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1.
J Vet Med Educ ; 46(4): 438-448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756148

RESUMO

The stress of veterinary school and the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary students have been well documented. Pet ownership is known to improve overall health and reduce stress among the public. Yet, for veterinary students, owning a pet (especially a dog) can offer both rewards and challenges. The academic schedule for veterinary students often comprises long hours that can make caring for a dog challenging. This study explores the area of veterinary students' dog care options and perspectives by examining two aspects of this issue: (a) currently available options, as reported by academic administrators, and (b) perceived need for these options, as reported by veterinary students. A survey of associate deans for academic affairs (n = 30) found that routine on-site kenneling options for student-owned dogs are available at eight (26.6%) veterinary schools. Simultaneously, results of a student survey (n = 768) revealed a great desire for on-campus services. Among students who did not have access to on-campus kenneling facilities, 71.5% (453 of 634) felt that creating these options would be important or very important. Across all students surveyed, 76% (581 of 764) felt it would be important to have on-site dog housing/care available. Students experience considerable stress over having to find accommodations or care for their dogs while engaged in academic activities. Thus, providing on-site boarding and care options for student-owned dogs can play an important role in both recruiting prospective veterinary students and enhancing the well-being of those currently in the program.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652882

RESUMO

Dog aggression directed towards humans is a common and serious behavioral and public health issue. This cross-sectional study was designed to gain insights into U.S. small animal veterinarians' views and experiences with the most common dog breeds in the U.S., dog aggression, and breed-specific legislation. An electronic survey was distributed via email to an online veterinary community, and responses were summarized and compared by means of χ2 and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. Most respondents were concerned about the risks of dog bite injuries, but the majority were not in favor of banning specific breeds of dogs in order to enhance public safety. When participants rated the perceived bite risk associated with popular dog breeds, Chow Chows were perceived as the highest risk, with pit bull types categorized as a moderate risk. Golden Retrievers were seen as the most appropriate for families with children. Public education about animal behavior was the most frequently endorsed policy intervention to increase public safety. These findings suggest that most veterinarians feel that banning an entire dog breed is not an effective way to ensure human safety. Instead, most respondents endorsed alternative initiatives, such as public education and stricter leash laws, to reduce the risk of dog bites.

3.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338032

RESUMO

Brain training is a large and expanding industry, and yet there is a recurrent and ongoing debate concerning its scientific basis or evidence for efficacy. Much of evidence for the efficacy of brain training within this debate is from small-scale studies that do not assess the type of "brain training," the specificity of transfer effects, or the length of training required to achieve a generalized effect. To explore these factors, we analyze cross-sectional data from two large Internet-cohort studies (total N = 60,222) to determine whether cognition differs at the population level for individuals who report that they brain train on different devices, and across different timeframes, with programs in common use circa 2010-2013. Examining scores for an assessment of working-memory, reasoning and verbal abilities shows no cognitive advantages for individuals who brain train. This contrasts unfavorably with significant advantages for individuals who regularly undertake other cognitive pursuits such as computer, board and card games. However, finer grained analyses reveal a more complex relationship between brain training and cognitive performance. Specifically, individuals who have just begun to brain train start from a low cognitive baseline compared to individuals who have never engaged in brain training, whereas those who have trained for a year or more have higher working-memory and verbal scores compared to those who have just started, thus suggesting an efficacy for brain training over an extended period of time. The advantages in global function, working memory, and verbal memory after several months of training are plausible and of clinically relevant scale. However, this relationship is not evident for reasoning performance or self-report measures of everyday function (e.g., employment status and problems with attention). These results accord with the view that although brain training programs can produce benefits, these might extend to tasks that are operationally similar to the training regime. Furthermore, the duration of training regime required for effective enhancement of cognitive performance is longer than that applied in most previous studies.

