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2.
Epilepsia Open ; 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: STXBP1-related disorders are rare genetic epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders, but the impact of symptoms across clinical domains is poorly understood. Disease concept models are formal frameworks to assess the lived experience of individuals and their families and provide a basis for generating outcome measures. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 19 caregivers of 16 individuals with STXBP1-related disorders and 7 healthcare professionals. We systematically coded themes using NVivo software and grouped concepts into the domains of symptoms, symptom impact and caregiver impact. We quantified the frequency of concepts throughout the life span and across clinical subgroups stratified by seizure history and developmental trajectories. RESULTS: Over 25 hours of interviews, we coded a total of 3626 references to 38 distinct concepts. In addition to well recognized clinical features such as developmental delay (n=240 references), behavior (n=201), and seizures (n=147), we identified previously underrepresented symptoms including gastrointestinal (n=68) and respiratory symptoms (n=24) and pain (n=30). The most frequently referenced symptom impacts were autonomy (n=96), socialization (n=64), and schooling (n=61). Emotional impact (n=354), support (n=200), and daily life & activities (n=108) were highly cited caregiver impacts. We found that seizures were more commonly referenced in infancy than in other age groups, while behavior, and socialization were more likely to be referred in childhood. We found that caregivers of individuals with ongoing seizures were less likely to reference developmental delay, possibly due to the relatively high impact of seizures. SIGNIFICANCE: STXBP1-related disorders are complex conditions affecting a wide range of clinical and social domains. We comprehensively mapped symptoms and their impact on families to generate a comprehensive disease model as a foundation for clinical endpoints in future trials.

3.
Elife ; 122023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648066

RESUMO

TRPM3 is a temperature- and neurosteroid-sensitive plasma membrane cation channel expressed in a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Recently, rare de novo variants in TRPM3 were identified in individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE), but the link between TRPM3 activity and neuronal disease remains poorly understood. We previously reported that two disease-associated variants in TRPM3 lead to a gain of channel function (Van Hoeymissen et al., 2020; Zhao et al., 2020). Here, we report a further ten patients carrying one of seven additional heterozygous TRPM3 missense variants. These patients present with a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental symptoms, including global developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, musculo-skeletal anomalies, and altered pain perception. We describe a cerebellar phenotype with ataxia or severe hypotonia, nystagmus, and cerebellar atrophy in more than half of the patients. All disease-associated variants exhibited a robust gain-of-function phenotype, characterized by increased basal activity leading to cellular calcium overload and by enhanced responses to the neurosteroid ligand pregnenolone sulphate, when co-expressed with wild-type TRPM3 in mammalian cells. The antiseizure medication primidone, a known TRPM3 antagonist, reduced the increased basal activity of all mutant channels. These findings establish gain-of-function of TRPM3 as the cause of a spectrum of autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorders with frequent cerebellar involvement in humans, and provide support for the evaluation of TRPM3 antagonists as a potential therapy.

4.
Cell Stem Cell ; 29(11): 1594-1610.e8, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332572

RESUMO

The molecular diversity of glia in the human hippocampus and their temporal dynamics over the lifespan remain largely unknown. Here, we performed single-nucleus RNA sequencing to generate a transcriptome atlas of the human hippocampus across the postnatal lifespan. Detailed analyses of astrocytes, oligodendrocyte lineages, and microglia identified subpopulations with distinct molecular signatures and revealed their association with specific physiological functions, age-dependent changes in abundance, and disease relevance. We further characterized spatiotemporal heterogeneity of GFAP-enriched astrocyte subpopulations in the hippocampal formation using immunohistology. Leveraging glial subpopulation classifications as a reference map, we revealed the diversity of glia differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells and identified dysregulated genes and pathological processes in specific glial subpopulations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Together, our study significantly extends our understanding of human glial diversity, population dynamics across the postnatal lifespan, and dysregulation in AD and provides a reference atlas for stem-cell-based glial differentiation.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Transcriptoma/genética , Longevidade/genética , Neuroglia/patologia , Hipocampo , Astrócitos/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(12): 2253-2269, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413998

