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1.
Chemistry ; 26(33): 7374-7383, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083359

RESUMO

The synthesis of tetramethoxyresorcinarene podands bearing p-toluene arms connected by -SO3 - (1) and -CH2 O- (2) linkers is presented herein. In the solid state, the resorcinarene podand 1 forms an intramolecular self-inclusion complex with the pendant p-toluene group of a podand arm, whereas the resorcinarene podand 2 does not show self-inclusion. The conformations of the flexible resorcinarene podands in solution were investigated by variable-temperature experiments using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques as well as by computational methods, including a conformational search and subsequent DFT optimisation of representative structures. The 1 H NMR spectra of 1 and 2 at room temperature show a single set of proton signals that are in agreement with C4v symmetry. At low temperatures, the molecules exist as a mixture of boat conformations featuring slow exchange on the NMR timescale. Energy barriers (ΔG≠ 298 ) of 55.5 and 52.0 kJ mol-1 were calculated for the boat-to-boat exchange of 1 and 2, respectively. The results of the ROESY experiments performed at 193 K and computational modelling suggest that in solution the resorcinarene podand 1 adopts a similar conformation to that present in its crystal structure, whereas podand 2 populates a more versatile range of conformations in solution.

2.
Chem Asian J ; 14(5): 647-654, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644629

RESUMO

The anion-binding properties of three closely related oligoamide foldamers were studied using NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and mass spectrometry, as well as DFT calculations. The 1 H NMR spectra of the foldamers in [D6 ]acetone solution revealed partial preorganization by intramolecular hydrogen bonding, which creates a suitable cavity for anion binding. The limited size of the cavity, however, enabled efficient binding by the inner amide protons only for the chloride anion resulting in the formation of a thermodynamically stable 1:1 complex. All 1:1 chloride complexes displayed a significant favourable contribution of the entropy term. Most likely, this is due to the release of ordered solvent molecules solvating the free foldamer and the anion to the bulk solution upon complex formation. The introduction of electron-withdrawing substituents in foldamers 2 and 3 had only a slight effect on the thermodynamic constants for chloride binding compared to the parent receptor. Remarkably, the binding of chloride to foldamer 3 not only produced the expected 1:1 complex but also open aggregates with 1:2 (host:anion) stoichiometry.

3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 464: 59-65, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26609923

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Macrocyclic amphiphiles form interesting self-assembling structures, including solid lipid nanoparticles, which have potential applications in drug encapsulation. Aryl-extended calixpyrroles, which act as anion binding hosts, are expected to form solid lipid nanoparticles, even though the alkyl chains have unusual perpendicular geometry with respect to the hydrophilic head group. The preparation conditions and the alkyl chain length should affect the size and stability of the particles. EXPERIMENTS: Solid lipid nanoparticles of two aryl-extended calixpyrroles with resorcinol walls and either meso-dodecyl or meso-methyl alkyl chains were compared. Ethanolic solutions of the calixpyrroles were mixed with water and the resulting nanoparticle dispersions were studied with dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis. The effect of different calixpyrrole/ethanol/water ratios on particle size was tested. The surface charge of the particles at different pH and NaCl concentration was determined by zeta potential measurements. FINDINGS: The meso-dodecyl calixpyrrole produced small nanoparticles with mean hydrodynamic diameters between 40 and 70nm in 0.86-4.28M ethanol. The particles were stable in solution for several months. Particles prepared from meso-methyl calixpyrrole were larger and less stable. The smallest particles were obtained with low calixpyrrole concentration and calixpyrrole/ethanol ratio. Larger ethanol/water ratio induced broader particle size distributions. Increasing pH aided the stability of the particles due to increased negative surface charge.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(30): 3938-40, 2014 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24599407

RESUMO

This communication demonstrates the possibility to nucleate and grow different crystalline polymorphic forms of gabapentin (GBP) using, as nucleation templates, Langmuir monolayers of an amphiphilic calixarene at different packing densities.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Calixarenos/química , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/química , Gabapentina , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
5.
Org Biomol Chem ; 10(10): 2019-25, 2012 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22290247

RESUMO

Silver complexes of a cation binding supramolecular host, resorcinarene bis-crown (CNBC5) with propyl, nonyl, decyl and undecyl alkyl chains were investigated by NMR titration, picrate extraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Binding studies showed that both 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 (host-Ag(+)) complexes are present in solution with only a slight effect of the lower rim alkyl chain length on the binding constants (log K 4.0-4.2 for 1 : 2 complexes). Solid state complexes of the resorcinarene bis-crowns bearing either C(3) or C(11) chains were obtained. Single crystal X-ray analyses showed that both derivatives bind silver ions by metal-arene and Ag···O coordination from the crown ether bridges and from the solvent, and pack in layered or bilayered fashion. Furthermore, the amphiphilic nature of C11BC5 was demonstrated using the Langmuir balance technique. Langmuir-Blodgett films of the amphiphilic C11BC5-Ag complex were transferred onto a substrate and shown to possess antibacterial activity against E. coli.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Calixarenos/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Calixarenos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Estrutura Molecular , Fenilalanina/química , Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia
6.
Org Biomol Chem ; 9(3): 906-14, 2011 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21132217

