Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 115
Filtrar
1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(11): 4325-4334, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664404

RESUMO

Deliberation in municipal councils of sanitation and health is the object of this study. Deliberation is understood as decision making and argumentative process, from the formulations of Rousseau, Habermas and Cohen. The proposed objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the deliberative action of the councils of Belo Horizonte (MG) and Belém (PA). The evaluation included the study of variables defining the degree of institutionalization of the councils and revealing the dynamics of the deliberative process developed in them. The internal regulations of each council and the minutes and resolutions produced by them during the 2012-2014 triennium were consulted. The results showed that the four councils, in the period and according to the defined criteria of analysis, are far from the degree of deliberative effectiveness desired, considering the purposes of the social control in sanitation and in health, arranged by the specific legislation of each area. Even with broader experience, considering their years of participatory pedagogical exercise, health councils were no more effective than neophyte sanitation councils.

3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(4): e00100818, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994740

RESUMO

Access to water and sanitation services by the population of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has been marked by processes of socio-spatial segregation and social exclusion. Considering the recognition, in 2010, of the human rights to water and sanitation by the United Nations, we seek to assess the adequate access to these services in the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region through the principle of equality and non-discrimination. We used microdata from the demographic censuses, years 2000 and 2010, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. We analyzed these data through descriptive and comparative statistical analysis, spatial analysis and multivariate analysis, so as to: determine the extent of the universalization of the adequate access to those services; assess the spatial dependence between municipalities regarding this access; identify and characterize possible access discrimination, by specific population groups. Results show an increase in the proportion of households with adequate access to water and sanitation services in the intercensus period; near lack spatial association, showing inequalities among the 34 municipalities of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region; access inequalities among different population groups - according to household situation, income, race or color, sex and educational level - in a possible non compliance with the principle of non-discrimination.

5.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 19(1): 14, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1948 the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was drawn up. The content of this document was further reflected two treaties, the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. To try to maintain the interrelationship between the rights contained in each document, the idea that all rights are interdependent and indivisible was stressed. Based on this vision, this study aimed to explore the extent to which the violation of the human rights to water and sanitation interferes with the guarantee of other rights, addressing the principles of interdependence and indivisibility. METHODS: For that, 24 homeless, in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were interviewed. Individual and group interviews were carried out in addition to participant observation. The content analysis was used in order to analyze the data collected. RESULTS: The research found that violation of the rights to water and sanitation promotes violation of other rights, such as health and education rights, strengthening the view of rights' interdependence and indivisibility. CONCLUSION: It is important to affirm that the protection of human rights must be consolidated at an operational and normative level, aligned to concepts of indivisibility and interdependence as it has been proposed for approximately seven decades.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Direitos Humanos , Saneamento , Água , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Saneamento/normas
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 137, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article addresses the enjoyment of the human rights to water and sanitation (HRTWS), in particular access to toilets, in a public school in Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: Participant observation of the school's routine, focus groups with students in grades 8 and 9 of primary school (13 to 17 years old) and individual, semi-structured, interviews with members of school staff were applied, exploring access to water and sanitation by adolescent girls and boys. RESULTS: Students and school staff reported that the amount of toilets was insufficient and that their conditions were often inadequate because they were plugged or dirty. The impact on girls is greater as toilets do not offer a clean and healthy environment for menstrual hygiene management. Several elements of the normative content of the HRTWS, especially accessibility, acceptability, quality, safety and dignity, were largely not fulfilled. The study identified that, to comply with the HRTWS, it is necessary to go beyond infrastructure, as the lack of maintenance; cultural elements and student participation hinder the usage of sanitary facilities. Since schools can be privileged spaces to train critical and reflective citizens and to foster autonomy and emancipation, education oriented by human rights and citizenship is an opportunity for a more equitable society. By increasing access to social, economic and cultural rights in all phases and aspects of life, including when children and adolescents are in a school environment, people are able to enjoy better living conditions and a higher standard of health. CONCLUSIONS: The study raised the importance of considering each community's sociocultural aspects in analyzing access to sanitary facilities in schools, which are spaces where citizens' rights should be exercised and fulfilled.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Saneamento , Instituições Acadêmicas , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água , Adolescente , Brasil , Cidades , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Menstruação
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(1): 285-294, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698261