4.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334257

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the impact of the human opioid epidemic and associated shortages in drug supply on US general practice veterinarians. Design: Cross-sectional study. Sample: Members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN). Procedures: An electronic survey was used to examine veterinarians' views regarding opioid use in veterinary medicine and the impact of the opioid shortage on the provision of care. The survey was distributed via the VIN data collection portal from October 12-November 6, 2018. Results: 697 veterinarians completed the survey. Most (99.7%) reported using, dispensing or prescribing opioids in veterinary practice. The most commonly used opioids were buprenorphine, tramadol and butorphanol. While most veterinarians (83.3%) reported difficulty in ordering opioids over the last 6 months, this decreased to 59.0% in the last month. The most difficult drugs to obtain were hydromorphone, morphine, injectable fentanyl, and oxymorphone. The reported rate of difficulty in obtaining all these drugs lessened over time. However, the opioid shortage caused significant difficulty in providing appropriate pain management for 41.1% of participants, and affected the ability of 44.8% of respondents to provide optimal anesthesia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Veterinarians' ability to provide opioids for their patients has been impacted by the opioid shortage, with a greater impact on full mu opioid agonists as compared to drugs like butorphanol, buprenorphine, and tramadol. The results confirm the important role of opioid analgesics in the delivery of modern veterinary medicine and highlight the importance of medical health professionals being able to access these critical medications.

5.
Can Vet J ; 60(7): 749-755, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281193

RESUMO

The legal market for recreational and medicinal cannabis for human consumption is growing worldwide. At the same time, marketing of cannabis products for use in pets is expanding. Yet, there is little research exploring the effects of cannabis use in veterinary medicine. This study used an anonymous, online survey to assess Canadian pet owners' reasons for purchasing cannabis products for their dogs, and their perceptions regarding efficacy of these treatments. Owners purchased cannabis products for treatment of pain, inflammation, and anxiety in dogs, and perceived these preparations to be equally or more effective than conventional medications. Most owners reported only minimal side effects in their dogs. Despite indicating comfort in discussing canine cannabis administration with their veterinarian, most owners relied on commercial websites for product information. The main reasons for choosing cannabis products were the ability to use as an adjuvant to other therapies, and the perception of it being a natural substance. Given this information, it is incumbent upon veterinarians to appropriately counsel their clients, and also to advocate for evidence-based studies to evaluate the efficacy of cannabis use in non-human species.

6.
Vet Rec ; 184(24): 743-744, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197056
7.
J Vet Med Educ ; : 1-12, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009279

RESUMO

Studies of US animal shelters consistently indicate that behavior is often a major reason for relinquishment and, thereby, euthanasia of millions of dogs and cats annually. Even though this is an area in which veterinarians can intervene to support the human-animal bond, prior research has documented that they frequently do not bring the topic up during appointments. This study explored veterinarians' training in animal behavior and behavioral medicine, along with their level of comfort in treating common behavioral problems. An online survey of practicing veterinarians (N = 1,085) found that only 42.8% felt they'd received a significant amount of training in this field during veterinary school, but the majority reported participating in continuing education sessions about behavior. Almost all respondents reported seeing patients with behavioral issues (99.6%), even when the initial appointment was made for other reasons. Participants felt most comfortable discussing inappropriate elimination and begging for food but were least comfortable treating issues involving aggression. Most veterinarians treat their own behavior cases, using a combination of behavior modification techniques and medication. Only 22.1% refer cases needing behavioral therapy to a specialist. Given the prevalence of behavioral problems in companion animals and the potential for early veterinary intervention to play a significant role in animal health, it is important for veterinary schools to include this topic in their curricula. At present, 73% of schools require a course in animal behavior. The release of the new Competency-Based Veterinary Education framework is anticipated to support a greater teaching emphasis in this area.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 274: 335-344, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851596

RESUMO

Decreases in cortical volume (CV), thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) have been reported in individuals with schizophrenia by in vivo MRI studies. However, there are few studies that examine these cortical measures as potential biomarkers of treatment resistance (TR) and treatment response (NTR) in schizophrenia. This study used structural MRI to examine differences in CV, CT, and SA in 42 adults with schizophrenia (TR = 21, NTR = 21) and 23 healthy controls (HC) to test the hypothesis that individuals with TR schizophrenia have significantly greater reductions in these cortical measures compared to individuals with NTR schizophrenia. We found that individuals with TR schizophrenia showed significant reductions in CV and CT compared to individuals with NTR schizophrenia in right frontal and precentral regions, right parietal and occipital cortex, left temporal cortex and bilateral cingulate cortex. In line with previous literature, the temporal lobe and cingulate gyrus in both patient groups showed significant reductions of all three measures when compared to healthy controls. Taken together these results suggest that regional changes in CV and CT may index mechanisms specific to TR schizophrenia and potentially identify patients with TR schizophrenia for earlier treatment.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Occipital/patologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia
9.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 99: 3-10, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684520