RESUMO

o-Nitroaniline functionalized resorcinarene octapodands 1-5 with pendant methyl, ethyl, pentyl, nonyl or 1-decenyl groups, respectively, were synthesized and their structural properties investigated using X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. The upper rim of each podand is identical containing flexible side arms, in which rotation around the -OCH(2)CH(2)N- linkers create excellent possibilities for polymorphism. Two conformational polymorphs of acetone solvate of 2 were identified containing different side arm orientation and crystal packing. Compound 1 crystallized from acetone and nitromethane yielding two pseudopolymorphs with different packing motifs. The longer alkyl chains of 3-5 lead to differences in solubility and induce amphiphilic properties, which were studied at the air-water interface using the Langmuir-film technique. Crystals of amphiphilic compound 5, which has hydrophobic alkyl tails at the lower rim and hydrophilic nitroaniline groups at the upper rim, showed an interesting packing motif with alternating aromatic and aliphatic layers. Versatile structures of the octapodands in solid state and in solution serve as an example of how conformational flexibility can be utilized in crystal engineering and creating self-assembling monolayer structures.

7.
BMC Struct Biol ; 7: 8, 2007 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17343730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chicken genome contains a BBP-A gene showing similar characteristics to avidin family genes. In a previous study we reported that the BBP-A gene may encode a biotin-binding protein due to the high sequence similarity with chicken avidin, especially at regions encoding residues known to be located at the ligand-binding site of avidin. RESULTS: Here, we expand the repertoire of known macromolecular biotin binders by reporting a novel biotin-binding protein A (BBP-A) from chicken. The BBP-A recombinant protein was expressed using two different expression systems and purified with affinity chromatography, biochemically characterized and two X-ray structures were solved - in complex with D-biotin (BTN) and in complex with D-biotin D-sulfoxide (BSO). The BBP-A protein binds free biotin with high, "streptavidin-like" affinity (Kd ~ 10-13 M), which is about 50 times lower than that of chicken avidin. Surprisingly, the affinity of BBP-A for BSO is even higher than the affinity for BTN. Furthermore, the solved structures of the BBP-A--BTN and BBP-A--BSO complexes, which share the fold with the members of the avidin and lipocalin protein families, are extremely similar to each other. CONCLUSION: BBP-A is an avidin-like protein having a beta-barrel fold and high affinity towards BTN. However, BBP-A differs from the other known members of the avidin protein family in thermal stability and immunological properties. BBP-A also has a unique ligand-binding property, the ability to bind BTN and BSO at comparable affinities. BBP-A may have use as a novel material in, e.g. modern bio(nano)technological applications.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/química , Animais , Avidina/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Galinhas , Cristalização , Nanotecnologia , Conformação Proteica , Difração de Raios X
8.
J Mol Biol ; 359(5): 1352-63, 2006 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16787776

RESUMO

Dual chain avidin (dcAvd) is an engineered avidin form, in which two circularly permuted chicken avidin monomers are fused into one polypeptide chain. DcAvd can theoretically form two different pseudotetrameric quaternary assemblies because of symmetry at the monomer-monomer interfaces. Here, our aim was to control the assembly of the quaternary structure of dcAvd. We introduced the mutation I117C into one of the circularly permuted domains of dcAvd and scanned residues along the 1-3 subunit interface of the other domain. Interestingly, V115H resulted in a single, disulfide locked quaternary assembly of dcAvd, whereas I117H could not guide the oligomerisation process even though it stabilised the protein. The modified dcAvd forms were found to retain their characteristic pseudotetrameric state both at high and low pH, and were shown to bind D-biotin at levels comparable to that of wild-type chicken avidin. The crystal structure of dcAvd-biotin complex at 1.95 Angstroms resolution demonstrates the formation of the functional dcAvd pseudotetramer at the atomic level and reveals the molecular basis for its special properties. Altogether, our data facilitate further engineering of the biotechnologically valuable dcAvd scaffold and gives insights into how to guide the quaternary structure assembly of oligomeric proteins.


Assuntos
Avidina/química , Avidina/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Animais , Avidina/isolamento & purificação , Biotina/metabolismo , Galinhas , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação/genética , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
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