RESUMO

Comparison between federal Brazilian legal frameworks in the areas of health and sanitation, from the perspective of participation, is the thread of this work, considering the pioneering of health and its possible influence on sanitation. The comparative effort was made from six analytical criteria: defined social control mechanisms; character given to social control; responsibility, recommendations and support to enable social control; access to information; control over the use of resources; control of the implementation of the resolutions. It was evaluated if the sanitation framework have been helped by health formulations and if have achieved produce more effective practices of social control in the conduct of public policy. The results show that, although it has received some influence from the health area, the water and sanitation framework is more restricted and has less potential to produce more effective practices, since it presents: 1) more restrictive mechanisms because they are not necessarily deliberative; 2) lack of a policy of training counselors and popular education to incentive participation; 3) absence of effective mechanisms for monitoring the use of resources.


Assuntos
Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Saneamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle Social Formal , Acesso à Informação , Brasil , Humanos , Saneamento/normas
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 652: 1445-1455, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586829

RESUMO

Given the importance of reducing diverse forms of inequality in access to water, highlighted both in the framework of the Human Right to Water (HRW) and in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), this work assesses conditions of access to water and related inequalities before and after the construction of a Water Supply System (WSS) in a rural community of Brazil's semi-arid region. A quasi-experimental study was performed to assess the conditions of access to water for study and control groups (amounting to 380 households). The methodology encompassed two phases, one prior and another subsequent to the construction of a WSS in the study community. The analytical framework of the HRW was applied, specifically the normative content regarding quality, accessibility and availability. The case study's findings help to evidence the limitations and challenges of merely infrastructure-related measures to improve access to water. The construction of a new WSS in the studied community was an improvement as it provided water of good quality to the beneficiary households, which entailed a decreased or even a no-longer-existing need to collect water for children and adolescents. However, certain problems persisted, such as the continued practice of collecting water and the use, by certain families, of water that was fecally contaminated. In a different perspective, the WSS made it possible to increase the per capita volume of water consumed by families and to reduce inequalities associated with this aspect. Meanwhile, the research reveals the possible limits of the WSS in ensuring that higher volumes of water will be consumed per capita, especially among households without intra-household water distribution infrastructure.

9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(1): 285-294, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974810

RESUMO

Resumo A comparação entre os marcos legais federais brasileiros das áreas de saúde e de saneamento, sob a perspectiva do controle social, é o fio condutor deste trabalho, tendo em vista o pioneirismo da primeira e sua possível influência sobre a segunda. O esforço comparativo foi realizado a partir de seis critérios analíticos: mecanismos de controle social definidos; caráter conferido ao controle social; responsabilidade, recomendações e apoio para viabilizar o controle social; acesso à informação; controle sobre o uso dos recursos; controle da implementação das deliberações. Avaliaram-se possibilidades de o marco do saneamento se beneficiar das formulações no campo da saúde e lograr produzir práticas mais efetivas de controle social na condução dessa política pública. Os resultados revelam que, mesmo tendo recebido alguma influência da área de saúde, o marco do saneamento é mais restrito e tem menor potencialidade de produzir práticas mais efetivas, uma vez que apresenta: 1) mecanismos mais restritivos por não serem necessariamente deliberativos; 2) ausência de uma política de formação de conselheiros e de educação popular como incentivo e fortalecimento ao controle social; 3) ausência de mecanismos efetivos voltados para a fiscalização do uso dos recursos.


Abstract Comparison between federal Brazilian legal frameworks in the areas of health and sanitation, from the perspective of participation, is the thread of this work, considering the pioneering of health and its possible influence on sanitation. The comparative effort was made from six analytical criteria: defined social control mechanisms; character given to social control; responsibility, recommendations and support to enable social control; access to information; control over the use of resources; control of the implementation of the resolutions. It was evaluated if the sanitation framework have been helped by health formulations and if have achieved produce more effective practices of social control in the conduct of public policy. The results show that, although it has received some influence from the health area, the water and sanitation framework is more restricted and has less potential to produce more effective practices, since it presents: 1) more restrictive mechanisms because they are not necessarily deliberative; 2) lack of a policy of training counselors and popular education to incentive participation; 3) absence of effective mechanisms for monitoring the use of resources.

