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1.
Eur J Intern Med ; 42: 54-60, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of ethinylestradiol, one of the active ingredients in combined oral contraceptives, affects the incidence of venous thrombosis. To explain why some women develop thrombosis when using oral contraceptives and others do not, we hypothesized a role for the first-pass metabolism of ethinylestradiol in the liver. We set out to determine the association between genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of ethinylestradiol, venous thrombosis risk and the effect on Sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) levels. METHODS: Premenopausal women were included from two case-control studies: LETS (103 cases; 159 controls) and MEGA (397 cases; 796 controls). Haplotype-tagging SNPs were selected in 11 candidate genes; COMT, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, SULT1A1, SULT1E1, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A9, UGT2B7. Venous thrombosis risk was expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For SHBG levels, mean differences with 95%CI were estimated in combined oral contraceptive-using control subjects from the MEGA study. RESULTS: Two copies of haplotype D in the UGT2B7 gene increased venous thrombosis risk (ORLETS: 3.78; ORMEGA: 2.61) as well as SHBG levels (mean difference 27.6nmol/L, 95%CI: -61.7 to 116.9 compared with no copies) in oral contraceptive users and not in non-users. In oral contraceptive users, haplotype A and B in the CYP3A4 gene were associated with venous thrombosis risk, but not in non-users; however, the effect on SHBG levels was not directional with the risk. None of the other haplotypes were associated with venous thrombosis. CONCLUSION: Genetic variation in the UGT2B7 gene may, in part, explain venous thrombosis risk in combined oral contraceptive users.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/sangue , Etinilestradiol/sangue , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Trombose Venosa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169849, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28081266

RESUMO

In humans, the defective invasion of the maternal endometrium by fetal extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) can lead to insufficient perfusion of the placenta, resulting in pregnancy complications that can put both mother and baby at risk. To study the invasion of maternal endometrium between (W)5.5-12 weeks of gestation by EVTs, we combined fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry to determine the presence of (male) EVTs in the vasculature of the maternal decidua. We observed that interstitial mononuclear EVTs directly entered decidual veins and lymphatics from W5.5. This invasion of decidual veins and lymphatics occurred long before endovascular EVTs remodelled decidual spiral arteries. This unexpected early entrance of interstitial mononuclear EVTs in the maternal circulation does not seem to contribute to the materno-placental vascular connection directly, but rather to establish (and expand) the materno-fetal interface through an alternative vascular route.


Assuntos
Decídua/irrigação sanguínea , Gravidez/psicologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/fisiologia , Artérias/citologia , Artérias/metabolismo , Decídua/citologia , Decídua/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Trofoblastos/citologia , Veias/citologia , Veias/metabolismo
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20162016 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27655876

RESUMO

Aggression in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) presents an important therapeutic challenge. Conventional treatment appears to be inadequate in a number of cases. The occurrence of severe aggressive symptoms since the inception of adolescence in a male patient with ASD suggested a hormonal influence by androgens. Conventional treatment with antipsychotic and antiepileptic drugs and benzodiazepines was ineffective. A subcutaneous long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) injection was given on a monthly basis resulting in a substantial improvement in his aggressive behaviour and renewed socialisation.