RESUMO

Heterozygous pathogenic variants in DNM1 cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) as a result of a dominant-negative mechanism impeding vesicular fission. Thus far, pathogenic variants in DNM1 have been studied with a canonical transcript that includes the alternatively spliced exon 10b. However, after performing RNA sequencing in 39 pediatric brain samples, we find the primary transcript expressed in the brain includes the downstream exon 10a instead. Using this information, we evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations of variants affecting exon 10a and identified a cohort of eleven previously unreported individuals. Eight individuals harbor a recurrent de novo splice site variant, c.1197-8G>A (GenBank: NM_001288739.1), which affects exon 10a and leads to DEE consistent with the classical DNM1 phenotype. We find this splice site variant leads to disease through an unexpected dominant-negative mechanism. Functional testing reveals an in-frame upstream splice acceptor causing insertion of two amino acids predicted to impair oligomerization-dependent activity. This is supported by neuropathological samples showing accumulation of enlarged synaptic vesicles adherent to the plasma membrane consistent with impaired vesicular fission. Two additional individuals with missense variants affecting exon 10a, p.Arg399Trp and p.Gly401Asp, had a similar DEE phenotype. In contrast, one individual with a missense variant affecting exon 10b, p.Pro405Leu, which is less expressed in the brain, had a correspondingly less severe presentation. Thus, we implicate variants affecting exon 10a as causing the severe DEE typically associated with DNM1-related disorders. We highlight the importance of considering relevant isoforms for disease-causing variants as well as the possibility of splice site variants acting through a dominant-negative mechanism.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Humanos , Éxons/genética , Mutação/genética , Causalidade , Heterozigoto
6.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 33: 100931, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420423

RESUMO

Malate dehydrogenases (MDH) serve a critical role in maintaining equilibrium of the NAD+/NADH ratio between the mitochondria and cytosol through the catalysis of the oxidation of L-malate to oxaloacetate in a reversible, NADH-dependent manner. MDH2 encodes the mitochondrial isoform, which is integral to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thus energy homeostasis. Recently, five patients harboring compound heterozygous MDH2 variants have been described, three with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, one with a stroke-like episode, and one with dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we describe an additional seven patients with biallelic variants in MDH2, the largest and most neurodevelopmentally and ethnically diverse cohort to-date, including homozygous variants, a sibling pair, non-European patients, and an adult. From these patients, we learn that MDH2 deficiency results in a biochemical signature including elevations of plasma lactate and the lactate:pyruvate ratio with urinary excretion of malate. It also results in a recognizable constellation of neuroimaging findings of anterior-predominant cerebral atrophy, subependymal cysts with ventricular septations. We also recognize MDH2 deficiency as a cause of Leigh syndrome. Taken with existing patient reports, we conclude that MDH2 deficiency is an emerging and likely under-recognized cause of infantile epileptic encephalopathy and provide a framework for medical evaluation of patients identified with biallelic MDH2 variants.

