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1.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 573-581, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791572

RESUMO

Thoracic planar blocks represent a novel and rapidly expanding facet of regional anesthesia. These recently described techniques represent the potential for excellent analgesia, enhanced technical safety profiles, and reduced physiological side effects versus traditional techniques in thoracic anesthesia. Regional techniques, particularly those described in this review, have potential implications for mitigation of surgical pathophysiological neurohumoral changes. In the present investigation, we describe the history, common indications, technique, and limitations of pectoral nerves (PECS), serratus plane, erector spinae plane, and thoracic paravertebral plane blocks. In summary, these techniques provide excellent analgesia and merit consideration in thoracic surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Músculos Intermediários do Dorso/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Músculos Paraespinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervos Torácicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 23(6): 43, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123919

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the etiologies of the complications associated with regional anesthesia and implementing methods to reduce their occurrence provides an opportunity to foster safer practices in the delivery of regional anesthesia. RECENT FINDINGS: Neurologic injuries following peripheral nerve block (PNB) and neuraxial blocks are rare, with most being transient. However, long-lasting and devastating sequelae can occur with regional anesthesia. Risk factors for neurologic injury following PNB include type of block, injection in the presence of deep sedation or general anesthesia, presence of existing neuropathy, mechanical trauma from the needle, pressure injury, intraneural injection, neuronal ischemia, iatrogenic injury related to surgery, and local anesthetic neurotoxicity. The present investigation discusses regional blocks, complications of regional blocks, risk factors, site-specific limitations, specific complications and how to prevent them from happening, avoiding complications in regional anesthesia, and the future of regional anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/normas , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/normas , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/etiologia
3.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 23(5): 33, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976992

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enhanced recovery pathways are a multimodal, multidisciplinary approach to patient care that aims to reduce the surgical stress response and maintain organ function resulting in faster recovery and improved outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: A PubMed literature search was performed for articles that included the terms of metabolic surgical stress response considerations to improve postoperative recovery. The surgical stress response occurs due to direct and indirect injuries during surgery. Direct surgical injury can result from the dissection, retraction, resection, and/or manipulation of tissues, while indirect injury is secondary to events including hypotension, blood loss, and microvascular changes. Greater degrees of tissue injury will lead to higher levels of inflammatory mediator and cytokine release, which ultimately drives immunologic, metabolic, and hormonal processes in the body resulting in the stress response. These processes lead to altered glucose metabolism, protein catabolism, and hormonal dysregulation among other things, all which can impede recovery and increase morbidity. Fluid therapy has a direct effect on intravascular volume and cardiac output with a resultant effect on oxygen and nutrient delivery, so a balance must be maintained without excessively loading the patient with water and salt. All in all, attenuation of the surgical stress response and maintaining organ and thus whole-body homeostasis through enhanced recovery protocols can speed recovery and reduce complications. The present investigation summarizes the clinical application of enhanced recovery pathways, and we will highlight the key elements that characterize the metabolic surgical stress response and improved postoperative recovery.