4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (8): CD008815, 2016 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27567593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) are appropriate for many women who cannot or should not take estrogen. POCs include injectables, intrauterine contraception, implants, and oral contraceptives. Many POCs are long-acting, cost-effective methods of preventing pregnancy. However, concern about weight gain can deter the initiation of contraceptives and cause early discontinuation among users. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate the association between progestin-only contraceptive use and changes in body weight. SEARCH METHODS: Until 4 August 2016, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. For the initial review, we contacted investigators to identify other trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered comparative studies that examined a POC versus another contraceptive method or no contraceptive. The primary outcome was mean change in body weight or mean change in body composition. We also considered the dichotomous outcome of loss or gain of a specified amount of weight. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors extracted the data. Non-randomized studies (NRS) need to control for confounding factors. We used adjusted measures for the primary effects in NRS or the results of matched analysis from paired samples. If the report did not provide adjusted measures for the primary analysis, we used unadjusted outcomes. For RCTs and NRS without adjusted measures, we computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous variables. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. MAIN RESULTS: We found 22 eligible studies that included a total of 11,450 women. With 6 NRS added to this update, the review includes 17 NRS and 5 RCTs. By contraceptive method, the review has 16 studies of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), 4 of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraception (LNG-IUC), 5 for implants, and 2 for progestin-only pills.Comparison groups did not differ significantly for weight change or other body composition measure in 15 studies. Five studies with moderate or low quality evidence showed differences between study arms. Two studies of a six-rod implant also indicated some differences, but the evidence was low quality.Three studies showed differences for DMPA users compared with women not using a hormonal method. In a retrospective study, weight gain (kg) was greater for DMPA versus copper (Cu) IUC in years one (MD 2.28, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.77), two (MD 2.71, 95% CI 2.12 to 3.30), and three (MD 3.17, 95% CI 2.51 to 3.83). A prospective study showed adolescents using DMPA had a greater increase in body fat (%) compared with a group not using a hormonal method (MD 11.00, 95% CI 2.64 to 19.36). The DMPA group also had a greater decrease in lean body mass (%) (MD -4.00, 95% CI -6.93 to -1.07). A more recent retrospective study reported greater mean increases with use of DMPA versus Cu IUC for weight (kg) at years 1 (1.3 vs 0.2), 4 (3.5 vs 1.9), and 10 (6.6 vs 4.9).Two studies reported a greater mean increase in body fat mass (%) for POC users versus women not using a hormonal method. The method was LNG-IUC in two studies (reported means 2.5 versus -1.3; P = 0.029); (MD 1.60, 95% CI 0.45 to 2.75). One also studied a desogestrel-containing pill (MD 3.30, 95% CI 2.08 to 4.52). Both studies showed a greater decrease in lean body mass among POC users. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We considered the overall quality of evidence to be low; more than half of the studies had low quality evidence. The main reasons for downgrading were lack of randomizations (NRS) and high loss to follow-up or early discontinuation.These 22 studies showed limited evidence of change in weight or body composition with use of POCs. Mean weight gain at 6 or 12 months was less than 2 kg (4.4 lb) for most studies. Those with multiyear data showed mean weight change was approximately twice as much at two to four years than at one year, but generally the study groups did not differ significantly. Appropriate counseling about typical weight gain may help reduce discontinuation of contraceptives due to perceptions of weight gain.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Levanogestrel/farmacologia , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/farmacologia , Progestinas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/farmacologia , Implantes de Medicamento , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (8): CD008452, 2016 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27537097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions around the world. Effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives may be related to metabolic changes in obesity or to greater body mass or body fat. Hormonal contraceptives include oral contraceptives (OCs), injectables, implants, hormonal intrauterine contraception (IUC), the transdermal patch, and the vaginal ring. Given the prevalence of overweight and obesity, the public health impact of any effect on contraceptive efficacy could be substantial. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives in preventing pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese versus women with a lower body mass index (BMI) or weight. SEARCH METHODS: Until 4 August 2016, we searched for studies in PubMed (MEDLINE), CENTRAL, POPLINE, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. We examined reference lists of pertinent articles to identify other studies. For the initial review, we wrote to investigators to find additional published or unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All study designs were eligible. The study could have examined any type of hormonal contraceptive. Reports had to contain information on the specific contraceptive methods used. The primary outcome was pregnancy. Overweight or obese women must have been identified by an analysis cutoff for weight or BMI (kg/m(2)). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted the data. One entered the data into RevMan and a second verified accuracy. The main comparisons were between overweight or obese women and women of lower weight or BMI. We examined the quality of evidence using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Where available, we included life-table rates. We also used unadjusted pregnancy rates, relative risk (RR), or rate ratio when those were the only results provided. For dichotomous variables, we computed an odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). MAIN RESULTS: With 8 studies added in this update, 17 met our inclusion criteria and had a total of 63,813 women. We focus here on 12 studies that provided high, moderate, or low quality evidence. Most did not show a higher pregnancy risk among overweight or obese women. Of five COC studies, two found BMI to be associated with pregnancy but in different directions. With an OC containing norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol (EE), pregnancy risk was higher for overweight women, i.e. with BMI ≥ 25 versus those with BMI < 25 (reported relative risk 2.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.13). In contrast, a trial using an OC with levonorgestrel and EE reported a Pearl Index of 0 for obese women (BMI ≥ 30) versus 5.59 for nonobese women (BMI < 30). The same trial tested a transdermal patch containing levonorgestrel and EE. Within the patch group, obese women in the "treatment-compliant" subgroup had a higher reported Pearl Index than nonobese women (4.63 versus 2.15). Of five implant studies, two that examined the six-capsule levonorgestrel implant showed differences in pregnancy by weight. One study showed higher weight was associated with higher pregnancy rate in years 6 and 7 combined (reported P < 0.05). In the other, pregnancy rates differed in year 5 among the lower weight groups only (reported P < 0.01) and did not involve women weighing 70 kg or more.Analysis of data from other contraceptive methods indicated no association of pregnancy with overweight or obesity. These included depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (subcutaneous), levonorgestrel IUC, the two-rod levonorgestrel implant, and the etonogestrel implant. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence generally did not indicate an association between higher BMI or weight and effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. However, we found few studies for most contraceptive methods. Studies using BMI, rather than weight alone, can provide information about whether body composition is related to contraceptive effectiveness. The contraceptive methods examined here are among the most effective when used according to the recommended regimen.We considered the overall quality of evidence to be low for the objectives of this review. More recent reports provided evidence of varying quality, while the quality was generally low for older studies. For many trials the quality would be higher for their original purpose rather than the non-randomized comparisons here. Investigators should consider adjusting for potential confounding related to BMI or contraceptive effectiveness. Newer studies included a greater proportion of overweight or obese women, which helps in examining effectiveness and side effects of hormonal contraceptives within those groups.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Obesidade , Taxa de Gravidez , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (8): CD011054, 2015 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26310586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have been associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombosis, i.e. myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. However, as these diseases are rare in young women and as many types of combined oral contraception exist, the magnitude of the risk and the effect of different hormonal contents of COC preparations remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke in users compared with non-users of different types, doses and generations of combined oral contraception. SEARCH METHODS: We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE (1966 to July 08, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to July 08, 2015), Popline (1970 to July 08, 2015) and LILACS (1985 to July 08, 2015) for eligible studies, without language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included observational studies that recruited women in the reproductive age group (18 to 50 years) and compared the risk of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke between users and non-users of COCs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected relevant studies and extracted data. We pooled relative risks ()(combined odds ratios and one incidence rate ratio) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke in users versus non-users of COCs.We combined the outcomes of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke and also analysed these outcomes separately. Analyses were stratified according to estrogen dose and progestagen type. MAIN RESULTS: In total, we identified 1298 publications through the search strategy. We included 28 publications reporting on 24 studies. COC users were at increased risk of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke compared with non-users: relative risk (RR) 1.6 (95% CI 1.3-1.9).These RRs were similar for myocardial infarction (1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1) and ischemic stroke (1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.9). The risks did not vary clearly according to the generation of progestagen or according to progestagen type. When we stratified preparations according to estrogen dose, the risk of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke seemed to increase with higher doses of estrogen. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed that the risk of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke was 1.6-fold increased in women using COCs . The risk was highest for pills with > 50 microgram estrogen. When combined with the results of studies on the risk of venous thrombosis in COC users, it seems that the COC pill containing levonorgestrel and 30 µg of estrogen is the safest oral form of hormonal contraception.