7.
Epilepsia ; 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Loss-of-function variants in SCN1A cause Dravet syndrome, the most common genetic developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). However, emerging evidence suggests separate entities of SCN1A-related disorders due to gain-of-function variants. Here, we aim to refine the clinical, genetic, and functional electrophysiological features of a recurrent p.R1636Q gain-of-function variant, identified in four individuals at a single center. METHODS: Individuals carrying the recurrent SCN1A p.R1636Q variant were identified through diagnostic testing. Whole cell voltage-clamp electrophysiological recording in HEK-293 T cells was performed to compare the properties of sodium channels containing wild-type Nav 1.1 or Nav 1.1-R1636Q along with both Nav ß1 and Nav ß2 subunits, including response to oxcarbazepine. To delineate differences from other SCN1A-related epilepsies, we analyzed electronic medical records. RESULTS: All four individuals had an early onset DEE characterized by focal tonic seizures and additional seizure types starting in the first few weeks of life. Electrophysiological analysis showed a mixed gain-of-function effect with normal current density, a leftward (hyperpolarized) shift of steady-state inactivation, and slower inactivation kinetics leading to a prominent late sodium current. The observed functional changes closely paralleled effects of pathogenic variants in SCN3A and SCN8A at corresponding positions. Both wild type and variant exhibited sensitivity to block by oxcarbazepine, partially correcting electrophysiological abnormalities of the SCN1A p.R1636Q variant. Clinically, a single individual responded to treatment with oxcarbazepine. Across 51 individuals with SCN1A-related epilepsies, those with the recurrent p.R1636Q variants had the earliest ages at onset. SIGNIFICANCE: The recurrent SCN1A p.R1636Q variant causes a clinical entity with a wider clinical spectrum than previously reported, characterized by neonatal onset epilepsy and absence of prominent movement disorder. Functional consequences of this variant lead to mixed loss and gain of function that is partially corrected by oxcarbazepine. The recurrent p.R1636Q variant represents one of the most common causes of early onset SCN1A-related epilepsies with separate treatment and prognosis implications.

9.
Mov Disord ; 37(10): 2110-2121, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple System Atrophy is a rare neurodegenerative disease with alpha-synuclein aggregation in glial cytoplasmic inclusions and either predominant olivopontocerebellar atrophy or striatonigral degeneration, leading to dysautonomia, parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia. One prior genome-wide association study in mainly clinically diagnosed patients with Multiple System Atrophy failed to identify genetic variants predisposing for the disease. OBJECTIVE: Since the clinical diagnosis of Multiple System Atrophy yields a high rate of misdiagnosis when compared to the neuropathological gold standard, we studied only autopsy-confirmed cases. METHODS: We studied common genetic variations in Multiple System Atrophy cases (N = 731) and controls (N = 2898). RESULTS: The most strongly disease-associated markers were rs16859966 on chromosome 3, rs7013955 on chromosome 8, and rs116607983 on chromosome 4 with P-values below 5 × 10-6 , all of which were supported by at least one additional genotyped and several imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms. The genes closest to the chromosome 3 locus are ZIC1 and ZIC4 encoding the zinc finger proteins of cerebellum 1 and 4 (ZIC1 and ZIC4). INTERPRETATION: Since mutations of ZIC1 and ZIC4 and paraneoplastic autoantibodies directed against ZIC4 are associated with severe cerebellar dysfunction, we conducted immunohistochemical analyses in brain tissue of the frontal cortex and the cerebellum from 24 Multiple System Atrophy patients. Strong immunohistochemical expression of ZIC4 was detected in a subset of neurons of the dentate nucleus in all healthy controls and in patients with striatonigral degeneration, whereas ZIC4-immunoreactive neurons were significantly reduced inpatients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy. These findings point to a potential ZIC4-mediated vulnerability of neurons in Multiple System Atrophy. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas , Atrofias Olivopontocerebelares , Degeneração Estriatonigral , Autoanticorpos , Autopsia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/genética , Atrofia de Múltiplos Sistemas/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
10.
EBioMedicine ; 83: 104234, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast Growth Factor 12 (FGF12) may represent an important modulator of neuronal network activity and has been associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). We sought to identify the underlying pathomechanism of FGF12-related disorders. METHODS: Patients with pathogenic variants in FGF12 were identified through published case reports, GeneMatcher and whole exome sequencing of own case collections. The functional consequences of two missense and two copy number variants (CNVs) were studied by co-expression of wildtype and mutant FGF12 in neuronal-like cells (ND7/23) with the sodium channels NaV1.2 or NaV1.6, including their beta-1 and beta-2 sodium channel subunits (SCN1B and SCN2B). RESULTS: Four variants in FGF12 were identified for functional analysis: one novel FGF12 variant in a patient with autism spectrum disorder and three variants from previously published patients affected by DEE. We demonstrate the differential regulating effects of wildtype and mutant FGF12 on NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 channels. Here, FGF12 variants lead to a complex kinetic influence on NaV1.2 and NaV1.6, including loss- as well as gain-of function changes in fast and slow inactivation. INTERPRETATION: We could demonstrate the detailed regulating effect of FGF12 on NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 and confirmed the complex effect of FGF12 on neuronal network activity. Our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum related to FGF12 variants and elucidate the underlying pathomechanism. Specific variants in FGF12-associated disorders may be amenable to precision treatment with sodium channel blockers. FUNDING: DFG, BMBF, Hartwell Foundation, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, IDDRC, ENGIN, NIH, ITMAT, ILAE, RES and GRIN.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Encefalopatias , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/metabolismo , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.6/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Humanos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio , Canais de Sódio
11.
Neurology ; 99(12): e1227-e1238, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few data are available regarding the use of anesthetic infusions for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in children and neonates, and ketamine use is increasing despite limited data. We aimed to describe the impact of ketamine for RSE in children and neonates. METHODS: Retrospective single-center cohort study of consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care units of a quaternary care children's hospital treated with ketamine infusion for RSE. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were treated with a ketamine infusion for RSE. The median age at onset of RSE was 0.7 years (interquartile range 0.15-7.2), and the cohort included 13 (19%) neonates. Three patients (4%) had adverse events requiring intervention during or within 12 hours of ketamine administration, including hypertension in 2 patients and delirium in 1 patient. Ketamine infusion was followed by seizure termination in 32 patients (46%), seizure reduction in 19 patients (28%), and no change in 18 patients (26%). DISCUSSION: Ketamine administration was associated with few adverse events, and seizures often terminated or improved after ketamine administration. Further data are needed comparing first-line and subsequent anesthetic medications for treatment of pediatric and neonatal RSE. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence on the therapeutic utility of ketamine for treatment of RSE in children and neonates.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Ketamina , Estado Epiléptico , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/induzido quimicamente , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Epileptic Disord ; 24(5): 765-786, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830287