10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(4): e00100818, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001642

RESUMO

O acesso aos serviços de saneamento básico por parte da população da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, vem sendo marcado por processos de segregação socioespacial e exclusão social. Tendo em vista o reconhecimento, em 2010, dos direitos humanos à água e ao esgotamento sanitário pela Organização das Nações Unidas, busca-se analisar o acesso adequado a estes serviços na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte por meio do princípio da igualdade e não discriminação. Foram utilizados microdados provenientes dos censos demográficos do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, anos de 2000 e 2010. Esses foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e comparativa, análise espacial e análise multivariada, buscando-se: dimensionar a universalização do acesso adequado aos serviços; analisar a dependência espacial entre os municípios no que se refere a tal acesso; identificar e caracterizar possível discriminação no acesso, por parte de determinados grupos populacionais. Os resultados permitiram observar: aumento na proporção de domicílios com o acesso adequado aos serviços de água e esgoto no período intercensitário; quase inexistência de associação espacial, demonstrando haver desigualdades entre os 34 municípios que compõem a Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte; desigualdades no acesso entre diferentes grupos populacionais - segundo situação do domicílio, renda, cor ou raça, sexo e escolaridade - em possível desacordo com o princípio da não discriminação.


Access to water and sanitation services by the population of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has been marked by processes of socio-spatial segregation and social exclusion. Considering the recognition, in 2010, of the human rights to water and sanitation by the United Nations, we seek to assess the adequate access to these services in the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region through the principle of equality and non-discrimination. We used microdata from the demographic censuses, years 2000 and 2010, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. We analyzed these data through descriptive and comparative statistical analysis, spatial analysis and multivariate analysis, so as to: determine the extent of the universalization of the adequate access to those services; assess the spatial dependence between municipalities regarding this access; identify and characterize possible access discrimination, by specific population groups. Results show an increase in the proportion of households with adequate access to water and sanitation services in the intercensus period; near lack spatial association, showing inequalities among the 34 municipalities of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region; access inequalities among different population groups - according to household situation, income, race or color, sex and educational level - in a possible non compliance with the principle of non-discrimination.


El acceso a los servicios de agua y saneamiento por parte de la población de la Región Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, ha estado marcado por procesos de segregación socioespacial y exclusión social. Teniendo en vista el reconocimiento, en 2010, de los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento por las Naciones Unidas, se busca analizar el acceso adecuado a esos servicios en la Región Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, a través del principio de la igualdad y no discriminación. Se utilizaron microdatos provenientes de los censos demográficos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística, en los años 2000 y 2010. Estos se sometieron a un análisis estadístico descriptivo y comparativo, análisis espacial y análisis multivariado, buscando: dimensionar la universalización del acceso adecuado a los servicios; analizar la dependencia espacial entre los municipios en lo que se refiere a tal acceso; identificar y caracterizar una posible discriminación en el acceso, por parte de determinados grupos poblacionales. Los resultados permitieron observar: un aumento en la proporción de domicilios con acceso adecuado a los servicios de agua y saneamiento durante el período intercensitario; casi inexistencia de asociación espacial, demostrando que existen desigualdades entre los 34 municipios que componen la Región Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte; desigualdades en el acceso entre diferentes grupos poblacionales -según la situación del domicilio, renta, color o raza, sexo y escolaridad-, en posible desacuerdo con el principio de la no discriminación.

12.
Qual Health Res ; : 1049732318797934, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196766

RESUMO

Frequent contact with hazardous materials makes waste collection a potentially unhealthy activity. This article assesses the perception of waste management workers regarding work-related accidents in domestic and health service contexts in Brazil. Six focus groups were performed between June 2014 and August 2015. The aims of this study were to apprehend different aspects of the participants' health, workers' experiences of work-related accidents and perception of risks. Cuts and puncture injuries were reported most frequently in the line of work and were often considered as irrelevant. Immunization against hepatitis B was not common among all workers, which increases the risk of infection for those individuals. Finally, it is considered urgent to consolidate an inclusive space in which workers can have discussions on their health.