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (7): CD009849, 2015 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26195091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related decline in bone mass increases the risk of skeletal fractures, especially those of the hip, spine, and wrist. Steroidal contraceptives have been associated with changes in bone mineral density in women. Whether such changes affect the risk of fractures later in life is unclear. Hormonal contraceptives are among the most effective and most widely-used contraceptives. Concern about fractures may limit the use of these effective contraceptives. Observational studies can collect data on premenopausal contraceptive use as well as fracture incidence later in life. OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed the evidence from observational studies of hormonal contraceptive use for contraception and the risk of fracture in women. SEARCH METHODS: Through June 2015, we searched for observational studies. The databases included PubMed, POPLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), LILACS, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. We also searched for recent clinical trials through ClinicalTrials.gov and the ICTRP. For other studies, we examined reference lists of relevant articles and wrote to investigators for additional reports. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cohort and case-control studies of hormonal contraceptive use. Interventions included comparisons of a hormonal contraceptive with a non-hormonal contraceptive, no contraceptive, or another hormonal contraceptive. The primary outcome was the risk of fracture. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted the data. One author entered the data into RevMan, and a second author verified accuracy. We examined the quality of evidence using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS), developed for case-control and cohort studies. Sensitivity analysis included studies of moderate or high quality based on our assessment with the NOS.Given the need to control for confounding factors in observational studies, we used adjusted estimates from the models as reported by the authors. Where we did not have adjusted analyses, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Due to varied study designs, we did not conduct meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We included 14 studies (7 case-control and 7 cohort studies). These examined oral contraceptives (OCs), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and the hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). This section focuses on the sensitivity analysis with six studies that provided moderate or high quality evidence.All six studies examined oral contraceptive use. We noted few associations with fracture risk. One cohort study reported OC ever-users had increased risk for all fractures (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.34). However, a case-control study with later data from a subset reported no association except for those with 10 years or more since use (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.33). Another case-control study reported increased risk only for those who had 10 or more prescriptions (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16). A cohort study of postmenopausal women found no increased fracture risk for OC use after excluding women with prior fracture. Two other studies found little evidence of association between OC use and fracture risk. A cohort study noted increased risk for subgroups, such as those with longer use or specific intervals since use. A case-control study reported increased risk for any fracture only among young women with less than average use.Two case-control studies also examined progestin-only contraceptives. One reported increased fracture risk for DMPA ever-use (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.06), more than four years of use (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.53), and women over 50 years old. The other reported increased risk for any past use, including one or two prescriptions (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29) and for current use of 3 to 9 prescriptions (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.60) or 10 or more (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.78). For the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD, one study reported reduced fracture risk for ever-use (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.87) and for longer use. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Observational studies do not indicate an overall association between oral contraceptive use and fracture risk. Some reported increased risk for specific user subgroups. DMPA users may have an increased fracture risk. One study indicated hormonal IUD use may be associated with decreased risk. Observational studies need adjusted analysis because the comparison groups usually differ. Investigators should be clear about the variables examined in multivariate analysis.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/induzido quimicamente , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados/efeitos adversos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
BMC Dev Biol ; 15: 4, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25605128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In society, there is a clear need to improve the success rate of techniques to restore fertility. Therefore a deeper knowledge of the dynamics of the complex molecular environment that regulates human gametogenesis and (early) folliculogenesis in vivo is necessary. Here, we have studied these processes focusing on the formation of the follicular basement membrane (BM) in vivo. RESULTS: The distribution of the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin by week 10 of gestation (W10) in the ovarian cortex revealed the existence of ovarian cords and of a distinct mesenchymal compartment, resembling the organization in the male gonads. By W17, the first primordial follicles were assembled individually in that (cortical) mesenchymal compartment and were already encapsulated by a BM of collagen IV and laminin, but not fibronectin. In adults, in the primary and secondary follicles, collagen IV, laminin and to a lesser extent fibronectin were prominent in the follicular BM. CONCLUSIONS: The ECM-molecular niche compartimentalizes the female gonads from the time of germ cell colonization until adulthood. This knowledge may contribute to improve methods to recreate the environment needed for successful folliculogenesis in vitro and that would benefit a large number of infertility patients.