RESUMO

Epilepsy genetics is a rapidly developing field, in which novel disease-associated genes, novel mechanisms associated with epilepsy, and precision medicine approaches are continuously being identified. In the past decade, advances in genomic knowledge and analysis platforms have begun to make clinical genetic testing accessible for, in principle, people of all ages with epilepsy. For this reason, the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents this update on clinical genetic testing practice, including current techniques, indications, yield of genetic testing, recommendations for pre- and post-test counseling, and follow-up after genetic testing is completed. We acknowledge that the resources vary across different settings but highlight that genetic diagnostic testing for epilepsy should be prioritized when the likelihood of an informative finding is high. Results of genetic testing, in particular the identification of causative genetic variants, are likely to improve individual care. We emphasize the importance of genetic testing for individuals with epilepsy as we enter the era of precision therapy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Testes Genéticos , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos
13.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(Suppl 2): 198, 2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical phenotype information greatly facilitates genetic diagnostic interpretations pipelines in disease. While post-hoc extraction using natural language processing on unstructured clinical notes continues to improve, there is a need to improve point-of-care collection of patient phenotypes. Therefore, we developed "PheNominal", a point-of-care web application, embedded within Epic electronic health record (EHR) workflows, to permit capture of standardized phenotype data. METHODS: Using bi-directional web services available within commercial EHRs, we developed a lightweight web application that allows users to rapidly browse and identify relevant terms from the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Selected terms are saved discretely within the patient's EHR, permitting reuse both in clinical notes as well as in downstream diagnostic and research pipelines. RESULTS: In the 16 months since implementation, PheNominal was used to capture discrete phenotype data for over 1500 individuals and 11,000 HPO terms during clinic and inpatient encounters for a genetic diagnostic consultation service within a quaternary-care pediatric academic medical center. An average of 7 HPO terms were captured per patient. Compared to a manual workflow, the average time to enter terms for a patient was reduced from 15 to 5 min per patient, and there were fewer annotation errors. CONCLUSIONS: Modern EHRs support integration of external applications using application programming interfaces. We describe a practical application of these interfaces to facilitate deep phenotype capture in a discrete, structured format within a busy clinical workflow. Future versions will include a vendor-agnostic implementation using FHIR. We describe pilot efforts to integrate structured phenotyping through controlled dictionaries into diagnostic and research pipelines, reducing manual effort for phenotype documentation and reducing errors in data entry.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Criança , Documentação , Humanos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Software
14.
Mol Genet Metab ; 137(1-2): 26-32, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by iron accumulation in the brain with spectrum of neurodevelopmental and movement phenotypes. In anticipation of future clinical trials and to inform clinical care, there is an unmet need to capture the phenotypic diversity of this rare disorder and better define disease subtypes. METHODS: A total of 27 individuals with BPAN were included in our natural history study, from which traditional outcome measures were obtained in 18 subjects. Demographic and diagnostic information, along with acquisition of basic developmental skills and overall neurologic severity were extracted from the medical records. Functional outcome measures were administered at the time of the evaluation or applied retrospectively at the last clinical encounter for patients who were not able to travel for in person. Based on age and functional level, the following assessments were administered: Leiter-3, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66 Item Sets, Vineland-3, and Peabody-2. RESULTS: Overall, cognitive function was more impaired compared to gross motor function. Onset of symptoms of BPAN within the first 6 months of life was associated with decreased gain of ambulation and gain of spoken language (ambulation: log-rank test p = 0.0015; gain of first word: p = 0.0015). There was no difference in age at seizure onset by age at initial symptom onset (p = 0.8823). Collection of prospective outcome measures was limited by attention and behavior in our patient population, reinforcing the complexity of phenotype assessment and inadequacy of available standardized tests. Overall, gross motor and adaptive behavior assessments were better able to capture the dynamic range of function across the BPAN population than the fine motor and non-verbal cognitive tests. Floor effects were noted across outcome measures in a subset of individuals for cognitive and adaptive behavior tests. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the distinct phenotypes of BPAN: a severe, early onset form and an attenuated form with higher cognitive capabilities. Early age at onset was a key factor in predicting future neurologic impairment.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro , Humanos , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/genética , Psicometria , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