13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(3): e00024017, 2018 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590241

RESUMO

The human rights to water and sanitation (HRWS) state that all human beings have the right to safe access to water and sanitation in a non-discriminatory manner. However, vulnerable populations frequently have these rights violated, which impacts their health and quality of life, exacerbating social exclusion as in the case of homeless people. In Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 1,827 people were living on the streets in 2013. This study presents the evaluation of the conditions and perceptions of this population on their rights to water and sanitation access. It has been observed that access to both water and sanitation is precarious and that the normative content, as well as the human rights principles, are highly violated. In conclusion, we observed that this group suffers violations of HRWS and that these are associated with the violation of other rights such as the right to the city, dwelling and health. Such violations have negative impacts on the economic and social life of this group, increasing discrimination and exclusion. This study draws attention to the importance of encouraging the social participation of this group in the decision-making processes of water and sanitation management within the framework of HRWS, in its capacity to be a tool for social transformation, generating empowerment, promoting health, dignity and citizenship.


Assuntos
Banhos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Direitos Humanos , Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(3): e00024017, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-889906

RESUMO

Resumo: Os direitos humanos à água e ao esgotamento sanitário (DHAES) afirmam que todos os seres humanos têm direito ao acesso seguro à água e ao esgotamento sanitário de forma não discriminatória. No entanto, populações vulneráveis têm esses direitos frequentemente violados, repercutindo em sua saúde e qualidade de vida, e agravando a exclusão social, como é o caso das pessoas em situação de rua. Em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, existiam 1.827 pessoas nessa condição em 2013. Este artigo apresenta a avaliação das condições e da percepção dessa população sobre o acesso à água e ao esgotamento sanitário e seus direitos nessa área. Observou-se que o acesso, tanto à água quanto ao esgotamento sanitário, é precário e que os conteúdos normativos e os princípios dos direitos humanos são potencialmente violados. Como conclusão, observa-se que esse grupo sofre violações dos DHAES e que estas estão associadas com a violação de outros direitos, como o direito à cidade, à moradia e à saúde. Essas violações têm repercussões negativas na vida econômica e social desse grupo populacional, aumentando a discriminação e a exclusão. O estudo chama a atenção para a importância de estimular a participação social desse grupo nos processos de tomada de decisão sobre a gestão da água e do esgotamento sanitário, no marco dos DHAES, em sua capacidade de ser instrumento de transformação social, gerando empoderamento, promovendo saúde, dignidade e cidadania.


Resumen: Los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento público señalan que todos los seres humanos tienen derecho al acceso seguro al agua y saneamiento público de forma no discriminatoria. No obstante, a las poblaciones vulnerables se les violan frecuentemente estos derechos, repercutiendo en su salud y calidad de vida, y agravando su exclusión social, como es el caso de las personas en situación de marginación. En Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, existían 1.827 personas en estas condiciones en 2013. Este artículo presenta la evaluación de las condiciones y la percepción de esta población sobre su acceso al agua y al saneamiento público y sus derechos en este ámbito. Se observó que el acceso tanto al agua, como al saneamiento, es precario y que las regulaciones normativas y estos principios de los Derechos Humanos se violan reiteradamente. Como conclusión, se observa que ese grupo sufre violaciones de los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento público y que estas últimas están asociadas con la violación de otros derechos, como el derecho a la ciudad, a la vivienda y a la salud. Estas violaciones tienen repercusiones negativas en la vida económica y social de este grupo poblacional, aumentando su discriminación y exclusión. El estudio llama la atención sobre la importancia de estimular la participación social de este grupo en los procesos de toma de decisión sobre la gestión del agua y saneamiento sanitario, en el marco de los derechos humanos al agua y saneamiento, al tratarse de un instrumento de transformación social, generando empoderamiento, promoviendo salud, dignidad y ciudadanía.


Abstract: The human rights to water and sanitation (HRWS) state that all human beings have the right to safe access to water and sanitation in a non-discriminatory manner. However, vulnerable populations frequently have these rights violated, which impacts their health and quality of life, exacerbating social exclusion as in the case of homeless people. In Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 1,827 people were living on the streets in 2013. This study presents the evaluation of the conditions and perceptions of this population on their rights to water and sanitation access. It has been observed that access to both water and sanitation is precarious and that the normative content, as well as the human rights principles, are highly violated. In conclusion, we observed that this group suffers violations of HRWS and that these are associated with the violation of other rights such as the right to the city, dwelling and health. Such violations have negative impacts on the economic and social life of this group, increasing discrimination and exclusion. This study draws attention to the importance of encouraging the social participation of this group in the decision-making processes of water and sanitation management within the framework of HRWS, in its capacity to be a tool for social transformation, generating empowerment, promoting health, dignity and citizenship.

