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1.
J Ind Ecol ; 23(5): 1028-1038, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762586

RESUMO

A large part of the world population is exposed to noise levels that are unhealthy. Yet noise is often neglected when impact assessment studies are conducted and when policy interventions are designed. In this study, we provide a way to calculate the noise footprint of citizens directly determined by their use of private and public transport on land. The study combines the results of the large transport simulation model MATSim applied to Switzerland, with a noise characterization model, N-LCA, developed in the context of life cycle assessment. MATSim results allow tracking the use of private and public transportation by agents in the model. The results after characterization provide a consumption-based noise footprint, thus the total noise and impacts that are caused by the private mobility demand of the citizens of Switzerland. Our results confirm that road transportation is the largest contributor to the total noise footprint of land-based mobility. We also included a scenario with a full transition to an electrified car fleet, which showed the potential for the reduction of impacts, particularly in urban areas, by about 55% as compared to the modeled regime with combustion engines.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 609-620, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195322

RESUMO

Dietary choices affect personal health and environmental impacts, but little is known about the relation between these outcomes. Here we examine the intake-related health impacts and the food-production related impacts to ecosystems and human health by applying life cycle impact assessment methods to habitual diet data of 1457 European adults. We measured food production impacts for each individual in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) as calculated by the Recipe 2016 life cycle impact assessment method using secondary production data, which were then compared with their personal health DALYs predicted from the known relationships between dietary choices and disease risk. Across this population cohort, each individual was estimated to lose on average 2.5 ±â€¯0.9 DALYs per lifetime due to sub-optimal dietary intake (with seed and vegetable under-consumption the greatest contributors) and their food choices caused environmental human health impacts of 2.4 ±â€¯1.3 DALYs (particularly due to the damage associated with production of meats, milk, and vegetables). Overall, there was no relationship between a healthier dietary pattern and the environmental human health impacts associated with production of its constituent foods (i.e. healthier diets did not have lower or higher production impacts). This was due to a combination of decreased meat consumption correlating with increased consumption of other foods, as well as the fact that under-consumption of some low impact foods yielded high personal health consequences. However, for specific food items synergies and tradeoffs could be identified. For example, reduced processed meat consumption benefits both personal and environmental health. Every DALY caused by higher whole grain and vegetable production and consumption would be offset by reduced disease risk that equated to an average of 7.7 (5.7 to 10.4) and 1.4 (0.9 to 2.5) lower personal health DALYs, respectively.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Carne , Política Nutricional , Verduras
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 164-177, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154209

RESUMO

Supply chains become increasingly globalized. Multi-regional input-output databases contain all the information to assess impacts along the value chain, but standard calculation routines to track the impacts of any sector along the global upstream and downstream value chain are missing. Mapping the impacts of materials has been a particular challenge owing to difficulties with double-counting. This is attributed to the strong intertwining of the material supply chain meaning that different materials occur in the supply chains of other materials. Here, we present a new method which can be applied to any MRIO system to track the impacts of any sector or region without double-counting upstream and downstream the global value chain. We apply this approach to EXIOBASE3 and implement a cutting-edge set of regionalized environmental impact categories and socio-economic indicators. Applied to global material production, our method shows that the issue of double-counting (prevented in this study) would overestimate global impacts of materials by up to 30%. In contrast, assessing only the direct impacts would lead to an underestimation by ~20%. Our evaluation further reveals that 25-35% of global material-related impacts are embodied in trade among ten world regions. Thereby, we identify the major international trade relations of key materials and found a clear trend of industrialized nations causing impacts in less developed economies. It was further revealed that during 1995-2011, the share of materials in total global climate change impacts has remained almost constant at ~50%, but total impacts have significantly increased for minerals and fossils. Our results demonstrate the importance for improved environmental policy strategies that target several stages of the global value chain. The methodology is provided as Matlab tool and can be applied to any material, industrial sector and region to track the related impacts upstream and downstream the global value chain.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 675: 560-569, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030161