15.
Nature ; 607(7919): 527-533, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794479

RESUMO

Immature dentate granule cells (imGCs) arising from adult hippocampal neurogenesis contribute to plasticity and unique brain functions in rodents1,2 and are dysregulated in multiple human neurological disorders3-5. Little is known about the molecular characteristics of adult human hippocampal imGCs, and even their existence is under debate1,6-8. Here we performed single-nucleus RNA sequencing aided by a validated machine learning-based analytic approach to identify imGCs and quantify their abundance in the human hippocampus at different stages across the lifespan. We identified common molecular hallmarks of human imGCs across the lifespan and observed age-dependent transcriptional dynamics in human imGCs that suggest changes in cellular functionality, niche interactions and disease relevance, that differ from those in mice9. We also found a decreased number of imGCs with altered gene expression in Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we demonstrated the capacity for neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus with the presence of rare dentate granule cell fate-specific proliferating neural progenitors and with cultured surgical specimens. Together, our findings suggest the presence of a substantial number of imGCs in the adult human hippocampus via low-frequency de novo generation and protracted maturation, and our study reveals their molecular properties across the lifespan and in Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Hipocampo , Longevidade , Neurogênese , Neurônios , Adulto , Envelhecimento/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Giro Denteado/citologia , Giro Denteado/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Neurogênese/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Transcrição Genética
16.
Neurology ; 99(3): e221-e233, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pathogenic STXBP1 variants cause a severe early-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (STXBP1-DEE). We aimed to investigate the natural history of STXBP1-DEE in adults focusing on seizure evolution, the presence of movement disorders, and the level of functional (in)dependence. METHODS: In this observational study, patients with a minimum age of 18 years carrying a (likely) pathogenic STXBP1 variant were recruited through medical genetics departments and epilepsy centers. Treating clinicians completed clinical questionnaires and performed semistructured video examinations while performing tasks from the (modified) Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale when possible. RESULTS: Thirty adult patients were included for summary statistics, with video recordings available for 19 patients. The median age at last follow-up was 24 years (range 18-58 years). All patients had epilepsy, with a median onset age of 3.5 months. At last follow-up, 80% of adults had treatment-resistant seizures despite long periods of seizure freedom in 37%. Tonic-clonic, focal, and tonic seizures were most frequent in adults. Epileptic spasms, an unusual feature beyond infancy, were present in 3 adults. All individuals had developmental impairment. Periods of regression were present in 59% and did not always correlate with flare-ups in seizure activity. Eighty-seven percent had severe or profound intellectual disability, 42% had autistic features, and 65% had significant behavioral problems. Video examinations showed gait disorders in all 12 patients able to walk, including postural abnormalities with external rotation of the feet, broad-based gait, and asymmetric posture/dystonia. Tremor, present in 56%, was predominantly of the intention/action type. Stereotypies were seen in 63%. Functional outcome concerning mobility was variable ranging from independent walking (50%) to wheelchair dependence (39%). Seventy-one percent of adults were nonverbal, and all were dependent on caregivers for most activities of daily living. DISCUSSION: STXBP1-DEE warrants continuous monitoring for seizures in adult life. Periods of regression are more frequent than previously established and can occur into adulthood. Movement disorders are often present and involve multiple systems. Although functional mobility is variable in adulthood, STXBP1-DEE frequently leads to severe cognitive impairments and a high level of functional dependence. Understanding the natural history of STXBP1-DEE is important for prognostication and will inform future therapeutic trials.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Transtornos dos Movimentos , Proteínas Munc18 , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Proteínas Munc18/genética , Mutação , Convulsões/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Epilepsia ; 63(10): 2461-2475, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716052