15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 756-763, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-897033

RESUMO

Abstract This meta-analysis, which is based on a previously published systematic review, aims to contribute to the scientific discussion on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in workers who are exposed to domestic and healthcare wastes. Publications were sought which had been made available on the data used by December 2013 and updated to December 2016. The quality of the included studies was assessed according to the guidelines of Loney et al. for the critical appraisal of studies on the prevalence or incidence of a health problem. To verify the presence of heterogeneity between the papers, we used the Chi-squared test based on a Q statistic. A funnel plot was used to test for publication bias. All included studies had across-sectional study design. The association between exposure to waste and positive serology for the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) showed a significant association [odds ratio (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.86; p = 0.0019]. The prevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HBc seropositivity was 0.04 (95% CI 0.03-0.05) and 0.21 (95% CI 0.14-0.28), respectively (p <0.0001). We found no evidence of publication bias. The results of this meta-analysis indicate a statistically significant association between exposure to solid waste, whether healthcare or domestic, and positive HBV infection markers. Therefore, the working conditions of waste collectors should be analyzed more closely. Immunization against HBV is recommended as the chief preventive measure for all solid waste workers.

16.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 22(6): 1037-1041, nov.-dez. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-891600

RESUMO

RESUMO A destinação dos resíduos de serviços de saúde (RSS) representa uma discussão ampla e polêmica, e o momento de revisão da resolução da diretoria colegiada n.º 306/2004, da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA), é oportuno para ampliar esse debate. Nesse contexto, este artigo buscou, por meio da revisão de publicações científicas, subsidiar escolhas que favoreçam a sustentabilidade ambiental e a proteção da saúde humana na destinação dos RSS. Foram realizadas pesquisa bibliográfica, em âmbitos nacional e internacional, e a revisão de instrumentos legais que regulam a destinação dos RSS no Brasil. As resoluções da ANVISA (n.º 306/2004) e do Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (n.º 358/2005) mostram que a disposição final dos RSS do subgrupo A4 pode ser feita em local licenciado para receber RSS, sem tratamento prévio. Diversas publicações científicas apontam para a falta de evidências quanto à existência de riscos aumentados para o ambiente e à saúde humana dos RSS se comparados aos resíduos sólidos domiciliares e explicam que ambos poderiam ter destinação final com base nos mesmos requisitos. A segregação dos RSS de acordo com os riscos reais de cada grupo e no momento da geração, assim como o acondicionamento como barreira de proteção, é o procedimento mais seguro de gerenciamento de risco contra contaminações e acidentes, sobrepondo-se aos requisitos para a destinação final. A exigência de tratar previamente os resíduos do subgrupo A4 antes de serem aterrados, conforme defendem alguns, poderia resultar em desnecessária elevação dos custos do processo sem evidência de redução dos riscos envolvidos.


ABSTRACT The disposal of healthcare waste (HCW) is a controversial and wide discussion, and the review of the Collegiate Directorate Resolution no. 306/2004, from the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária - ANVISA), a Brazilian regulation, is appropriate to increase this debate. In this context, through the review of scientific publications, this paper supports choices that promote environmental sustainability and the protection of human health during the HCW disposal process. A bibliographical research including national and international levels and a review of legal instruments about HCW management in Brazil were done. The rules of ANVISA (no. 306/2004) and National Environment Council (no. 358/2005) point out that the final disposal of HCW, specially the subgroup A4, could be done in certified place to disposal HCW, without prior treatment. Several scientific papers mention the lack of evidences about increased risks of some kinds of HCW when compared to domestic waste, and these wastes may have final disposal based on the same criteria. Segregation of the HCW according to the real risks of each group at the moment of the generation of waste, as well as the packaging as a protective barrier, configures a safer risk management procedures against contamination and accidents. The requirement to treat the A4 subgroup before landfill disposal, as argue by some researchers, could represent an increase of unnecessary economical costs without evidences of risk reduction.

