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2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2735-2739, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1699-1709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the primary role of central cancer registries in the United States is to provide vital information needed for cancer surveillance and control, these registries can also be leveraged for population-based epidemiologic studies of cancer survivors. This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program registries to rapidly identify, recruit, and enroll individuals for survivor research studies and to assess their willingness to engage in a variety of research activities. METHODS: In 2016 and 2017, six SEER registries recruited both recently diagnosed and longer-term survivors with early age-onset multiple myeloma or colorectal, breast, prostate, or ovarian cancer. Potential participants were asked to complete a survey, providing data on demographics, health, and their willingness to participate in various aspects of research studies. RESULTS: Response rates across the registries ranged from 24.9% to 46.9%, with sample sizes of 115 to 239 enrolled by each registry over a 12- to 18-month period. Among the 992 total respondents, 90% answered that they would be willing to fill out a survey for a future research study, 91% reported that they would donate a biospecimen of some type, and approximately 82% reported that they would consent to have their medical records accessed for research. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility of leveraging SEER registries to recruit a geographically and racially diverse group of cancer survivors. IMPACT: Central cancer registries are a source of high-quality data that can be utilized to conduct population-based cancer survivor studies.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(9): 867-868, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899487
5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1003-1012, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(2): 154-160, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TAILORx demonstrated that women with node-negative, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancers and Oncotype DX recurrence scores (RS) of 0-25 had similar 9-year outcomes with endocrine vs chemo-endocrine therapy; evidence for women aged 50 years and younger and RS 16-25 was less clear. We estimated how expected changes in practice following the trial might affect US costs in the initial 12 months of care (initial costs). METHODS: Data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER), SEER-Medicare, and SEER-Genomic Health Inc datasets were used to estimate Oncotype DX testing and chemotherapy rates and mean initial costs pre- and post-TAILORx (in 2018 dollars), assuming all women received Oncotype DX testing and score-suggested therapy posttrial. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact on costs of assumptions about compliance with testing and score-suggested treatment and estimation methods. RESULTS: Pretrial mean initial costs were $2.816 billion. Posttrial, Oncotype DX testing costs were projected to increase from $115 to $231 million and chemotherapy use to decrease from 25% to 17%, resulting in initial care costs of $2.766 billion, or a net savings of $49 million (1.8% decrease). A small net savings was seen under most assumptions. The one exception was if all women aged 50 years and younger with tumors with RS 16-25 elected to receive chemotherapy, initial care costs could increase by $105 million (4% increase). CONCLUSIONS: Personalizing breast cancer treatment based on tumor genetic profiles could result in small cost decreases in the initial 12 months of care. Studies are needed to evaluate the long-term costs and nonmonetary benefits of personalized cancer care.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Programa de SEER
8.
Cancer Res ; 79(1): 274-285, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425058

RESUMO

Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between prediagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. ORs for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest vs. lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.31; P trend < 0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness (P heterogeneity = 0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of nonaggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase = 1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)2D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of nonaggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias. SIGNIFICANCE: This international collaboration comprises the largest prospective study on blood vitamin D and prostate cancer risk and shows no association with aggressive disease but some evidence of a higher risk of nonaggressive disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(12): 1287-1289, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239849
10.
Int J Cancer ; 142(2): 262-270, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28921520