Assuntos
Membrana Basal/fisiologia , Gametogênese , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Membrana Basal/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo IV/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ovário/embriologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/metabolismo
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (3): CD010813, 2014 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24590565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). The VT risk has been evaluated for many estrogen doses and progestagen types contained in COC but no comprehensive comparison involving commonly used COC is available. OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. SEARCH METHODS: Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and ScienceDirect) were searched in 22 April 2013 for eligible studies, without language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected studies including healthy women taking COC with VT as outcome. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected studies. MAIN RESULTS: 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 0.19 and 0.37 per 1 000 person years, in line with previously reported incidences of 0,16 per 1 000 person years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 µg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene, desogestrel, and levonorgestrel, with higher doses being associated with higher thrombosis risk. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: All combined oral contraceptives investigated in this analysis were associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. The effect size depended both on the progestogen used and the dose of ethinylestradiol. Risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 µg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate and drospirenone were similar, and about 50-80% higher than with levonorgestrel. The combined oral contraceptive with the lowest possible dose of ethinylestradiol and good compliance should be prescribed-that is, 30 µg ethinylestradiol with levonorgestrel.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/efeitos adversos , Embolia Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Trombose Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Ciproterona/efeitos adversos , Desogestrel/efeitos adversos , Etinilestradiol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Levanogestrel/efeitos adversos , Norpregnenos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (1): CD003987, 2014 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24477630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight gain is often considered a side effect of combination hormonal contraceptives, and many women and clinicians believe that an association exists. Concern about weight gain can limit the use of this highly effective method of contraception by deterring the initiation of its use and causing early discontinuation among users. However, a causal relationship between combination contraceptives and weight gain has not been established. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the review was to evaluate the potential association between combination contraceptive use and changes in weight. SEARCH METHODS: In November 2013, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for studies of combination contraceptives, as well as ClinicalTrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). For the initial review, we also wrote to known investigators and manufacturers to request information about other published or unpublished trials not discovered in our search. SELECTION CRITERIA: All English-language, randomized controlled trials were eligible if they had at least three treatment cycles and compared a combination contraceptive to a placebo or to a combination contraceptive that differed in drug, dosage, regimen, or study length. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: All titles and abstracts located in the literature searches were assessed. Data were entered and analyzed with RevMan. A second author verified the data entered. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mean change in weight between baseline and post-treatment measurements using a fixed-effect model. For categorical data, such as the proportion of women who gained or lost more than a specified amount of weight, the Peto odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. MAIN RESULTS: We found 49 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The trials included 85 weight change comparisons for 52 distinct contraceptive pairs (or placebos). The four trials with a placebo or no intervention group did not find evidence supporting a causal association between combination oral contraceptives or a combination skin patch and weight change. Most comparisons of different combination contraceptives showed no substantial difference in weight. In addition, discontinuation of combination contraceptives because of weight change did not differ between groups where this was studied. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence was insufficient to determine the effect of combination contraceptives on weight, but no large effect was evident. Trials to evaluate the link between combination contraceptives and weight change require a placebo or non-hormonal group to control for other factors, including changes in weight over time.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Administração Cutânea , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
12.
Blood ; 122(26): 4264-9, 2013 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24184685

RESUMO

Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) increases the risk of venous thrombosis fourfold to sixfold. As most individuals with SVT do not develop venous thrombosis, additional risk factors may explain the risk of developing a venous thrombosis. In the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis study, we assessed the risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with previous SVT and a mild thrombotic risk factor (smoking or overweight/obesity), a strong risk factor (surgery, hospitalization, plaster cast immobilization, or malignancy), or a reproductive factor in women (oral contraception, postmenopausal hormone therapy, or pregnancy/puerperium). Individuals with previous SVT alone had a 5.5-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-6.8) increased risk of venous thrombosis. This was 9.3 (95% CI, 7.2-12.1) combined with a mild thrombotic risk factor, 31.4 (95% CI, 14.6-67.5) with a strong risk factor, and 34.9 (95% CI, 19.1-63.8) in women with a reproductive risk factor. The highest separate risk estimates were found for SVT with surgery (42.5; 95% CI, 10.2-177.6), hospitalization (49.8; 95% CI, 11.9-209.2), or oral contraception (43.0; 95% CI, 15.5-119.3 in women). In conclusion, the risk of venous thrombosis is markedly increased in individuals with previous SVT who have an acquired thrombotic risk factor.