17.
Waste Manag Res ; 35(10): 1084-1092, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28816103

RESUMO

As more urban solid waste is generated, managing it becomes ever more challenging and the potential impacts on the environment and human health also become greater. Handling waste - including collection, treatment and final disposal - entails risks of work accidents. This article assesses the perception of waste management workers regarding work-related accidents in domestic and health service contexts in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. These perceptions are compared with national data from the Ministry of Social Security on accidents involving workers in solid waste management. A high proportion of accidents involves cuts and puncture injuries; 53.9% among workers exposed to domestic waste and 75% among those exposed to health service waste. Muscular lesions and fractures accounted for 25.7% and 12.5% of accidents, respectively. Data from the Ministry of Social Security diverge from the local survey results, presumably owing to under-reporting, which is frequent in this sector. Greater commitment is needed from managers and supervisory entities to ensure that effective measures are taken to protect workers' health and quality of life. Moreover, workers should defend their right to demand an accurate registry of accidents to complement monitoring performed by health professionals trained in risk identification. This would contribute to the improved recovery of injured workers and would require managers in waste management to prepare effective preventive action.


Assuntos
Resíduos Sólidos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Acidentes de Trabalho , Brasil , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Qualidade de Vida
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(7): 2247-2256, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724006

RESUMO

The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Saneamento/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Política Pública , Saneamento/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/economia
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(7): 2247-2256, Jul. 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890397

RESUMO

Abstract The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights.


Resumo O setor de água e esgotos vem recebendo crescente atenção e financiamento por meio da cooperação internacional para o desenvolvimento. Não apenas devido à forma como tal cooperação afeta incentivos e instituições nos países parceiros, esta pode trazer efeitos positivos ou negativos para os direitos humanos. O marco consolidado para os direitos humanos à água e ao esgotamento sanitário vem sendo associado aos esforços da cooperação para o desenvolvimento promovido pela comunidade internacional, como evidenciado na Agenda para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável de 2030. No entanto, uma revisão das políticas oficiais dos maiores financiadores no setor sugere que muitos deles endossam apenas parcialmente os marcos dos direitos humanos à água e aos esgotos. A observação dos fluxos dessa cooperação para o setor permite formular a hipótese de que as desigualdades no acesso a esses serviços em várias partes do mundo podem ser reduzidas com a plena e clara aplicação do marco dos direitos humanos nas atividades de cooperação para o desenvolvimento. O artigo apresenta achados dessa pesquisa e explora desafios chave para a cooperação para o desenvolvimento no setor de água e esgotos que são relevantes para impactar tanto negativamente quanto positivamente os direitos humanos.


Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el saneamiento. La observación de los flujos de esta cooperación para el sector permite formular la hipótesis de que las desigualdades en el acceso a estos servicios en diferentes partes del mundo pueden reducirse con la aplicación completa y clara del marco de los derechos humanos en las actividades de cooperación para el desarrollo. El artículo presenta los resultados de esta investigación y explora los desafíos de la cooperación para el desarrollo del sector de agua y aguas residuales que son relevantes para impactar tanto negativamente cuanto positivamente a los derechos humanos.

20.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 50(6): 756-763, 2017 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340451

RESUMO

This meta-analysis, which is based on a previously published systematic review, aims to contribute to the scientific discussion on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in workers who are exposed to domestic and healthcare wastes. Publications were sought which had been made available on the data used by December 2013 and updated to December 2016. The quality of the included studies was assessed according to the guidelines of Loney et al. for the critical appraisal of studies on the prevalence or incidence of a health problem. To verify the presence of heterogeneity between the papers, we used the Chi-squared test based on a Q statistic. A funnel plot was used to test for publication bias. All included studies had across-sectional study design. The association between exposure to waste and positive serology for the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) showed a significant association [odds ratio (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.86; p = 0.0019]. The prevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HBc seropositivity was 0.04 (95% CI 0.03-0.05) and 0.21 (95% CI 0.14-0.28), respectively (p <0.0001). We found no evidence of publication bias. The results of this meta-analysis indicate a statistically significant association between exposure to solid waste, whether healthcare or domestic, and positive HBV infection markers. Therefore, the working conditions of waste collectors should be analyzed more closely. Immunization against HBV is recommended as the chief preventive measure for all solid waste workers.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/transmissão , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA