on 2 key conditions, i.e., self-management (self-regulation and motivation) of behaviour and self-management of emotional responses for WLM. Then, the NoHoW trial tested the efficacy of this digital toolkit in adults who achieved clinically significant (≥5%) WL in the previous 12 months (initial BMI ≥25). The primary outcome was change in weight (kg) at 12 months from baseline. Secondary outcomes included biological, psychological, and behavioural moderators and mediators of long-term energy balance (EB) behaviours, and user experience, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness. IMPACT: The project will directly feed results from studies on European consumer behaviour, design and evaluation of digital toolkits self-management of EB behaviours into development of new products and services for WLM and digital health. The project has developed a framework and digital architecture for interventions in the context of EB tracking and will generate results that will help inform the next generation of personalised interventions for effective self-management of weight and health.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies indicate that parental stress may be a barrier for healthy dietary behaviours among children. However, there is a lack of evidence from longitudinal studies on the association between parental stress and changes in dietary intake among toddlers. The aim of this study was to examine the association between parental stress and changes in dietary intake and quality among preschool children susceptible to obesity. METHODS: In the Healthy Start study, parents to 250 preschool children had completed a modified version of the Parental Stress Index and assessed the dietary intake of their children at baseline and after 15 months of follow up. The association between parental stress and changes in dietary intake and quality was examined using multiple linear regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. We tested for potential effect modification by group allocation and sex. RESULTS: There were no significant associations between parental stress and subsequent changes in child total energy intake, intake of macronutrients or intake of fruit, vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages, fish or starch, or dietary quality. CONCLUSION: This study provides no evidence to support an association between parental stress and subsequent change in dietary intake and quality of their children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, Trial number: NCT01583335, Registered: 31 March 2012, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Verduras , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Humanos , Obesidade
12.
Obes Facts ; 14(2): 246-258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662958

RESUMO

There is substantial evidence documenting the effects of behavioural interventions on weight loss (WL). However, behavioural approaches to initial WL are followed by some degree of longer-term weight regain, and large trials focusing on evidence-based approaches to weight loss maintenance (WLM) have generally only demonstrated small beneficial effects. The current state-of-the-art in behavioural interventions for WL and WLM raises questions of (i) how we define the relationship between WL and WLM, (ii) how energy balance (EB) systems respond to WL and influence behaviours that primarily drive weight regain, (iii) how intervention content, mode of delivery and intensity should be targeted to keep weight off, (iv) which mechanisms of action in complex interventions may prevent weight regain and (v) how to design studies and interventions to maximise effective longer-term weight management. In considering these issues a writing team within the NoHoW Consortium was convened to elaborate a position statement, and behaviour change and obesity experts were invited to discuss these positions and to refine them. At present the evidence suggests that developing the skills to self-manage EB behaviours leads to more effective WLM. However, the effects of behaviour change interventions for WL and WLM are still relatively modest and our understanding of the factors that disrupt and undermine self-management of eating and physical activity is limited. These factors include physiological resistance to weight loss, gradual compensatory changes in eating and physical activity and reactive processes related to stress, emotions, rewards and desires that meet psychological needs. Better matching of evidence-based intervention content to quantitatively tracked EB behaviours and the specific needs of individuals may improve outcomes. Improving objective longitudinal tracking of energy intake and energy expenditure over time would provide a quantitative framework in which to understand the dynamics of behaviour change, mechanisms of action of behaviour change interventions and user engagement with intervention components to potentially improve weight management intervention design and evaluation.

13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(2): 314-323, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight loss is critical for preventing and managing obesity-related diseases. There is a notable lack of valid and reliable means to manage patients with overweight/obesity and knee osteoarthritis (KOA). OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of liraglutide in a 30 mg/d dosing in patients with overweight/obesity and KOA. METHODS: The trial was designed as a randomized controlled trial including patients between the age of 18 and 74 y with KOA and a BMI ≥27 (measured in kg/m2).Patients underwent a pre-random assignment diet intervention (week -8 to 0). At week 0, patients having lost >5% of their body weight were randomly assigned to liraglutide 3 mg/d or placebo for 52 wk. The coprimary outcomes were changes in body weight and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain subscale from week 0 to 52. RESULTS: In total, 168 patients enrolled and 156 were randomly assigned to receive liraglutide or placebo. Patients experienced a significant reduction in body weight and KOOS pain during the pre-random assignment dietary intervention period (week -8 to 0). From week 0 to 52 there was a significant difference in body weight between the liraglutide and placebo group (mean changes: -2.8 and +1.2 kg, respectively; group difference, 3.9 kg; 95% CI: -6.9, -1.0; P = 0.008). There was, however, no group difference in KOOS pain (mean changes: 0.4 and -0.6 points, respectively; group difference, 0.9 points; 95% CI: -3.9, 5.7; P = 0.71). Treatment-emergent adverse events related to the gastrointestinal system were experienced by 50.2% and 39.2% of patients in the liraglutide and placebo groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with KOA and overweight/obesity liraglutide added after an 8-wk pre-random assignment diet induced a significant weight loss at >52 wk but did not reduce knee pain compared to placebo. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02905864.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143369

RESUMO

This study aims to assess the acceptability, adherence, and retention of a feasibility trial on milk fortification with calcium and vitamin D (Ca+VitD) and periodontal therapy (PT) among low income Brazilian pregnant women with periodontitis (IMPROVE trial). This 2 × 2 factorial feasibility trial used a mixed-methods evaluation. In total, 69 pregnant women were randomly allocated to four groups: 1. fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus early PT (throughout gestation); 2. placebo and milk plus early PT; 3. fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus late PT after childbirth; 4. placebo and milk plus late PT. Data were collected via questionnaires, field notes, participant flow logs, treatment diary, and focal group discussions. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using appropriate descriptive statistics and content analysis, respectively. Eligibility rate (12%) was below the target of 15%, but participation (76.1%) and recruitment rate (2 women/week) exceeded the targets. Retention rate (78.6%) was slightly below the target (80%). Adherence to the PT was significantly higher in the early treatment groups (98.8%) compared to the late treatment groups (29%). All women accepted the random allocation, and baseline groups were balanced. There was no report of adverse events. This multi-component intervention is acceptable, well-tolerated, and feasible among low-risk pregnant women in Brazil.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Leite , Periodontite , Complicações na Gravidez , Vitamina D , Vitaminas , Animais , Brasil , Carbonato de Cálcio , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Periodontite/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Gestantes , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
15.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(10): 107681, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741659

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate measures of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and conventional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors as predictors of future carotid IMT, and the prediction of CV events during follow-up based on measures of carotid IMT. METHODS: Observational longitudinal study including 230 persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESULTS: Mean age at follow-up was 66.7 (SD 8.5) years, 30.5% were women and mean body mass index (BMI) was 31.8 (4.4) kg/m2. Carotid IMT was measured at baseline, after 18 months of intervention in the Copenhagen Insulin and Metformin Therapy (CIMT) trial and after a mean follow-up of 6.4 (1.0) years. Baseline carotid IMT, carotid IMT after 18 months' intervention, and CV risk factors (age, sex and baseline systolic blood pressure) gave the best prediction of carotid IMT (root mean-squared error of prediction of 0.106 and 95% prediction error probability interval of -0.160, 0.204). CONCLUSIONS: Measures of carotid IMT combined with CV risk factors at baseline predicts attained carotid IMT better than measures of carotid IMT or CV risk factors alone. Carotid IMT did not predict CV events, and the present results do not support the use of carotid IMT as a predictor of CV events in persons with T2D.

16.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 80(6): 491-499, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692589

RESUMO

Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) can assess the cumulative effect of atherosclerotic risk factors and provides an independent predictor of future cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the progression of conventional risk factors in 933 long-term survivors from a Danish cohort with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) as predictors for attained carotid IMT during 35.6 (0.7) years of follow-up. Persons who participated in the first, the last and one of the intermediate rounds of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and who had had an ultrasound-derived measure of the carotid IMT performed at the last examination were included in the analyses. The risk factors varied between persons with and without DM during the 36 years, but the difference in blood pressure disappeared in the fifth examination, where, in addition, total cholesterol was found to be lower in persons with DM. In this cohort there were no difference in attained carotid IMT between persons with and without DM at the last examination. The following risk factors were found to best predict carotid IMT: age, maximum systolic BP, average systolic BP, average BMI, minimum BMI, sex and years of smoking. The prediction of carotid IMT was clinically poor with a root mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.134 mm and a 95% prediction error probability interval of (-0.22; 0.30). Furthermore, the distribution of prediction errors was skewed to the right indicating that the prediction errors were larger among persons with high carotid IMT.