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the most important drivers of environmental impacts and identify the influence of parameters on the uncertainty of the environmental impacts in various climate zones and future climate scenarios. We couple a combined greenhouse energy demand-yield simulation tool with a life cycle assessment to identify the drivers for greenhouse energy, water and CO2 demand as well as yield production. Environmental impacts are evaluated using the methods of IPPC for assessing climate change and available water remaining (AWARE) for water scarcity impacts. Furthermore, we compare the results for all five main climate world regions. With a global sensitivity analysis, we identify the parameters with the highest influence on life-cycle impact for each region. Crop growth features (e.g. node development rate and plant density), energy systems (e.g. heating and cooling supply systems), cover materials and inside temperature are the most influential input parameters for climate change impacts, but the ranking between these parameters depends on the location and climatic conditions of the greenhouse. In cold climates and higher latitudes, heating and electricity (mostly for lighting) processes are on average responsible for 85 to 90% of total climate change impacts. In hot climates, active cooling, in addition to natural ventilation, as well as electricity processes rank the highest (in the range of 60 to 75%) and in moderate climates, heating and cooling systems account for 60 to 70% of climate change impacts. Also for the AWARE results, crop growth related parameters are most influential. Among different processes in greenhouse, irrigation is responsible for 90% of water impacts in all regions, but the absolute magnitude of impact varies greatly among the different greenhouse locations.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(9): 4728-4738, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995027

RESUMO

Because the biosphere is highly heterogeneous, species diversity impacts are typically assessed at local or regional scales. Because regional species richness impact metrics refer to different species compositions, they cannot be easily compared or aggregated to global impacts. Translating regional species richness impacts into global impacts allows for comparisons between impacts and facilitates the estimation of global species extinctions. This requires a conversion (or weighting) factor that takes into account the characteristics of regionally specific species compositions. We developed a methodology for deriving such conversion factors based on species' habitat ranges, International Union for Conservation of Nature threat levels, and species richness. We call these conversion factors global extinction probabilities (GEPs) of the reference location or region. The proposed methodology allows for the calculation of GEPs for any spatial unit and species group for which data on spatial distribution are available and can be implemented in methodologies like life cycle impact assessment. Furthermore, the GEPs can be used for the identification of conservation hot spots. The results of the proposed GEPs (for various taxonomic groups) show that the risk that regional species loss may result in global species extinctions significantly differs per region and informs where irreversible biodiversity impacts are more likely to occur.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Extinção Biológica , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Probabilidade , Projetos de Pesquisa
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 1): 1505-1516, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360280

RESUMO

In this study, the potential global loss of species directly associated with land use in the EU and due to trade with other regions is computed over time, in order to reveal differences in impacts between the considered alternatives of plausible bioenergy policies development in the EU. The spatially explicit study combines a life cycle analysis (LCA) for biodiversity impact assessment with a global high resolution economic land use model. Both impacts of domestic land use and impacts through imports were included for estimating the biodiversity footprint of the member states of the (EU28). The analyzed scenarios assumed similar biomass demand until 2020 but differed thereafter, from keeping the growth of demand for bioenergy constant (CONST), to a strong increase of bioenergy in line with the EU target of decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% by 2050 (EMIRED) and with the baseline (BASE) scenario falling between the other two. As a general trend, the increasing demand for biomass was found to have substantial impact on biodiversity in all scenarios, while the differences between the scenarios were found to be modest. The share caused by imports was 15% of the overall biodiversity impacts detected in this study in the year 2000, and progressively increased to 24% to 26% in 2050, depending on the scenario. The most prominent future change in domestic land use in all scenarios was the expansion of perennial cultivations for energy. In the EMIRED scenario, there is a larger expansion of perennial cultivations and a smaller expansion of cropland in the EU than in the other two scenarios. As the biodiversity damage is smaller for land used for perennial cultivations than for cropland, this development decreases the internal biodiversity damage per unit of land. At the same time, however, the EMIRED scenario also features the largest outsourcing of damage, due to increased import of cropland products from outside the EU for satisfying the EU food demand. These two opposite effects even out each other, resulting in the total biodiversity damage for the EMIRED scenario being only slightly higher than the other two scenarios. The results of this study indicate that increasing cultivation of perennials for bioenergy and the consequent decrease in the availability of cropland for food production in the EU may lead to outsourcing of agricultural products supply to other regions. This development is associated with a leakage of biodiversity damages to species-rich and vulnerable regions outside the EU. In the case of a future increase in bioenergy demand, the combination of biomass supply from sustainable forest management in the EU, combined with imported wood pellets and cultivation of perennial energy crops, appears to be less detrimental to biodiversity than expansion of energy crops in the EU.