Assuntos
Vasculite/sangue , Vasculite/epidemiologia , Veias , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ ; 347: f5298, 2013 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24030561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Academic Search Premier, and ScienceDirect up to 22 April 2013. REVIEW METHODS: Observational studies that assessed the effect of combined oral contraceptives on venous thrombosis in healthy women. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported. The requirement for crude numbers did not allow adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 1.9 and 3.7 per 10,000 woman years, in line with previously reported incidences of 1-6 per 10,000 woman years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 µg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene, desogestrel, and levonorgestrel, with higher doses being associated with higher thrombosis risk. CONCLUSION: All combined oral contraceptives investigated in this analysis were associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. The effect size depended both on the progestogen used and the dose of ethinylestradiol.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Etinilestradiol/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Trombose Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etinilestradiol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (7): CD008815, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23821307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) are appropriate for many women who cannot or should not take estrogen. Many POCs are long-acting, cost-effective methods of preventing pregnancy. However, concern about weight gain can deter the initiation of contraceptives and cause early discontinuation among users. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate the association between progestin-only contraceptive use and changes in body weight. SEARCH METHODS: Through May 2013, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. The 2010 search also included EMBASE. For the initial review, we contacted investigators to identify other trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All comparative studies were eligible that examined a POC versus another contraceptive method or no contraceptive. The primary outcome was mean change in body weight or mean change in body composition. We also considered the dichotomous outcome of loss or gain of a specified amount of weight. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors extracted the data. We computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous variables. For dichotomous outcomes, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was calculated. MAIN RESULTS: We found 16 studies; one examined progestin-only pills, one studied the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), four examined an implant, and 10 focused on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Outcomes examined were changes in body weight only (14 studies), changes in both body weight and body composition (1 study), and changes in body composition only (1 study). We did not conduct meta-analysis due to the various contraceptive methods and weight change measures.Comparison groups did not differ significantly for weight change in 12 studies. However, three studies showed weight change differences for POC users compared to women not using a hormonal method. In one study, weight gain (kg) was greater for the DMPA group than the group using a non-hormonal IUD in years one through three [(MD 2.28; 95% CI 1.79 to 2.77), (MD 2.71, 95% CI 2.12 to 3.30), and (MD 3.17; 95% CI 2.51 to 3.83), respectively]. The differences were notable within the normal weight and overweight subgroups. Two implant studies also showed differences in weight change. The implant group (six-capsule) had greater weight gain (kg) compared to the group using a non-hormonal IUD in both studies [(MD 0.47 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.65); (MD 1.10; 95% CI 0.36 to 1.84)]. In one of those studies, the implant group also had greater weight gain than a group using a barrier method or no contraceptive (MD 0.74; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.96).The two studies that assessed body composition change showed differences between POC users and women not using a hormonal method. Adolescents using DMPA had a greater increase in body fat (%) compared to a group not using a hormonal method (MD 11.00; 95% CI 2.64 to 19.36). The DMPA group also had a greater decrease in lean body mass (%) (MD -4.00; 95% CI -6.93 to -1.07). The other study reported differences between an LNG-IUS group and a non-hormonal IUD group in percent change in body fat mass (2.5% versus -1.3%, respectively; reported P value = 0.029) and percent change in lean body mass (-1.4% versus 1.0%, respectively; reported P value = 0.027). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The overall quality of evidence was moderate to low, given that the studies were evenly divided across the evidence quality groups (high, moderate, low, or very low quality). We found limited evidence of weight gain when using POCs. Mean gain was less than 2 kg for most studies up to 12 months. Weight change for the POC group generally did not differ significantly from that of the comparison group using another contraceptive. Two studies that assessed body composition showed that POC users had greater increases in body fat and decreases in lean body mass compared to users of non-hormonal methods. Appropriate counseling about typical weight gain may help reduce discontinuation of contraceptives due to perceptions of weight gain.