RESUMO

The concept of "emergence" has become commonplace in the modelling of complex systems, both natural and man-made; a functional property" emerges" from a system when it cannot be readily explained by the properties of the system's sub-units. A bewildering array of adaptive and sophisticated behaviours can be observed from large ensembles of elementary agents such as ant colonies, bird flocks or by the interactions of elementary material units such as molecules or weather elements. Ultimately, emergence has been adopted as the ontological support of a number of attempts to model brain function. This manuscript aims to clarify the ontology of emergence and delve into its many facets, particularly into its "strong" and "weak" versions that underpin two different approaches to the modelling of behaviour. The first group of models is here represented by the "free energy" principle of brain function and the "integrated information theory" of consciousness. The second group is instead represented by computational models such as oscillatory networks that use mathematical scalable representations to generate emergent behaviours and are then able to bridge neurobiology with higher mental functions. Drawing on the epistemological literature, we observe that due to their loose mechanistic links with the underlying biology, models based on strong forms of emergence are at risk of metaphysical implausibility. This, in practical terms, translates into the over determination that occurs when the proposed model becomes only one of a large set of possible explanations for the observable phenomena. On the other hand, computational models that start from biologically plausible elementary units, hence are weakly emergent, are not limited by ontological faults and, if scalable and able to realistically simulate the hierarchies of brain output, represent a powerful vehicle for future neuroscientific research programmes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso
10.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 254(1): 88-92, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To understand the experiences of owners of dogs with chronic pain and explore owner perceptions of their pets' pain. DESIGN Observational study. SAMPLE 10 owners of dogs with chronic pain. PROCEDURES Owners were interviewed by means of a semistructured and conversational technique. Interviews were then transcribed and analyzed with standard qualitative methodology to code for major themes. RESULTS Major themes that were identified included changes in owner schedule, effects on owner relationships, and necessary resources when owning a pet with chronic pain. Owners discussed their perceptions of their pets' pain, and several participants referred to empathizing with their pet owing to their own experiences with pain. Owners also suggested ways that veterinarians can support them during the experience of owning a dog with chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE By understanding the impact of chronic pain on dog owners and appreciating how owners perceive pain in their pets, veterinarians may be able to provide better care for patients and clients.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/veterinária , Propriedade , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino
11.
Chaos ; 28(8): 083104, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180641

RESUMO

Low-dimensional yet rich dynamics often emerge in the brain. Examples include oscillations and chaotic dynamics during sleep, epilepsy, and voluntary movement. However, a general mechanism for the emergence of low dimensional dynamics remains elusive. Here, we consider Wilson-Cowan networks and demonstrate through numerical and analytical work that homeostatic regulation of the network firing rates can paradoxically lead to a rich dynamical repertoire. The dynamics include mixed-mode oscillations, mixed-mode chaos, and chaotic synchronization when the homeostatic plasticity operates on a moderately slower time scale than the firing rates. This is true for a single recurrently coupled node, pairs of reciprocally coupled nodes without self-coupling, and networks coupled through experimentally determined weights derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data. In all cases, the stability of the homeostatic set point is analytically determined or approximated. The dynamics at the network level are directly determined by the behavior of a single node system through synchronization in both oscillatory and non-oscillatory states. Our results demonstrate that rich dynamics can be preserved under homeostatic regulation or even be caused by homeostatic regulation.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos , Ondas Encefálicas , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Dinâmica não Linear , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Vet Rec ; 182(21): 601, 2018 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549181