7.
Waste Manag ; 81: 11-21, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527027

RESUMO

Multiple international and supranational organizations call upon changes in current waste management practices to play a key role in developing more sustainable economies. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a popular method used to assess the sustainability of future waste management options. The uncertainties about future energy systems and waste compositions, however, may lead to ambiguous LCA results. One way to deal with this challenge is the development of joint energy and waste scenarios to investigate the robustness of waste management options. To date, joint energy and waste scenarios rely on the integration of large economic and engineering models. Complex models can hamper the transparency required for decision-makers to understand and implement LCA recommendations. Here we present the alternative of combining diverse energy scenarios and stakeholder-based waste storylines. This is a more qualitative approach than previous sustainable energy/waste evaluations and has a double aim: to address upfront the energy and waste composition sensitivity and enhance transparency by both relying on well-documented energy scenarios and involving stakeholders in the waste storyline formulation. We apply the approach to the Swiss municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in the context of the energy transition away from nuclear power. Three energy scenarios capture how radical the transition might be, while the storylines reflect societal developments and waste policies leading to low, high, and average MSW amounts. The approach delivers feasibility spaces of energy systems and waste compositions as input to the LCAs. It ensures a high level of transparency, which, in conjunction with the participation of decision-makers, has the potential to increase the chances of implementation of the recommendations based on LCA results.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental
8.
Data Brief ; 19: 1441-1457, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225293

RESUMO

To allow for an up-to-date and geographically specific life cycle assessment, updated and regionally specific life cycle inventories are crucial. This data article present up-to-date life cycle inventories of several collection, sorting and recycling processes of municipal solid waste fractions for life cycle assessments of waste management systems. In total, 190 life cycle inventories for processes within municipal solid waste management were either newly developed or adapted from existing datasets. The data for 51 recycling processes has been collected to update existing processes or create new process models. Two modules for biogenic processes were taken from literature and 10 processes were modeled based on the existing ecoinvent processes with minor adjustments [1]. The substitution of 36 materials from recycling processes was modeled. In addition, the thermal treatment of 12 waste fractions was modeled within 84 life cycle inventories compromising the thermal waste treatment and the recovery and recycling of recovered fractions from fly and bottom ash. The assumptions and the modelling of the waste treatment processes are described. All life cycle inventory datasets which were newly created, updated or modified compared to the original dataset are described and provided as Excel table. The data are associated with the research article "Modular Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management" [2].

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(15): 8479-8487, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985598

RESUMO

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods for land use take both occupation and transformation impacts into account. However, for wetlands and impacts from water consumption, it is so far not possible to account for transformation impacts. It is our goal to close this research gap, by determining wetland recovery times and developing characterization factors for transformation. To do this, we conducted a meta-analysis of 59 studies analyzing biodiversity recovery in wetlands subject to passive and active restoration. Generalized linear models were fitted to the biodiversity data and age, along with other wetland characteristics (such as elevation, latitude, or climate class), and were used as predictor variables. The results indicate that elevation, latitude, type of wetland, and restoration method have the strongest effect on recovery speed. Recovery times vary from less than one year to a maximum of 107 years with passive restoration and 105 years with active restoration. Corresponding transformation characterization factors vary between 10-14 and 10-2 species-eq·year2/m3. Finally, recognizing the relevance of this work to real-world policy issues beyond LCA, we discuss the implications of our estimated restoration times on the feasibility of "biodiversity offsetting". Offsetting utilizes restoration to replace biodiversity value lost due to development impacts. Our work can help stakeholders make informed decisions on whether offsetting represents a legitimate policy option in a particular context.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Áreas Alagadas , Biodiversidade , Clima
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 645: 51-59, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015118

RESUMO

This study considers the life cycle impacts of land use on biodiversity and ecosystem services associated with the production of a ubiquitous food type: breakfast cereals. For biodiversity, the impacts on five taxonomic groups have been assessed: mammals, birds, vascular plants, amphibians and reptiles. For ecosystem services, the potential loss in the following ecosystem services of soil has been considered: biotic production, erosion resistance, groundwater regeneration, infiltration and physicochemical filtration. The findings indicate that the main hotspot for the biodiversity loss is cocoa cultivation for all taxonomic groups, with a contribution of 27-67%. Cocoa is also a major contributor (35%) to the loss of biotic production, while rice is the largest contributor to erosion (34%), reduction in groundwater replenishment (43%) and physiochemical filtration (23%). Corn is the main cause of the infiltration reduction, accounting for 44% of the impact. Unlike the biodiversity impacts, which are almost entirely caused by agricultural activities, non-agricultural land use occurring in other life cycle stages (transport, packaging and manufacturing), has significant contribution to the reductions in groundwater replenishment and infiltration. The impacts on ecosystem services are almost entirely driven by land occupation, while the biodiversity impacts are caused by both land use change and occupation. The identification of cocoa as the main hotspot is unexpected as it is used only in very small quantities (<5% by mass) in breakfast cereals. Its high contribution to the impacts is partly due to the land use change in the ecoregion of the Eastern Guinean forests, which are home to a relatively large number of endemic species. The paper also discusses the limitations of the impact assessment methods for evaluating the biodiversity and ecosystem services and highlights the need for further development of indicators and methods to assess the land use impacts in life cycle assessment.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Grão Comestível , Animais , Desjejum , Ecossistema , Florestas
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(15): 8467-8478, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933691

