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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657123

RESUMO

Large singlet exciton diffusion lengths are a hallmark of high performance in organic based devices such as photovoltaics, chemical sensors, and photodetectors. In this study, exciton dynamics of a two-dimensional covalent organic framework, COF-5, is investigated using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques. Following photoexcitation, the COF-5 exciton decays via three pathways: 1) excimer formation (4 ± 2 ps), 2) excimer relaxation (160 ± 40 ps), and 3) excimer decay (>3 ns). Excita-tion fluence-dependent transient absorption studies suggest that COF-5 has a relatively large diffusion coefficient (0.08 cm2/s). Furthermore, exciton-exciton annihilation processes are characterized as a function of COF-5 crystallite domain size in four different samples, which reveal domain-size dependent exciton diffusion kinetics. These results reveal that exciton diffusion in COF-5 is constrained by its crystalline domain size. These insights indicate the outstanding promise of delocalized excitonic processes available in 2D COFs, which motivate their continued design and implementation into optoelectronic devices.

2.
Molecules ; 25(10)2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456192

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that molecular aggregation structures in precursor solutions of organic photovoltaic (OPV) polymers have substantial influence on polymer film morphology, exciton and charge carrier transport dynamics, and hence, the resultant device performance. To distinguish photophysical impacts due to increasing π-conjugation from chain lengthening and π-π stacking from single/multi chain aggregation in solution and film, we used oligomers of a well-studied charge transfer polymer PTB7 with different lengths as models to reveal intrinsic photophysical properties of a conjugated segment in the absence of inter-segment aggregation. In comparison with previously studied photophysical properties in polymeric PTB7, we found that oligomer dynamics are dominated by a process of planarization of the conjugated backbone into a quinoidal structure that resembles the self-folded polymer and that, when its emission is isolated, this quinoidal excited state resembling the planar polymer chain exhibits substantial charge transfer character via solvent-dependent emission shifts. Furthermore, the oligomers distinctly lack the long-lived charge separated species characteristic of PTB7, suggesting that the progression from charge transfer character in isolated chains to exciton splitting in neat polymer solution is modulated by the interchain interactions enabled by self-folding.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 504, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700706

RESUMO

Significant interest exists in lead trihalides that present the perovskite structure owing to their demonstrated potential in photovoltaic, lasing, and display applications. These materials are also notable for their unusual phase behavior often displaying easily accessible phase transitions. In this work, time-resolved X-ray diffraction, performed on perovskite cesium lead bromide nanocrystals, maps the lattice response to controlled excitation fluence. These nanocrystals undergo a reversible, photoinduced orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition which is discernible at fluences greater than 0.34 mJ cm-2 through the loss of orthorhombic features and shifting of high-symmetry peaks. This transition recovers on the timescale of 510 ± 100 ps. A reversible crystalline-to-amorphous transition, observable through loss of Bragg diffraction intensity, occurs at higher fluences (greater than 2.5 mJ cm-2). These results demonstrate that light-driven phase transitions occur in perovskite materials, which will impact optoelectronic applications and enable the manipulation of non-equilibrium phase characteristics of the broad perovskite material class.

4.
Metallomics ; 9(8): 1157-1168, 2017 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749495

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a major global health problem, one that threatens to derail the benefits garnered from arguably the greatest success of modern medicine, the discovery of antibiotics. Among the most potent agents contributing to antibiotic resistance are metallo-ß-lactamases (MBLs). The discovery of MBL-like enzymes in microorganisms that are not in contact with the human population is of particular concern as these proteins already have the in-built capacity to inactivate antibiotics, even though they may not need MBL activity for their survival. Here, we demonstrate that a microbiome from a remote and frozen environment in Alaska harbours at least one highly efficient MBL, LRA-8. LRA-8 is homologous to the B3 subgroup of MBLs and has a substrate profile and catalytic properties similar to well-known members of this enzyme family, which are expressed by major human pathogens. LRA-8 is predominantly a penicillinase, but is also active towards carbapenems, but not cephalosporins. Spectroscopic studies indicate that LRA-8 has an active site structure similar to that of other MBLs (in particular B3 subgroup representative AIM-1), and a combination of steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic data demonstrate that the enzyme is likely to employ a metal ion-bridging hydroxide to initiate catalysis. The rate-limiting step is the decay of a chromophoric, tetrahedral intermediate, as is observed in various other MBLs. Thus, studying the properties of such "pristine" MBL-like proteins may provide insight into the structural plasticity of this family of enzymes that may facilitate functional promiscuity, while important insight into the evolution of MBLs may also be gained.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Pergelissolo/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Catálise , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metais/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Fenótipo , Homologia de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato , beta-Lactamases/química , beta-Lactamases/genética
5.
Chemistry ; 22(49): 17704-17714, 2016 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27778387

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a major threat to global health care. This is largely due to the fact that many pathogens have developed strategies to acquire resistance to antibiotics. Metallo-ß-lactamases (MBL) have evolved to inactivate most of the commonly used ß-lactam antibiotics. AIM-1 is one of only a few MBLs from the B3 subgroup that is encoded on a mobile genetic element in a major human pathogen. Here, its mechanism of action was characterised with a combination of spectroscopic and kinetic techniques and compared to that of other MBLs. Unlike other MBLs it appears that AIM-1 has two avenues available for the turnover of the substrate nitrocefin, distinguished by the identity of the rate-limiting step. This observation may be relevant with respect to inhibitor design for this group of enzymes as it demonstrates that at least some MBLs are very flexible in terms of interactions with substrates and possibly inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Aurora Quinase B/química , Cefalosporinas/química , beta-Lactamases/química , Aurora Quinase B/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Especificidade por Substrato
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