Assuntos
Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Humanos , Região Lombossacral/cirurgia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Operatório
4.
Pain Physician ; 22(1S): S1-S74, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regenerative medicine is a medical subspecialty that seeks to recruit and enhance the body's own inherent healing armamentarium in the treatment of patient pathology. This therapy's intention is to assist in the repair, and to potentially replace or restore damaged tissue through the use of autologous or allogenic biologics. This field is rising like a Phoenix from the ashes of underperforming conventional therapy midst the hopes and high expectations of patients and medical personnel alike. But, because this is a relatively new area of medicine that has yet to substantiate its outcomes, care must be taken in its public presentation and promises as well as in its use. OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance for the responsible, safe, and effective use of biologic therapy in the lumbar spine. To present a template on which to build standardized therapies using biologics. To ground potential administrators of biologics in the knowledge of the current outcome statistics and to stimulate those interested in providing biologic therapy to participate in high quality research that will ultimately promote and further advance this area of medicine. METHODS: The methodology used has included the development of objectives and key questions. A panel of experts from various medical specialties and subspecialties as well as differing regions collaborated in the formation of these guidelines and submitted (if any) their appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest. Trustworthy standards were employed in the creation of these guidelines. The literature pertaining to regenerative medicine, its effectiveness, and adverse consequences was thoroughly reviewed using a best evidence synthesis of the available literature. The grading for recommendation was provided as described by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Lumbar Disc Injections: Based on the available evidence regarding the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), including one high-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT), multiple moderate-quality observational studies, a single-arm meta-analysis and evidence from a systematic review, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level III (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best-evidence synthesis. Based on the available evidence regarding the use of medicinal signaling/ mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) with a high-quality RCT, multiple moderate-quality observational studies, a single-arm meta-analysis, and 2 systematic reviews, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level III (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Lumbar Epidural Injections Based on one high-quality RCT, multiple relevant moderate-quality observational studies and a single-arm meta-analysis, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Lumbar Facet Joint Injections Based on one high-quality RCT and 2 moderate-quality observational studies, the qualitative evidence for facet joint injections with PRP has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Sacroiliac Joint Injection Based on one high-quality RCT, one moderate-quality observational study, and one low-quality case report, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. CONCLUSION: Based on the evidence synthesis summarized above, there is Level III evidence for intradiscal injections of PRP and MSCs, whereas the evidence is considered Level IV for lumbar facet joint, lumbar epidural, and sacroiliac joint injections of PRP, (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis.Regenerative therapy should be provided to patients following diagnostic evidence of a need for biologic therapy, following a thorough discussion of the patient's needs and expectations, after properly educating the patient on the use and administration of biologics and in full light of the patient's medical history. Regenerative therapy may be provided independently or in conjunction with other modalities of treatment including a structured exercise program, physical therapy, behavioral therapy, and along with the appropriate conventional medical therapy as necessary. Appropriate precautions should be taken into consideration and followed prior to performing biologic therapy. Multiple guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), potential limitations in the use of biologic therapy and the appropriate requirements for compliance with the FDA have been detailed in these guidelines. KEY WORDS: Regenerative medicine, platelet-rich plasma, medicinal signaling cells, mesenchymal stem cells, stromal vascular fraction, bone marrow concentrate, chronic low back pain, discogenic pain, facet joint pain, Food and Drug Administration, minimal manipulation, evidence synthesis.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Lombar/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa/normas
5.
Pain Physician ; 22(1S): S75-S128, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventional pain management involves diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain. This specialty utilizes minimally invasive procedures to target therapeutics to the central nervous system and the spinal column. A subset of patients encountered in interventional pain are medicated using anticoagulant or antithrombotic drugs to mitigate thrombosis risk. Since these drugs target the clotting system, bleeding risk is a consideration accompanying interventional procedures. Importantly, discontinuation of anticoagulant or antithrombotic drugs exposes underlying thrombosis risk, which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality especially in those with coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease. This review summarizes the literature and provides guidelines based on best evidence for patients receiving anti-clotting therapy during interventional pain procedures. STUDY DESIGN: Best evidence synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To provide a current and concise appraisal of the literature regarding an assessment of the bleeding risk during interventional techniques for patients taking anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic medications. METHODS: A review of the available literature published on bleeding risk during interventional pain procedures, practice patterns and perioperative management of anticoagulant and antithrombotic therapy was conducted. Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of EMBASE and PubMed from 1966 through August 2018 and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. RESULTS: 1. There is good evidence for risk stratification by categorizing multiple interventional techniques into low-risk, moderate-risk, and high-risk. Also, their risk should be upgraded based on other risk factors.2. There is good evidence for the risk of thromboembolic events in patients who interrupt antithrombotic therapy. 3. There is good evidence supporting discontinuation of low dose aspirin for high risk and moderate risk procedures for at least 3 days, and there is moderate evidence that these may be continued for low risk or some intermediate risk procedures.4. There is good evidence that discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy with warfarin, heparin, dabigatran (Pradaxa®), argatroban (Acova®), bivalirudin (Angiomax®), lepirudin (Refludan®), desirudin (Iprivask®), hirudin, apixaban (Eliquis®), rivaroxaban (Xarelto®), edoxaban (Savaysa®, Lixiana®), Betrixaban(Bevyxxa®), fondaparinux (Arixtra®) prior to interventional techniques with individual consideration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drugs and individual risk factors increases safety.5. There is good evidence that diagnosis of epidural hematoma is based on severe pain at the site of the injection, rapid neurological deterioration, and MRI with surgical decompression with progressive neurological dysfunction to avoid neurological sequelae.6. There is good evidence that if thromboembolic risk is high, low molecular weight heparin bridge therapy can be instituted during cessation of the anticoagulant, and the low molecular weight heparin can be discontinued 24 hours before the pain procedure.7. There is fair evidence that the risk of thromboembolic events is higher than that of epidural hematoma formation with the interruption of antiplatelet therapy preceding interventional techniques, though both risks are significant.8. There is fair evidence that multiple variables including anatomic pathology with spinal stenosis and ankylosing spondylitis; high risk procedures and moderate risk procedures combined with anatomic risk factors; bleeding observed during the procedure, and multiple attempts during the procedures increase the risk for bleeding complications and epidural hematoma.9. There is fair evidence that discontinuation of phosphodiesterase inhibitors is optional (dipyridamole [Persantine], cilostazol [Pletal]. However, there is also fair evidence to discontinue Aggrenox [dipyridamole plus aspirin]) 3 days prior to undergoing interventional techniques of moderate and high risk. 10. There is fair evidence to make shared decision making between the patient and the treating physicians with the treating physician and to consider all the appropriate risks associated with continuation or discontinuation of antithrombotic or anticoagulant therapy.11. There is fair evidence that if thromboembolic risk is high antithrombotic therapy may be resumed 12 hours after the interventional procedure is performed.12. There is limited evidence that discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel [Plavix®], ticlopidine [Ticlid®], Ticagrelor [Brilinta®] and prasugrel [Effient®]) avoids complications of significant bleeding and epidural hematomas.13. There is very limited evidence supporting the continuation or discontinuation of most NSAIDs, excluding aspirin, for 1 to 2 days and some 4 to 10 days, since these are utilized for pain management without cardiac or cerebral protective effect. LIMITATIONS: The continued paucity of the literature with discordant recommendations. CONCLUSION: Based on the survey of current literature, and published clinical guidelines, recommendations for patients presenting with ongoing antithrombotic therapy prior to interventional techniques are variable, and are based on comprehensive analysis of each patient and the risk-benefit analysis of intervention. KEY WORDS: Perioperative bleeding, bleeding risk, practice patterns, anticoagulant therapy, antithrombotic therapy, interventional techniques, safety precautions, pain.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Dor Crônica , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
6.
Anesthesiol Clin ; 36(4): 627-637, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390783