RESUMO

Household consumption is a main driver of economy and might be regarded as ultimately responsible for environmental impacts occurring over the life cycle of products and services. Given that purchase decisions are made on household levels and are highly behavior-driven, the derivation of targeted environmental measures requires an understanding of household behavior patterns and the resulting environmental impacts. To provide an appropriate basis in support of effective environmental policymaking, we propose a new approach to capture the variability of lifestyle-induced environmental impacts. Lifestyle-archetypes representing prevailing consumption patterns are derived in a two-tiered clustering that applies a Ward-clustering on top of a preconditioning self-organizing map. The environmental impacts associated with specific archetypical behavior are then assessed in a hybrid life cycle assessment framework. The application of this approach to the Swiss Household Budget Survey reveals a global picture of consumption that is in line with previous studies, but also demonstrates that different archetypes can be found within similar socio-economic household types. The appearance of archetypes diverging from general macro-trends indicates that the proposed approach might be useful for an enhanced understanding of consumption patterns and for the future support of policymakers in devising effective environmental measures targeting specific consumer groups.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Meio Ambiente
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 630: 913-921, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499546

RESUMO

Maintaining biotic capacity is of key importance with regard to global food and biomass provision. One reason for productivity loss is soil compaction. In this paper, we use a statistical empirical model to assess long-term yield losses through soil compaction in a regionalized manner, with global coverage and for different agricultural production systems. To facilitate the application of the model, we provide an extensive dataset including crop production data (with 81 crops and corresponding production systems), related machinery application, as well as regionalized soil texture and soil moisture data. Yield loss is modeled for different levels of soil depth (0-25cm, 25-40cm and >40cm depth). This is of particular relevance since compaction in topsoil is classified as reversible in the short term (approximately four years), while recovery of subsoil layers takes much longer. We derive characterization factors quantifying the future average annual yield loss as a fraction of the current yield for 100years and applicable in Life Cycle Assessment studies of agricultural production. The results show that crops requiring enhanced machinery inputs, such as potatoes, have a major influence on soil compaction and yield losses, while differences between mechanized production systems (organic and integrated production) are small. The spatial variations of soil moisture and clay content are reflected in the results showing global hotspot regions especially susceptible to soil compaction, e.g. the South of Brazil, the Caribbean Islands, Central Africa, and the Maharashtra district of India. The impacts of soil compaction can be substantial, with highest annual yield losses in the range of 0.5% (95% percentile) due to one year of potato production (cumulated over 100y this corresponds to a one-time loss of 50% of the present yield). These modeling results demonstrate the necessity for including soil compaction effects in Life Cycle Impact Assessment.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2330, 2018 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402899

RESUMO

This study evaluates the relationship between environmental impacts and diet quality through several environmental and nutritional indicators, using data from over 1400 participants across seven European countries in the Food4Me study. Comparisons of environmental impacts and dietary quality were evaluated across country, gender groups, and dietary patterns. While there was clear variability within the different subsets, there were large differences observed in both dietary quality and environmental impacts between cultures, genders, and dietary patterns. Individuals abstaining from red meat consistently had lower impacts in combination with lower consumption of harmful nutrients (saturated fats, sodium, and sugars) while maintaining average intake of beneficial nutrients. A 'best practice' diet with low impacts, adequate nutrient intake, and low saturated fats, sodium, and sugars, was constructed from the sample and used as a benchmark. Recorded eating patterns were compared to this recommended diet. On average, intakes of sweets, meats, and drinks should be decreased and intakes of vegetables and cereals increased, at varying rates depending on country and gender. However, the study shows a large spread of eating patterns and recommendations for lowering environmental impacts and increasing nutritional quality vary greatly among individuals.