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/farmacologia , Levanogestrel/farmacologia , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/farmacologia , Progestinas/farmacologia , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (4): CD008452, 2013 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23633356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions around the world. Effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives may be related to metabolic changes in obesity or greater body mass or body fat. Hormonal contraceptives mainly include oral contraceptives, injectables and implants, the transdermal patch, and the vaginal ring. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives among overweight and obese women. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancies among women who are overweight or obese versus women of lower weight or body mass index (BMI). SEARCH METHODS: Through January 2013, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. The previous search also included EMBASE. We contacted investigators to identify other trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All study designs were eligible. Any type of hormonal contraceptive could have been examined. Reports had to contain information on the specific contraceptive method(s). The primary outcome was pregnancy. Overweight or obese women must have been identified by an analysis cutoff for weight or BMI (kg/m(2)). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were abstracted by two authors. Life-table rates were included where available. For dichotomous variables, we computed an odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). We used reported pregnancy rates or relative risk (RR) when those were the only results provided. The main comparisons were between overweight or obese women and women of lower weight or BMI. We assessed the quality of evidence for this review. MAIN RESULTS: We found nine reports with data from 13 trials that included a total of 49,712 women. Five reports from 2002 to 2012 compared BMI groups; of those, one reported a higher pregnancy risk for overweight or obese women. In that trial, women assigned to an oral contraceptive containing norethindrone acetate 1.0 mg plus EE 20 µg and having a BMI at least 25 had greater pregnancy risk compared to those with BMI less than 25 (reported RR 2.49; 95% CI 1.01 to 6.13). The comparisons reported in the other four studies were not significantly different for pregnancy. These included studies of a combined oral contraceptive (COC), a transdermal patch, an implant, and an injectable. The COC study showed no trend by BMI or weight. With the transdermal patch, body weight was associated with pregnancy (reported P < 0.001) but BMI was not. The implant study had one pregnancy and the injectable study reported no pregnancies.Four studies from the 1990s used weight alone rather than BMI. Results were mixed. Studies of a vaginal ring (never marketed) and a six-rod implant showed higher pregnancy rates for women weighing at least 70 kg versus those weighing less than 70 kg (reported P values: 0.0013 and < 0.05, respectively). However, two implant studies showed no trend by body weight. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence did not generally show an association of BMI with effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. However, the evidence was limited for any individual contraceptive method. Studies using BMI (rather than weight alone) can provide more information about whether body composition is related to contraceptive effectiveness. The efficacy of subdermal implants and injectable contraceptives may be unaffected by body mass. The contraceptive methods examined here are among the most effective when the recommended regimen is followed.The overall quality of evidence was low for this review. More recent reports provided moderate quality evidence, while the older studies provided evidence of low or very low quality for our purposes. Investigators should consider adjusting for potential confounding related to BMI. Trials should be designed to include sufficient numbers of overweight or obese women to adequately examine effectiveness and side effects of hormonal contraceptives within those groups.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Obesidade , Taxa de Gravidez , Peso Corporal , Anticoncepção/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Thromb Haemost ; 109(4): 606-13, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23407778

RESUMO

Use of combined oral contraceptives is associated with a three- to six-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis. Hormonal contraceptives induce acquired resistance to activated protein C (APC), which predicts the risk of venous thrombosis. The biological basis of the acquired APC resistance is unknown. Free protein S (PS) and free tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) are the two main determinants of APC. Our objective was to assess the effect of both hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptives with different routes of administration on free TFPI and free PS levels. We conducted an observational study in 243 users of different contraceptives and measured APC sensitivity ratios (nAPCsr), free TFPI and free PS levels. Users of contraceptives with the highest risk of venous thrombosis as reported in recent literature, had the lowest free TFPI and free PS levels, and vice versa, women who used contraceptives with the lowest risk of venous thrombosis had the highest free TFPI and free PS levels. An association was observed between levels of free TFPI and nAPCsr, and between free PS and nAPCsr. The effect of oral contraceptives on TFPI and PS is a possible explanation for the increased risk of venous thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives.