RESUMO

The anesthetic management of pregnant patients can present a variety of challenges and a thorough preoperative assessment is necessary before initiating any anesthetic services. Both the mother and the fetus need to be considered when formulating an anesthetic plan and discussing informed consent. The overall aims in assessing a pregnant patient are to identity potential issues that can lead to catastrophic complications, provide adequate information allowing the mother to make informed decisions, and to obtain knowledge for tailoring an anesthetic that maintains maternal and fetal homeostasis.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Anestesia/métodos , Cardiopatias/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Gravidez
7.
Pain Physician ; 21(3): E207-E214, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a major public health problem resulting in physical and emotional pain for individuals and families, loss of productivity, and an annual cost of billions of dollars. The lack of objective measures available to aid in diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for chronic pain continues to be a challenge for the clinician. OBJECTIVES: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an imaging technique that can establish regional areas of interest and examine synchronous neuronal activity in functionally related but anatomically distinct regions of the brain, known as functional connectivity. STUDY DESIGN: The present investigation examines changes in functional connectivity in 4 common pain syndromes: chronic back pain (CBP), fibromyalgia, diabetic neuropathy, and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). SETTING: This is a review of the current understanding of functional connectivity. METHODS: Utilizing functional imaging, patients with these conditions have been shown to have significant structural and functional differences when compared to healthy controls. RESULTS: Functional connectivity, therefore, has the potential to assist in diagnostic classification of different pain conditions, predict individual responses to specific therapeutic interventions, and serve as a gateway for personalized medicine. Indirect activation of brain activity can be seen by the blood flow to the brain at specific sites, with chronic pain patients having increased brain activity. LIMITATIONS: The present investigation is limited in that few studies have examined this relatively new modality. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing and observing the brain's activity as related to pain gives pain patients an opportunity to decrease pain-related brain activity and decrease severe chronic pain. This modality can be used along with interventional pain management techniques in order to provide optimum pain relief. KEY WORDS: Functional connectivity, fMRI, chronic pain, chronic back pain, fibromyalgia, diabetic neuropathy, chronic regional pain syndrome.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 22(5): 32, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619569

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the USA, there has been a sharp increase in heroin, prescription opiate, and illicitly manufactured fentanyl abuse with overdoses tripling since the 1990s. Several states have been deemed as "high-burden" abuse states where there is a greater proportion of synthetic opiate use. During the same period that prescription limitations were initially implemented throughout the country, the fentanyl epidemic started nationwide. RECENT FINDINGS: In the setting of data demonstrating an almost fourfold increase in overdose deaths from 1999 to 2008, states began restricting access to Food and Drug Agency (FDA) approved opioid medications. Another factor further exacerbating the opioid crises is that the cost of all formulations of naloxone has increased significantly over the past several years. In order to combat the opioid epidemic, stricter prescribing practices and prescription-monitoring programs have been instituted. Also, improvements in abuse-deterrent strategies for all opioid preparations can play an important role by increasing the safety of these medications and is a major focus of the FDA.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 14: 361-367, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503555