RESUMO

Animal and experimental data suggest that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) serves as a marker of ovarian reserve and inhibits the growth of ovarian tumors. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined the association between AMH and ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study of 302 ovarian cancer cases and 336 matched controls from nine cohorts. Prediagnostic blood samples of premenopausal women were assayed for AMH using a picoAMH enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. AMH concentration was not associated with overall ovarian cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI), comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of AMH, was 0.99 (0.59-1.67) (Ptrend : 0.91). The association did not differ by age at blood draw or oral contraceptive use (all Pheterogeneity : ≥0.26). There also was no evidence for heterogeneity of risk for tumors defined by histologic developmental pathway, stage, and grade, and by age at diagnosis and time between blood draw and diagnosis (all Pheterogeneity : ≥0.39). In conclusion, this analysis of mostly late premenopausal women from nine cohorts does not support the hypothesized inverse association between prediagnostic circulating levels of AMH and risk of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/etiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/sangue , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/sangue , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Pré-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 17(2): 350-362, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many countries, there are growing numbers of persons living with a prior diagnosis of cancer, due to the aging population and more successful strategies for treatment. There is also growing evidence of the importance of healthful diet and weight management for survivorship, yet many long-term cancer survivors are not successfully following recommendations. METHODS: We explored this issue in a mixed methods study with 53 adult survivors of 3 cancers (breast, prostate, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), living in Maryland. Participants provided three 24-hour dietary recalls, and results were used to classify respondents on 2 metrics of healthful eating (the Healthy Eating Index 2010, and a 9-item index based on current dietary recommendations). Recalls were also used to guide in-depth qualitative discussions with participants regarding self-assessment of dietary behaviors, healthful eating, and diet's importance in cancer prevention and survivorship. RESULTS: Survivors following a more healthful diet were more likely to be female, have greater socioeconomic resources, more years since diagnosis, normal weight, and no smoking history. Qualitative discussions revealed a more nuanced understanding of dietary strategies among healthful eaters, as well as the importance of household members in dietary decision making. DISCUSSION: Most survivors had received little nutrition counseling as part of their cancer care, highlighting the importance of holistic, household-oriented nutrition education for maintaining health among long-term cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Nutricional
12.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med ; 10: 229-232, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28860839

RESUMO

Pharmacogenomics has identified important drug-gene interactions that affect the safety and efficacy of medications. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing, when first introduced, included some pharmacogenomic-related genes. The current landscape of pharmacogenomic direct-to-consumer testing is reviewed. Prior published reviews of the literature were updated through February 2017 and a scan of the current availability of direct-to-consumer genomic testing by companies was conducted. Results of the review demonstrate a shift toward physician-approved ordering.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 117(9): 1412-1418, 2017 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mullerian ducts are the embryological precursors of the female reproductive tract, including the uterus; anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has a key role in the regulation of foetal sexual differentiation. Anti-Mullerian hormone inhibits endometrial tumour growth in experimental models by stimulating apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. To date, there are no prospective epidemiologic data on circulating AMH and endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated this association among women premenopausal at blood collection in a multicohort study including participants from eight studies located in the United States, Europe, and China. We identified 329 endometrial cancer cases and 339 matched controls. Anti-Mullerian hormone concentrations in blood were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) across