RESUMO

The internet has been found to be a popular source for human health information. However, there is a lack of information on pet owners' use of the internet to source pet health information and implications for the owner-veterinarian relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to address this gap in knowledge by focusing on UK pet owners' general use of the internet to find online pet health information and the impact of this behaviour on the owner-veterinarian relationship. An online survey targeting UK pet owners resulted in 571 respondents. Respondents reported the most frequently used source for pet health information was the internet (78.6 per cent), followed by their veterinarian (72 per cent). Veterinarians and other pet owners, however, were rated as the most trustworthy sources. The topics searched for most often online were specific medical problems (61.3 per cent) and diet/nutrition (58.5 per cent). Regarding the owner-veterinarian relationship, 42.1 per cent of participants reported discussing information they found online 'sometimes' with their veterinarian. When asked if their veterinarian recommended specific websites, nearly half (49.6 per cent) stated that their veterinarian 'never' made such recommendations, yet over 90 per cent said they would visit veterinarian-recommended websites.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais de Estimação , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Reino Unido , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia
14.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 252(5): 586-595, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of medical errors (specifically, near misses [NMs] and adverse events [AEs]) and their personal and professional impact on veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Members of the Veterinary Information Network (n = 46,481). PROCEDURES An electronic survey regarding veterinarians' experiences with NMs and AEs was distributed via email to an online veterinary community between September 24 and October 21, 2015. Responses were summarized and compared between genders by means of the χ2 test. RESULTS 606 veterinarians completed the survey (1.3% response rate). Overall, 447 (73.8%) respondents reported involvement in ≥ 1 NM (n = 389 [64.2%]) or AE (179 [29.5%]). The NMs had a short-term (≤ 1 week) adverse impact on professional life for 68.0% (261/384) of respondents and longer-term negative impact for 36.4% (140/385). The impact on respondents' personal lives was similar (63.6% [245/385] and 33.5% [129/385], respectively). For AEs, these numbers were 84.1% (148/176), 56.2% (99/177), 77.8% (137/176), and 50.6% (89/175), respectively. Both NMs and AEs were more likely to negatively impact female veterinarians than male veterinarians. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These findings suggested that many veterinarians experience emotional distress after a medical error. Support should be provided to mitigate this adverse impact on the wellbeing of veterinarians and, potentially, their future patients.


Assuntos
Erros Médicos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , América do Norte , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Brain ; 141(1): 148-164, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186356

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated. We used structural and functional MRI measures of connectivity to investigate this. Corticostriatal functional connectivity in healthy individuals was initially defined using a data-driven approach. A constrained independent component analysis approach was applied in 100 healthy adult dataset from the Human Connectome Project. Diffusion tractography was also performed to generate white matter tracts. The output of this analysis was used to compare corticostriatal functional connectivity and structural integrity between groups of 42 patients with traumatic brain injury and 21 age-matched controls. Subdivisions of the caudate and putamen had distinct patterns of functional connectivity. Traumatic brain injury patients showed disruption to functional connectivity between the caudate and a distributed set of cortical regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex. Cognitive impairments in the patients were mainly seen in processing speed and executive function, as well as increased levels of apathy and fatigue. Abnormalities of caudate functional connectivity correlated with these cognitive impairments, with reductions in right caudate connectivity associated with increased executive dysfunction, information processing speed and memory impairment. Structural connectivity, measured using diffusion tensor imaging between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex was impaired and this also correlated with measures of executive dysfunction. We show for the first time that altered subcortical connectivity is associated with large-scale network disruption in traumatic brain injury and that this disruption is related to the cognitive impairments seen in these patients.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conectoma , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
16.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 145, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667357

RESUMO

In many clinical and scientific situations the optimal neuroimaging sequence may not be known prior to scanning and may differ for each individual being scanned, depending on the exact nature and location of abnormalities. Despite this, the standard approach to data acquisition, in such situations, is to specify the sequence of neuroimaging scans prior to data acquisition and to apply the same scans to all individuals. In this paper, we propose and illustrate an alternative approach, in which data would be analysed as it is acquired and used to choose the future scanning sequence: Active Acquisition. We propose three Active Acquisition scenarios based around multiple MRI modalities. In Scenario 1, we propose a simple use of near-real time analysis to decide whether to acquire more or higher resolution data, or acquire data with a different field -of -view. In Scenario 2, we simulate how multimodal MR data could be actively acquired and combined with a decision tree to classify a known outcome variable (in the simple example here, age). In Scenario 3, we simulate using Bayesian optimisation to actively search across multiple MRI modalities to find those which are most abnormal. These simulations suggest that by actively acquiring data, the scanning sequence can be adapted to each individual. We also consider the many outstanding practical and technical challenges involving normative data acquisition, MR physics, statistical modelling and clinical relevance. Despite these, we argue that  Active Acquisition allows for potentially far more powerful, sensitive or rapid data acquisition, and may open up different perspectives on individual differences, clinical conditions, and biomarker discovery.