Assuntos
Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Valor Nutritivo , Mudança Climática , Ingestão de Energia , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(19): 11165-11173, 2017 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862841

RESUMO

Reducing food losses and waste is crucial to making our food system more efficient and sustainable. This is the first paper that quantifies the environmental impacts of food waste by distinguishing the various stages of the food value chain, 33 food categories that represent the whole food basket in Switzerland, and including food waste treatment. Environmental impacts are expressed in terms of climate change and biodiversity impacts due to water and land use. Climate change impacts of food waste are highest for fresh vegetables, due to the large amounts wasted, while the specific impact per kg is largest for beef. Biodiversity impacts are mainly caused by cocoa and coffee (16% of total) and by beef (12%). Food waste at the end of the food value chain (households and food services) causes almost 60% of the total climate impacts of food waste, because of the large quantities lost at this stage and the higher accumulated impacts per kg of product. The net environmental benefits from food waste treatment are only 5-10% of the impacts from production and supply of the wasted food. Thus, avoiding food waste should be a first-line priority, while optimizing the method of treatment is less relevant.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Características da Família , Humanos , Suíça
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(14): 7870-8, 2016 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27294983

RESUMO

Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research.


Assuntos
Centrais Elétricas , Vento , Carvão Mineral , Eletricidade , Ruído
16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 23954, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040604

RESUMO

Forests managed for timber have an important role to play in conserving global biodiversity. We evaluated the most common timber production systems worldwide in terms of their impact on local species richness by conducting a categorical meta-analysis. We reviewed 287 published studies containing 1008 comparisons of species richness in managed and unmanaged forests and derived management, taxon, and continent specific effect sizes. We show that in terms of local species richness loss, forest management types can be ranked, from best to worse, as follows: selection and retention systems, reduced impact logging, conventional selective logging, clear-cutting, agroforestry, timber plantations, fuelwood plantations. Next, we calculated the economic profitability in terms of the net present value of timber harvesting from 10 hypothetical wood-producing Forest Management Units (FMU) from around the globe. The ranking of management types is altered when the species loss per unit profit generated from the FMU is considered. This is due to differences in yield, timber species prices, rotation cycle length and production costs. We thus conclude that it would be erroneous to dismiss or prioritize timber production regimes, based solely on their ranking of alpha diversity impacts.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/economia , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Florestas , Densidade Demográfica
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(7): 3928-36, 2016 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26914258

RESUMO

Anthropogenic land use to produce commodities for human consumption is the major driver of global biodiversity loss. Synergistic collaboration between producers and consumers in needed to halt this trend. In this study, we calculate species loss on 5 min × 5 min grid level and per country due to global agriculture, pasture and forestry by combining high-resolution land use data with countryside species area relationship for mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Results show that pasture was the primary driver of biodiversity loss in Madagascar, China and Brazil, while forest land use contributed the most to species loss in DR Congo and Indonesia. Combined with the yield data, we quantified the biodiversity impacts of 1 m(3) of roundwood produced in 139 countries, concluding that tropical countries with low timber yield and a large presence of vulnerable species suffer the highest impact. We also calculated impacts per kg for 160 crops grown in different countries and linked it with FAO food trade data to assess the biodiversity impacts embodied in Swiss food imports. We found that more than 95% of Swiss consumption impacts rest abroad with cocoa, coffee and palm oil imports being responsible for majority of damage.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Análise Espacial , Animais , Aves , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alimentos , Geografia , Humanos , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Suíça
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(21): 12823-31, 2015 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26444519

RESUMO

Human exposure to indoor pollutant concentrations is receiving increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We address this issue by incorporating an indoor compartment into the USEtox model, as well as by providing recommended parameter values for households in four different regions of the world differing geographically, economically, and socially. With these parameter values, intake fractions and comparative toxicity potentials for indoor emissions of dwellings for different air tightness levels were calculated. The resulting intake fractions for indoor exposure vary by 2 orders of magnitude, due to the variability of ventilation rate, building occupation, and volume. To compare health impacts as a result of indoor exposure with those from outdoor exposure, the indoor exposure characterization factors determined with the modified USEtox model were applied in a case study on cooking in non-OECD countries. This study demonstrates the appropriateness and significance of integrating indoor environments into LCA, which ensures a more holistic account of all exposure environments and allows for a better accountability of health impacts. The model, intake fractions, and characterization factors are made available for use in standard LCA studies via www.usetox.org and in standard LCA software.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Culinária/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(20): 12315-23, 2015 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26392153

RESUMO

The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis.


Assuntos
Minerais/química , Água/química , Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Água
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