17.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531957

RESUMO

Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are more likely to later develop diabetes. Evidence from some previous reviews suggests that low vitamin D status during pregnancy increases the risk of developing GDM, but whether vitamin D during pregnancy also influences the risk of diabetes post GDM is less well studied. Thus, the aim of this systematic literature review was to summarize the current available literature on that topic. This review considered observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five databases were searched. The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed. A total of six studies were included: three observational studies and three RCTs. Findings were inconsistent across the six included studies. However, when considering RCTs only, the findings more strongly suggested that vitamin D supplementation during and after pregnancy did not have an influence on markers of diabetes development or diabetes development post GDM. This systematic review highlights inconsistent findings on the associations between vitamin D supplementation or concentration during and after pregnancy and markers of diabetes development or diabetes development post GDM; and although results from randomized interventional studies more strongly suggested no associations, the conclusion holds a high degree of uncertainty.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Resultados Negativos , Complicações na Gravidez , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545531

RESUMO

The Colonic Mucosal Barrier (CMB) is the site of interaction between the human body and the colonic microbiota. The mucus is the outer part of the CMB and is considered as the front-line defense of the colon. It separates the host epithelial lining from the colonic content, and it has previously been linked to health and diseases. In this study, we assessed the relationship between red meat and whole-grain intake and (1) the thickness of the colonic mucus (2) the expression of the predominant mucin gene in the human colon (MUC2). Patients referred to colonoscopy at the University Hospital of Southern Denmark- Sonderjylland were enrolled between June 2017 and December 2018, and lifestyle data was collected in a cross-sectional study design. Colonic biopsies, blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected. The colonic mucus and bacteria were visualized by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. We found a thinner mucus was associated with high red meat intake. Similarly, the results suggested a thinner mucus was associated with high whole-grain intake, albeit to a lesser extent than red meat. This is the first study assessing the association between red meat and whole-grain intake and the colonic mucus in humans. This study is approved by the Danish Ethics Committee (S-20160124) and the Danish Data Protecting Agency (2008-58-035). A study protocol was registered at clinical trials.gov under NCT04235348.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-2/genética , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/microbiologia
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e034318, 2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448791

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Copenhagen Primary Care Laboratory Pregnancy (CopPreg) database was established based on data from The Danish Medical Birth Register and the Copenhagen Primary Care Laboratory (CopLab) database. The aim was to provide a biomedical and epidemiological data resource for research in early disease programming (eg, parental clinical biomarker levels and pregnancy/ birth outcomes or long-term health in the offspring). PARTICIPANTS: The cohort consisted in total of 203 608 women (with 340 891 pregnancies) who gave birth to 348 248 children and with 200 590 related fathers. In this paper, we focused on women and fathers who had clinical test requisitions prior to and during pregnancy, and on all children. Thus, the cohort in focus consisted of 203 054 pregnancies with requisitions on 147 045 pregnant women, 39 815 fathers with requisitions during periconception and 65 315 children with requisitions. FINDINGS TO DATE: In addition to information on pregnancy and birth health status and general socio-demographic data, over 2.2 million clinically relevant test results were available for pregnancies with requisitions, over 1.5 million for children and over 600 000 test results were available for the fathers with requisitions during periconception. These were ordered by general practitioners in the primary care setting only and included general blood tests, nutritional biomarkers (macronutrients and micronutrients) and hormone tests. Information on tests related to infections, allergies, heart and lung function and sperm analyses (fathers) were also available. FUTURE PLANS: The CopPreg database provides ready to use and valid data from already collected, objectively measured and analysed clinical tests. With several research projects planned, we further invite national and international researchers to use this vast data resource. In a coming paper, we will explore and discuss the indication bias in our cohort.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Complicações na Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
20.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: low vitamin D status in pregnancy can influence the offspring's lung function and contribute to childhood asthma development. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of neonatal vitamin D status on the development of asthma among children age 3-9 years in a large population sample. METHOD: in a case-cohort study utilizing a Danish biobank and register data we examined the association between neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations and incidence of asthma among children aged 3-9 years. Cases of asthma (n = 911) were randomly selected among all cases of asthma in the Danish National Patient Register from children born between 1992 and 2002. The sub-cohort (n = 1423) was randomly selected among all children born in the same period. We used a weighted Cox proportional hazard model assessing the hazard of first asthma diagnoses by quintiles of 25(OH)D3. RESULTS: the median 25(OH)D3 (interquartile range) for asthma cases was 23 nmol/L (14-35) and the sub-cohort 25 nmol/L (14-40). The hazard ratio for developing asthma between ages 3 and 9 years was lower for children in the fifth quintile of neonatal 25(OH)D3 compared to children in the first quintile, both in the unadjusted (0.61 95% CI: 0.46-0.80) and adjusted (0.55 95% CI: 0.39-0.77) analyses. CONCLUSION: the results from our study suggest that higher neonatal vitamin D concentration may reduce the risk of developing childhood asthma at ages 3-9 years, indicating that neonatal vitamin D status as a proxy of vitamin D status during the prenatal period is important for normal immune- and lung development.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
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