tertiles and for a doubling of AMH concentrations (ORlog2). Subgroup analyses were performed by ages at blood donation and diagnosis, oral contraceptive use, and tumour characteristics. RESULTS: Anti-Mullerian hormone was not associated with the risk of endometrial cancer overall (ORlog2: 1.07 (0.99-1.17)), or with any of the examined subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Although experimental models implicate AMH in endometrial cancer growth inhibition, our findings do not support a role for circulating AMH in the aetiology of endometrial cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Fertil Steril ; 107(4): 1012-1022.e2, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28366409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify reproductive, lifestyle, hormonal, and other correlates of circulating antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in mostly late premenopausal women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 671 premenopausal women not known to have cancer. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Concentrations of AMH were measured in a single laboratory using the picoAMH ELISA. Multivariable-adjusted median (and interquartile range) AMH concentrations were calculated using quantile regression for several potential correlates. RESULT(S): Older women had significantly lower AMH concentrations (≥40 [n = 444] vs. <35 years [n = 64], multivariable-adjusted median 0.73 ng/mL vs. 2.52 ng/mL). Concentrations of AMH were also significantly lower among women with earlier age at menarche (<12 [n = 96] vs. ≥14 years [n = 200]: 0.90 ng/mL vs. 1.12 ng/mL) and among current users of oral contraceptives (n = 27) compared with never or former users (n = 468) (0.36 ng/mL vs. 1.15 ng/mL). Race, body mass index, education, height, smoking status, parity, and menstrual cycle phase were not significantly associated with AMH concentrations. There were no significant associations between AMH concentrations and androgen or sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations or with factors related to blood collection (e.g., sample type, time, season, and year of blood collection). CONCLUSION(S): Among premenopausal women, lower AMH concentrations are associated with older age, a younger age at menarche, and currently using oral contraceptives, suggesting these factors are related to a lower number or decreased secretory activity of ovarian follicles.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Reserva Ovariana , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ásia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Congêneres da Testosterona/sangue , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(11)2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27385803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some observational studies suggest that a higher selenium status is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer but have been generally too small to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by disease stage and grade. METHODS: Collaborating investigators from 15 prospective studies provided individual-participant records (from predominantly men of white European ancestry) on blood or toenail selenium concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Odds ratios of prostate cancer by selenium concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Blood selenium was not associated with the risk of total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR] per 80 percentile increase = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83 to 1.23, based on 4527 case patients and 6021 control subjects). However, there was heterogeneity by disease aggressiveness (ie, advanced stage and/or prostate cancer death, Pheterogeneity = .01), with high blood selenium associated with a lower risk of aggressive disease (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.87) but not with nonaggressive disease. Nail selenium was inversely associated with total prostate cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.40, Ptrend < .001, based on 1970 case patients and 2086 control subjects), including both nonaggressive (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.50) and aggressive disease (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.31, Pheterogeneity = .08). CONCLUSIONS: Nail, but not blood, selenium concentration is inversely associated with risk of total prostate cancer, possibly because nails are a more reliable marker of long-term selenium exposure. Both blood and nail selenium concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of aggressive disease, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Unhas/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Selênio/análise , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Selênio/sangue , Dedos do Pé
16.
Cancer Res ; 76(8): 2288-2300, 2016 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26921328