Assuntos
Resistência à Proteína C Ativada/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Trombose Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Resistência à Proteína C Ativada/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos de Cobre , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína S , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neurology ; 79(12): 1230-6, 2012 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22955127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on female risk factors and risk of SAH. METHODS: We searched Medline and EMBASE for articles published between January 1985 and July 2011. For all studies fulfilling the predefined criteria, we obtained risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for female risk factors. We pooled crude and adjusted ORs (aORs) with a general variance-based random-effects method. We evaluated methodologic quality with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: We included 16 studies; 8 had good quality. Twelve studies had a case-control design, 3 studies had a longitudinal design, and 1 study had a case-crossover design. Overall aORs were 1.31 (95% CI 1.05-1.64; 5 studies, 2 with good quality [GQ]) for current use of combined oral contraceptives (COC), 0.90 (95% CI 0.74-1.09; 7 studies, 4 GQ) for ever COC use, 0.86 (95% CI 0.69-1.08; 6 studies, 3 GQ) for current use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), 0.74 (95% CI 0.54-1.00; 3 studies, 1 GQ) for ever use of HRT, and 1.29 (95% CI 1.03-1.61; 5 studies, 2 GQ) for postmenopausal women. Data on parity and age at menarche were heterogeneous. Risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was not increased during pregnancy, labor, or puerperium (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-0.90; 1 GQ study). CONCLUSIONS: Female hormone levels might influence risk of SAH, but the pathophysiology of this effect and its influence on the difference in incidence of SAH between the sexes remains unclear. Further studies are needed to identify modifiable risk factors of SAH in women older than age 50.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Menopausa , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 12: 29, 2012 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22989359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Costs of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are high, which is partly due to the use of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is usually administered in a standard dose. However, due to differences in ovarian reserve between women, ovarian response also differs with potential negative consequences on pregnancy rates. A Markov decision-analytic model showed that FSH dose individualisation according to ovarian reserve is likely to be cost-effective in women who are eligible for IVF. However, this has never been confirmed in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT). The aim of the present study is to assess whether an individualised FSH dose regime based on an ovarian reserve test (ORT) is more cost-effective than a standard dose regime. METHODS/DESIGN: Multicentre RCT in subfertile women indicated for a first IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, who are aged < 44 years, have a regular menstrual cycle and no major abnormalities at transvaginal sonography. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, endocrine or metabolic abnormalities and women undergoing IVF with oocyte donation, will not be included. Ovarian reserve will be assessed by measuring the antral follicle count. Women with a predicted poor response or hyperresponse will be randomised for a standard versus an individualised FSH regime (150 IU/day, 225-450 IU/day and 100 IU/day, respectively). Participants will undergo a maximum of three stimulation cycles during maximally 18 months. The primary study outcome is the cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate resulting in live birth achieved within 18 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are parameters for ovarian response, multiple pregnancies, number of cycles needed per live birth, total IU of FSH per stimulation cycle, and costs. All data will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed to assess whether the health and associated economic benefits of individualised treatment of subfertile women outweigh the additional costs of an ORT. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will be integrated into a decision model that compares cost-effectiveness of the three dose-adjustment strategies to a standard dose strategy. The study outcomes will provide scientific foundation for national and international guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTR2657.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Esquema de Medicação , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/economia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/economia , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/economia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Países Baixos , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Resultado do Tratamento
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