RESUMO

The genetic basis of many epilepsies is increasingly understood, giving rise to the possibility of precision treatments tailored to specific genetic etiologies. Despite this, current medical therapy for most epilepsies remains imprecise, aimed primarily at empirical seizure reduction rather than targeting specific disease processes. Intellectual and technological leaps in diagnosis over the past 10 years have not yet translated to routine changes in clinical practice. However, the epilepsy community is poised to make impressive gains in precision therapy, with continued innovation in gene discovery, diagnostic ability, and bioinformatics; increased access to genetic testing and counseling; fuller understanding of natural histories; agility and rigor in preclinical research, including strategic use of emerging model systems; and engagement of an evolving group of stakeholders (including patient advocates, governmental resources, and clinicians and scientists in academia and industry). In each of these areas, we highlight notable examples of recent progress, new or persistent challenges, and future directions. The future of precision medicine for genetic epilepsy looks bright if key opportunities on the horizon can be pursued with strategic and coordinated effort.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Medicina de Precisão , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/terapia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Convulsões/genética , Sugestão
18.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104115, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants in genes encoding voltage-gated potassium channels are associated with a broad spectrum of neurological diseases including epilepsy, ataxia, and intellectual disability. Knowledge of the resulting functional changes, characterized as overall ion channel gain- or loss-of-function, is essential to guide clinical management including precision medicine therapies. However, for an increasing number of variants, little to no experimental data is available. New tools are needed to evaluate variant functional effects. METHODS: We catalogued a comprehensive dataset of 959 functional experiments across 19 voltage-gated potassium channels, leveraging data from 782 unique disease-associated and synthetic variants. We used these data to train a taxonomy-based multi-task learning support vector machine (MTL-SVM), and compared performance to several baseline methods. FINDINGS: MTL-SVM maintains channel family structure during model training, improving overall predictive performance (mean balanced accuracy 0·718 ± 0·041, AU-ROC 0·761 ± 0·063) over baseline (mean balanced accuracy 0·620 ± 0·045, AU-ROC 0·711 ± 0·022). We can obtain meaningful predictions even for channels with few known variants (KCNC1, KCNQ5). INTERPRETATION: Our model enables functional variant prediction for voltage-gated potassium channels. It may assist in tailoring current and future precision therapies for the increasing number of patients with ion channel disorders. FUNDING: This work was supported by intramural funding of the Medical Faculty, University of Tuebingen (PATE F.1315137.1), the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (Treat-ION, 01GM1907A/B/G/H) and the German Research Foundation (FOR-2715, Le1030/16-2, He8155/1-2).