RESUMO

Chronic lower back pain is a significant disease that affects nearly 20% of the worldwide population. Along with hindering patients' quality of life, chronic lower back pain is considered to be the second most common cause of disability among Americans. Treating chronic lower back pain is often a challenge for providers, especially in light of our current opioid epidemic. With this epidemic and an increased aging population, there is an imminent need for development of new pharmacologic therapeutic options, which are not only effective but also pose minimal adverse effects to the patient. With these considerations, a novel therapeutic agent called tanezumab has been developed and studied. Tanezumab is a humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 antibody that works by inhibiting the binding of NGF to its receptors. NGF is involved in the function of sensory neurons and fibers involved in nociceptive transduction. It is commonly seen in excess in inflammatory joint conditions and in chronic pain patients. Nociceptors are dependent on NGF for growth and ongoing function. The inhibition of NGF binding to its receptors is a mechanism by which pain pathways can be interrupted. In this article, a number of recent randomized controlled trials are examined relating to the efficacy and safety of tanezumab in the treatment of chronic lower back pain. Although tanezumab was shown to be an effective pain modulator in major trials, several adverse effects were seen among different doses of the medication, one of which led to a clinical hold placed by the US Food and Drug Administration. In summary, tanezumab is a promising agent that warrants further investigation into its analgesic properties and safety profile.

10.
Curr Opin Support Palliat Care ; 12(2): 124-130, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465470

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary cause of overdose death in the United States is related to pharmaceutical opioids. A few particular populations that struggle with adverse outcomes related to opioid abuse are those in palliative care, those with chronic pain, and those receiving pain treatments secondary to cancer or chemotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been massive efforts to decrease the use of opioid abuse in patient care in a gestalt manner, but palliative care provides unique challenges in applying these reduction tactics used by other specialties. SUMMARY: We explore behavioral interventions, provider education, alternative pain management techniques, postmarketing surveillance, and abuse-deterrent formulas as emerging methods to counteract opioid abuse in these populations.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Desvio de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Formulações de Dissuasão de Abuso/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Desvio de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/prevenção & controle , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados/métodos , Estados Unidos
12.
Pain Ther ; 6(2): 129-141, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853044

RESUMO

The perioperative surgical home (PSH) model has been created with the intention to reduce costs and to improve efficiency of care and patient experience in the perioperative period. The PSH is a comprehensive model of care that is team-based and patient-centric. The team in each facility should be multidisciplinary and include the input of perioperative services leadership, surgical services, and support personnel in order to provide seamless care for the patient from the preoperative period when decision to undergo surgery is initially made to discharge and, if needed after discharge from the hospital, until full recovery is achieved. PSH is discussed in this consensus article with the emphasis on perioperative care coordination of patients with chronic pain conditions. Preoperative optimization can be successfully undertaken through patient evaluation, screening, and education. Many important positive implications in the PSH model, in particular for those patients with increased potential morbidity, mortality, and high-risk populations, including those with a history of substance abuse or anxiety, reflect a more modern approach to health care. Newer strategies, such as preemptive and multimodal analgesic techniques, have been demonstrated to reduce opioid consumption and to improve pain relief. Continuous catheters, ketamine, methadone, buprenorphine, and other modalities can be best delivered with the expertise of an anesthesiologist and a support team, such as an acute pain care coordinator. A physician-led PSH is a model of care that is patient-centered with the integration of care from multiple disciplines and is ideally suited for leadership from the anesthesia team. Optimum pain control will have a significant positive impact on the measures of the PSH, including lowering of complication rates, lowering of readmissions, improved patient satisfaction, reduced morbidity and mortality, and shortening of hospital stays. All stakeholders should work together and consider the PSH model to ensure the best quality of health care for patients undergoing surgery in the future. The pain management physician's role in the postoperative period should be focused on providing optimal analgesia associated with improved patient satisfaction and outcomes that result in reduced health care costs.