RESUMO

The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in prostate cancer development is not fully understood. To investigate the association between circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3) and prostate cancer risk, we pooled individual participant data from 17 prospective and two cross-sectional studies, including up to 10,554 prostate cancer cases and 13,618 control participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs for prostate cancer based on the study-specific fifth of each analyte. Overall, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were positively associated with prostate cancer risk (Ptrend all ≤ 0.005), and IGFBP-1 was inversely associated weakly with risk (Ptrend = 0.05). However, heterogeneity between the prospective and cross-sectional studies was evident (Pheterogeneity = 0.03), unless the analyses were restricted to prospective studies (with the exception of IGF-II, Pheterogeneity = 0.02). For prospective studies, the OR for men in the highest versus the lowest fifth of each analyte was 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.43) for IGF-I, 0.81 (0.68-0.96) for IGFBP-1, and 1.25 (1.12-1.40) for IGFBP-3. These associations did not differ significantly by time-to-diagnosis or tumor stage or grade. After mutual adjustment for each of the other analytes, only IGF-I remained associated with risk. Our collaborative study represents the largest pooled analysis of the relationship between prostate cancer risk and circulating concentrations of IGF-I, providing strong evidence that IGF-I is highly likely to be involved in prostate cancer development. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2288-300. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Glob Oncol ; 2(5): 253-254, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28718459
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 102(5): 1142-57, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26447150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual studies have suggested that circulating carotenoids, retinol, or tocopherols may be associated with prostate cancer risk, but the studies have not been large enough to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by stage and grade of disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of the associations of the concentrations of 7 carotenoids, retinol, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol with risk of prostate cancer and to describe whether any associations differ by stage or grade of the disease or other factors. DESIGN: Principal investigators of prospective studies provided individual participant data for prostate cancer cases and controls. Risk by study-specific fifths of each biomarker was estimated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression in matched case-control sets. RESULTS: Data were available for up to 11,239 cases (including 1654 advanced stage and 1741 aggressive) and 18,541 controls from 15 studies. Lycopene was not associated with overall risk of prostate cancer, but there was statistically significant heterogeneity by stage of disease, and the OR for aggressive disease for the highest compared with the lowest fifth of lycopene was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.91; P-trend = 0.032). No other carotenoid was significantly associated with overall risk of prostate cancer or with risk of advanced-stage or aggressive disease. For retinol, the OR for the highest compared with the lowest fifth was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.22; P-trend = 0.015). For α-tocopherol, the OR for the highest compared with the lowest fifth was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.94; P-trend < 0.001), with significant heterogeneity by stage of disease; the OR for aggressive prostate cancer was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.92; P-trend = 0.001). γ-Tocopherol was not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prostate cancer risk was positively associated with retinol and inversely associated with α-tocopherol, and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was inversely associated with lycopene and α-tocopherol. Whether these associations reflect causal relations is unclear.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Licopeno , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cancer Causes Control ; 26(10): 1449-60, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26220152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between prediagnostic interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer was evaluated in a nested case-control study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. METHODS: Colorectal cancer cases (n = 173) and matched controls (n = 345) were identified between 1989 and 2000 among participants in the CLUE II cohort of Washington Country, Maryland. Matched odds ratios and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: Participants in the highest third of plasma IL-6 concentration had a 2.48 times higher risk of colon cancer compared to participants in the bottom third (95 % CI 1.26-4.87; p-trend 0.02) after multivariate adjustment. This association did not differ according to the stage of disease, age, sex, or other potential modifying variables and remained statistically significant after adjustment for C-reactive protein concentrations. No statistically significant association was observed for rectal cancer risk. The meta-analysis of six prospective studies yielded an increased but borderline statistically significant risk of colon cancer per 1 U increase in naturally logarithm-transformed IL-6 (summary RR 1.22; 95 % CI 1.00-1.49; I (2) 46 %). An inverse association was noted for rectal cancer (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54-0.88; I (2) 0 %), but there was evidence for small-study effects (p 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide support for a modest positive association between IL-6 concentrations and colon cancer risk. More work is needed to determine whether IL-6 is a valid marker of colorectal inflammation and whether such inflammation contributes to colon and rectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
20.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 22(7): 1208-14, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26140829

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the addition of narrow band imaging (NBI) to traditional white light imaging during laparoscopic surgery impacts pain and quality of life (QOL) at 3 and 6 months after surgery among women with suspected endometriosis and/or infertility. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification level I). SETTING: The trial was conducted in 2 medical centers. PATIENTS: From October 2011 to November 2013, 167 patients undergoing laparoscopic examination for suspected endometriosis and/or infertility were recruited. The analytic study sample includes 148 patients with pain and QOL outcome data. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to receive white light imaging followed by NBI (WL/NBI) or white light imaging only (WL/WL). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Questionnaires were administered at baseline and at 3- and 6-month follow-up time points. Average and most severe pain at each time point were assessed using a 10-cm visual analog scale. QOL was measured using the Endometriosis Health Profile-30. Baseline characteristics were similar for the study groups. The WL/NBI and WL/WL groups had similar reductions in pain at 3 and 6 months. In addition, QOL improved similarly for both the WL/NBI and WL/WL groups at 3 and 6 months. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery for suspected endometriosis is associated with a reduction in pain and an improvement in QOL. The differences in pain reduction and QOL improvement, which are noted at 3 months and remain stable at 6 months after surgery, are similar for those undergoing surgery with WL/NBI compared with those undergoing surgery under traditional white light conditions.


Assuntos
Endometriose/complicações , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Laparoscopia , Imagem de Banda Estreita , Dor/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Endometriose/psicologia , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/psicologia , Infertilidade Feminina/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/psicologia , Dor/cirurgia , Medição da Dor , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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