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Deficiência Intelectual , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana , Epilepsia/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/química , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , Canais de Potássio Shaw/genética
19.
Epilepsia ; 63(8): 1970-1980, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Family members carrying the same SCN1A variant often exhibit differences in the clinical severity of epilepsy. This variable expressivity suggests that other factors aside from the primary sodium channel variant influence the clinical manifestation. However, identifying such factors has proven challenging in humans. METHODS: We perform whole exome sequencing (WES) in a large family in which an SCN1A variant (p.K1372E) is segregating that is associated with a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from lack of epilepsy, to febrile seizures and absence seizures, to Dravet syndrome. We assessed the hypothesis that the severity of the SCN1A-related phenotype was affected by alternate alleles at a modifier locus (or loci). RESULTS: One of our top candidates identified by WES was a second variant in the SCN1A gene (p.L375S) that was shared exclusively by unaffected carriers of the K1372E allele. To test the hypothesized that L375S variant nullifies the loss-of-function effect of K1372E, we transiently expressed Nav1.1 carrying the two variants in HEK293T cells and compared their biophysical properties with the wild-type (WT) variant, and then co-expressed WT with K1372E or L375S with K1372E in equal quantity and tested the functional consequence. The data demonstrated that co-expression of the L375S and K1372E alleles reversed the loss-of-function property brought by the K1372E variant, whereas WT-K1372E co-expression remained partial loss-of-function. SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the hypothesis that L375S counteracts the loss-of-function effect of K1372E such that individuals carrying both alleles in trans do not present epilepsy-related symptoms. We demonstrate that monogenic epilepsies with wide expressivity can be modified by additional variants in the disease gene, providing a novel framework for the gene-phenotype relationship in genetic epilepsies.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas , Epilepsia , Convulsões Febris , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Fenótipo , Convulsões Febris/complicações , Convulsões Febris/genética , Virulência
20.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 64(11): 1351-1358, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514061

RESUMO

AIM: To characterize child neurology telemedicine visits flagged as requiring in-person evaluation during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: We analyzed 7130 audio-video telemedicine visits between March and November 2020. Visits of concern (VOCs) were defined as telemedicine visits where the clinical scenario necessitated in-person follow-up evaluation sooner than if the visit had been conducted in-person. RESULTS: VOCs occurred in 5% (333/7130) of visits for 292 individuals (148 females, 144 males). Providers noted technical challenges more often in VOCs (40%; 133/333) than visits without concern (non-VOCs) (28%; 1922/6797) (p < 0.05). The median age was younger in VOCs (9 years 3 months, interquartile range [IQR] 2 years 0 months-14 years 3 months) than non-VOCs (11 years 3 months, IQR 5 years 10 months-15 years 10 months) (p < 0.05). Median household income was lower for patients with VOCs ($74 K, IQR $55 K-$97 K) compared to non-VOCs ($80 K, IQR $61 K-$100 K) (p < 0.05). Compared with all other race categories, families who self-identified as Black were more likely to have a VOC (odds ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.06). Epilepsy and headache represented the highest percentages of VOCs, while neuromuscular disorders and developmental delay had a higher proportion of VOCs than other neurological disorders. INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest that telemedicine is an effective platform for most child neurology visits. Younger children and those with neuromuscular disorders or developmental delays are more likely to require in-person evaluation. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: It is possible to successfully flag patients who need in-person assessment. Providers can manage issues arising during telemedicine in 95% of visits. Visits flagged as concerning were likely unrelated to modality of patient care. Provider concern was independent of technical difficulties for most telehealth visits. Younger age may be correlated with need for in-person assessment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neurologia , Telemedicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
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