13.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 27(9): 903-908, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742427

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) protocols are the cornerstone of improved recovery after colorectal surgery. Their implementation leads to reduced morbidity and shorter hospital stays while attenuating the surgical stress response. Multimodal analgesia is an important part of ERAS protocols. We compared and contrasted protocols from 15 institutions to test our hypothesis that there is a fundamental consensus among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ERAS protocols for open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery were compared from 15 different healthcare facilities. We examined each institution's approach to multimodal analgesia related to the use of oral and intravenous analgesics. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management was examined. RESULTS: All but three protocols used preoperative multimodal analgesics, with acetaminophen, celecoxib, and gabapentin being the most common. Intraoperative recommendations included the use of ketamine, lidocaine, magnesium, and ketorolac. Some protocols advocated for the use of opiates, while others aimed to minimize total opioid dose. In the postoperative period, the three most utilized agents were acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and opioids. CONCLUSIONS: There were many similarities and some significant differences among ERAS protocols examined. Acetaminophen was the most widely used nonopioid agent and along with NSAIDs offers a benefit with respect to postoperative analgesia, opioid-sparing effects, earlier ambulation, and reduction in postoperative ileus. Gabapentin was widely used as it may reduce opioid consumption within the first 24 hours postoperatively. Lidocaine infusion was recommended if there were contraindications to or failure of epidural anesthesia. Ketamine is frequently recommended due to its analgesic, antihyperalgesic, antiallodynic, and antitolerance properties. Differences in approaches may be due to both institutional- and provider-level factors.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Colo/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reto/cirurgia , Protocolos Clínicos , Consenso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Assistência Perioperatória/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos
14.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 27(9): 898-902, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742434

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Principles of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) protocols are well established, with the primary goal of optimizing perioperative care and recovery. The use of multimodal analgesia is a key component of these protocols, including regional analgesia techniques such as thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA), transversus abdominis plane (TAP), rectus sheath blocks or continuous wound infiltration (CWI)/catheters, and spinal anesthesia. We compare and contrast regional anesthesia approaches in different institutional colorectal surgery ERAS protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ERAS protocols for open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery were obtained from 15 different healthcare facilities mostly located in North American and one in New Zealand. A comparison was then made with respect to regional anesthesia recommendations. RESULTS: The most commonly used regional technique among protocols was TEA. TAP blocks were the next most common, with rectus sheath blocks and continuous wound catheters only mentioned in one protocol each. CONCLUSION: There are both similarities and differences in regional anesthesia techniques, which may be due to institution- and provider-level factors. Most protocols advocate for TEA use, which has been associated with a lower incidence of paralytic ileus, attenuation of the surgical stress response, improved intestinal blood flow, improved analgesia, and reduction of opioid use. Use of spinal anesthesia may lead to earlier mobilization compared to TEA, and lower doses of intrathecal morphine are recommended to reduce respiratory depression. TAP blocks were indicated for laparoscopic procedures. Rectus sheath blocks, which are listed in some protocols, may provide analgesia equivalent to epidural anesthesia, while avoiding complications of TEA. CWI has been effective in reducing postoperative pain, hastening recovery, and improving pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Colo/cirurgia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reto/cirurgia , Anestesia por Condução/estatística & dados numéricos , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Nova Zelândia , América do Norte , Assistência Perioperatória/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
15.
Anesthesiol Clin ; 35(2): e1-e20, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28526155

RESUMO

Pain remains a tremendous burden on patients and for the health care system, with uncontrolled pain being the leading cause of disability in this country. There are a variety of medications that can be used in the treatment of pain, including ketorolac, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol. Depending on the clinical situation, these drugs can be used as monotherapy or in conjunction with other types of medications in a multimodal approach. A strong appreciation of pharmacologic properties of these agents and potential side effects is warranted for clinicians.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Cetorolaco/uso terapêutico , Oximorfona/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Tramadol/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Cetorolaco/efeitos adversos , Oximorfona/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Tapentadol , Tramadol/efeitos adversos
16.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 21(1): 3, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132136

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of acute pain following surgery using a multimodal approach is recommended by the American Society of Anesthesiologists whenever possible. In addition to opioids, drugs with differing mechanisms of actions target pain pathways resulting in additive and/or synergistic effects. Some of these agents include alpha 2 agonists, NMDA receptor antagonists, gabapentinoids, dexamethasone, NSAIDs, acetaminophen, and duloxetine. RECENT FINDINGS: Alpha 2 agonists have been shown to have opioid-sparing effects, but can cause hypotension and bradycardia and must be taken into consideration when administered. Acetaminophen is commonly used in a multimodal approach, with recent evidence lacking for the use of IV over oral formulations in patients able to take medications by mouth. Studies involving gabapentinoids have been mixed with some showing benefit; however, future large randomized controlled trials are needed. Ketamine is known to have powerful analgesic effects and, when combined with magnesium and other agents, may have a synergistic effect. Dexamethasone reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting and has been demonstrated to be an effective adjunct in multimodal analgesia. The serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, duloxetine, is a novel agent, but studies are limited and further evidence is needed. Overall, a multimodal analgesic approach should be used when treating postoperative pain, as it can potentially reduce side effects and provide the benefit of treating pain through different cellular pathways.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
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