17.
J Vet Med Educ ; 45(2): 188-194, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960127

RESUMO

Professional DVM training is inherently stressful and challenging for students. This study evaluated a simple intervention-short breaks during a veterinary pharmacology lecture course in the form of funny/cute animal videos (Mood Induction Procedures, or MIP)-to assess for potential impact on students' mood, interest in material, and perceived understanding of material. Ten YouTube video clips showing cats or dogs were selected to influence students' affective states. The videos were shown in a required pharmacology class offered during the fall semester of the second year of the DVM program at a large, land-grant institution in the western US. The student cohort consisted of 133 students (20 males, 113 females). Twenty days of the course were randomly chosen for the study and ranged from weeks 2 to 13 of the semester. Sessions in which the videos were played were alternated with sessions in which no video was played, for a total of 10 video days and 10 control days. There were significant differences in all three post-class assessment measures between the experimental (video) days and the control days. Results suggest that showing short cute animal videos in the middle of class positively affected students' mood, interest in material, and self-reported understanding of material. While the results of this study are limited to one student cohort at one institution, the ease of implementation of the technique and relatively low stakes support incorporation of the MIP technique across a variety of basic and clinical science courses.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária/métodos , Farmacologia Clínica/educação , Estudantes de Medicina , Gravação em Vídeo , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Front Vet Sci ; 5: 338, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687726

RESUMO

Due to the myriad of laws concerning cannabis, there is little empirical research regarding the veterinary use of cannabidiol (CBD). This study used the Veterinary Information Network (VIN) to gauge US veterinarians' knowledge level, views and experiences related to the use of cannabinoids in the medical treatment of dogs. Participants (n = 2130) completed an anonymous, online survey. Results were analyzed based on legal status of recreational marijuana in the participants' state of practice, and year of graduation from veterinary school. Participants felt comfortable in their knowledge of the differences between Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and marijuana, as well as the toxic effects of marijuana in dogs. Most veterinarians (61.5%) felt comfortable discussing the use of CBD with their colleagues, but only 45.5% felt comfortable discussing this topic with clients. No differences were found based on state of practice, but recent graduates were less comfortable discussing the topic. Veterinarians and clients in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to talk about the use of CBD products to treat canine ailments than those in other states. Overall, CBD was most frequently discussed as a potential treatment for pain management, anxiety and seizures. Veterinarians practicing in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to advise their clients and recommend the use of CBD, while there was no difference in the likelihood of prescribing CBD products. Recent veterinary graduates were less likely to recommend or prescribe CBD. The most commonly used CBD formulations were oil/extract and edibles. These were most helpful in providing analgesia for chronic and acute pain, relieving anxiety and decreasing seizure frequency/severity. The most commonly reported side-effect was sedation. Participants felt their state veterinary associations and veterinary boards did not provide sufficient guidance for them to practice within applicable laws. Recent graduates and those practicing in states with legalized recreational marijuana were more likely to agree that research regarding the use of CBD in dogs is needed. These same groups also felt that marijuana and CBD should not remain classified as Schedule I drugs. Most participants agreed that both marijuana and CBD products offer benefits for humans and expressed support for use of CBD products for animals.

19.
Front Vet Sci ; 4: 180, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098148

RESUMO

The Internet is a commonly used resource for accessing health information. Despite the Internet's popularity in the human health field, little is known about the Internet's impact on veterinarians, their clients, and the veterinarian-client relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of veterinarians from the United Kingdom of clients' use of the Internet and the perceived impact on pet health and the veterinarian-client relationship. A survey was distributed between January 4 and March 3, 2017, via an online link. In total, 100 veterinarians completed the survey. This study found that most UK veterinarians feel their clients access the Internet to find pet health information, yet often do not understand what they read online. Importantly, 40% of veterinarians stated that the Internet has a negative impact on companion animal health. This small-scale study found mixed opinions regarding veterinarians' perceptions of their clients' use of the Internet and the potential impact it has on the client-veterinarian relationship. Research on clients' actual use of the Internet and their associated perceptions is a next logical step.

20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 13(8): e1005721, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837556

RESUMO

In recent years, there have been many computational simulations of spontaneous neural dynamics. Here, we describe a simple model of spontaneous neural dynamics that controls an agent moving in a simple virtual environment. These dynamics generate interesting brain-environment feedback interactions that rapidly destabilize neural and behavioral dynamics demonstrating the need for homeostatic mechanisms. We investigate roles for homeostatic plasticity both locally (local inhibition adjusting to balance excitatory input) as well as more globally (regional "task negative" activity that compensates for "task positive", sensory input in another region) balancing neural activity and leading to more stable behavior (trajectories through the environment). Our results suggest complementary functional roles for both local and macroscale mechanisms in maintaining neural and behavioral dynamics and a novel functional role for macroscopic "task-negative" patterns of activity (e.g., the default mode network).


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Neurológicos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conectoma , Meio Ambiente , Humanos
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