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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(27): E6135-E6144, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915064


In adult bone injuries, periosteum-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) form bone via endochondral ossification (EO), whereas those from bone marrow (BM)/endosteum form bone primarily through intramembranous ossification (IMO). We hypothesized that this phenomenon is influenced by the proximity of MSCs residing in the BM to the trabecular bone microenvironment. Herein, we investigated the impact of the bone mineral phase on human BM-derived MSCs' choice of ossification pathway, using a biomimetic bone-like hydroxyapatite (BBHAp) interface. BBHAp induced hyperstimulation of extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and temporal down-regulation of parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R), leading to inhibition of chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs even in the presence of chondroinductive factors, such as transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1). Interestingly rescuing PTH1R expression using human PTH fragment (1-34) partially restored chondrogenesis in the BBHAp environment. In vivo studies in an ectopic site revealed that the BBHAp interface inhibits EO and strictly promotes IMO. Furthermore, CaSR knockdown (CaSR KD) disrupted the bone-forming potential of MSCs irrespective of the absence or presence of the BBHAp interface. Our findings confirm the expression of CaSR in human BM-derived MSCs and unravel a prominent role for the interplay between CaSR and PTH1R in regulating MSC fate and the choice of pathway for bone formation.

Apatitas/farmacologia , Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Periósteo/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Hormônio Paratireóideo/biossíntese , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Adulto , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/farmacologia , Periósteo/citologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
Acta Biomater ; 69: 83-94, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378326


The limited capacity of cartilage to heal large lesions through endogenous mechanisms has led to extensive effort to develop materials to facilitate chondrogenesis. Although physical-chemical properties of biomaterials have been shown to impact in vitro chondrogenesis, whether these findings are translatable in vivo is subject of debate. Herein, architectured 3D hydrogel scaffolds (ArcGel) (produced by crosslinking gelatin with ethyl lysine diisocyanate (LDI)) were used as a model system to investigate the interplay between scaffold mechanical properties and degradation on matrix deposition by human articular chondrocytes (HAC) from healthy donors in vitro and in vivo. Using ArcGel scaffolds of different tensile and shear modulus, and degradation behavior; in this study, we compared the fate of ex vivo engineered ArcGels-chondrocytes constructs, i.e. the traditional tissue engineering approach, with thede novoformation of cartilaginous tissue in HAC laden ArcGels in an ectopic nude mouse model. While the softer and fast degrading ArcGel (LNCO3) was more efficient at promoting chondrogenic differentiation in vitro, upon ectopic implantation, the stiffer and slow degrading ArcGel (LNCO8) was superior in maintaining chondrogenic phenotype in HAC and retention of cartilaginous matrix. Furthermore, surprisingly the de novo formation of cartilage tissue was promoted only in LNCO8. Since HAC cultured for only three days in the LNCO8 environment showed upregulation of hypoxia-associated genes, this suggests a potential role for hypoxia in the observed in vivo outcomes. In summary, this study sheds light on how immediate environment (in vivo versus in vitro) can significantly impact the outcomes of cell-laden biomaterials. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, 3D architectured hydrogels (ArcGels) with different mechanical and biodegradation properties were investigated for their potential to promote formation of cartilaginous matrix by human articular chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Two paradigms were explored (i) ex vivo engineering followed by in vivo implantation in ectopic site of nude mice and (ii) short in vitro culture (3 days) followed by implantation to induce de novo cartilage formation. Softer and fast degrading ArcGel were better at promoting chondrogenesis in vitro, while stiffer and slow degrading ArcGel were strikingly superior in both maintaining chondrogenesis in vivo and inducing de novo formation of cartilage. Our findings highlight the importance of the interplay between scaffold mechanics and degradation in chondrogenesis.

Oncogene ; 37(12): 1576-1593, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326440


BRAF mutations occur in ~10% of colorectal cancer (CRC) and are associated with poor prognosis. Inhibitors selective for the BRAFV600E oncoprotein, the most common BRAF mutant, elicit only poor response rates in BRAF-mutant CRC as single agents. This unresponsiveness was mechanistically attributed to the loss of negative feedbacks on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and initiated clinical trials that combine BRAF (and MEK) inhibitors, either singly or in combination, with the anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab or panitumumab. First results of these combinatorial studies demonstrated improved efficacy, however, the response rates still were heterogeneous. Here, we show that BRAF inhibition leads to the upregulation of a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in CRC cell lines, including not only the EGFR, but also human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 and HER3. Importantly, combination of the BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) vemurafenib (PLX4032), dabrafenib, or encorafenib with inhibitors dually targeting the EGFR and HER2 (such as lapatinib, canertinib, and afatinib) significantly reduced the metabolic activity and proliferative potential of CRC cells. This re-sensitization was also observed after genetic depletion of HER2 or HER3. Interestingly, BRAF inhibitors did not only upregulate RTKs, but also increased the abundance of the GRB2-associated binders (Gab) 1 and Gab2, two important amplifiers of RTK signaling. An allele-specific shRNA-mediated knockdown of BRAFV600E revealed that Gab2 upregulation was directly dependent on the loss of the oncoprotein and was not caused by an "off-target" effect of these kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, Gab2 and Gab2-mediated Shp2 signaling were shown to be functionally important in BRAFi resistance. These findings highlight potential new escape mechanisms to these targeted therapies and indicate that a broad suppression of RTK signaling might be beneficial and should be taken into account in future research addressing targeted therapy in BRAF-mutant CRC.