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1.
Child Dev ; 91(6): e1178-e1193, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767767

RESUMO

We examined children's spontaneous information seeking in response to referential ambiguity. Children ages 2-5 (n = 160) identified the referents of familiar and novel labels. We manipulated ambiguity by changing the number of objects present and their familiarity (Experiments 1 and 2), and the availability of referential gaze (Experiment 2). In both experiments, children looked to the face of the experimenter more often while responding, specifically when the referent was ambiguous. In Experiment 2, 3- to 4-year olds also demonstrated sensitivity to graded referential evidence. These results suggest that social information seeking is an active learning behavior that could contribute to language acquisition in early childhood.

2.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 928-936, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690919

RESUMO

Toddlers exhibit behaviours that suggest judicious responses to states of uncertainty (for example, turning to adults for help), but little is known about the informational basis of these behaviours. Across two experiments, of which experiment 2 was a preregistered replication, 160 toddlers (aged 25 to 32 months) identified a target from two partially occluded similar (for example, elephant versus bear) or dissimilar (for example, elephant versus broccoli) images. Accuracy was lower for the similar trials than for the dissimilar trials. By fitting drift-diffusion models to response times, we found that toddlers accumulated evidence more slowly but required less evidence for similar trials compared with dissimilar trials. By analysing eye movements, we found that toddlers took longer to settle on the selected image during inaccurate trials and switched their gaze between response options more frequently during inaccurate trials and accurately identified similar items. Exploratory analyses revealed that the evidence-accumulation parameter correlated positively with the use of uncertainty language. Overall, these findings inform theories on the emergence of evidence accumulation under uncertainty.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Incerteza , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
3.
Memory ; 25(5): 575-585, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27315009

RESUMO

The goal of this research was to test whether subjective memory experiences drive accuracy regulation decisions above and beyond objective memory indices. In four experiments (n = 115) subjective recollection (i.e., reporting "Remember" in the Remember-Know task) was dissociated from memory accuracy by manipulating retrieval during a two-alternative forced-choice recognition task: in the Match condition the distracter was a novel exemplar of the target (e.g., a studied and an unstudied toaster) and in the Non-match condition the distracter was a novel exemplar of another studied but untested item (e.g., a studied toaster and an unstudied birdhouse). Participants were more accurate on Match trials, but reported subjective recollection more frequently on Non-match trials. Critically, participants also bet more often on Non-match trials to the detriment of their score (Experiment 1). This pattern persisted when participants were additionally required to retrieve details about items (Experiment 2) and when confidence assessments were collected (Experiment 3). Finally, participants bet more on Non-match trials even when subjective judgments were not elicited, suggesting that the decision process does not require reporting on subjective experience (Experiment 4). These results indicate that subjective memory experiences guide decision-making independent of objective accuracy and thus are critical to accuracy regulation.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino
4.
Dev Sci ; 18(6): 957-71, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25483236

RESUMO

Little is known about the mechanisms underlying a ubiquitous behavior in preschoolers, help-seeking. We tested the hypothesis that preschoolers' awareness of their own uncertainty is associated with help-seeking. Three-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N = 125) completed a perceptual identification task twice: once independently and once when they could request help from a confederate whose competence level was manipulated. Consistent with our hypothesis, participants sought help more frequently on trials for which, when required to answer independently, they expressed lower confidence. Children in the bad-helper condition were slower to respond after receiving help than those in the good-helper condition. Finally, females and children with more advanced theory of mind were more likely to seek help, identifying additional factors that relate to help-seeking.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Incerteza , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teoria da Mente
5.
Psychol Sci ; 25(9): 1768-76, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25015686

RESUMO

Preschoolers' ability to introspect and make decisions on the basis of these introspections has traditionally been questioned. The present research introduces a novel paradigm to examine the development of the connection between subjective uncertainty about memory and decision making in preschoolers. Three-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N = 81) encoded items presented once or twice. They then completed a forced-choice test, provided confidence judgments for each response, and decided whether to select or exclude answers to be evaluated for the possibility of reward. Four- and 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, reported lower certainty for incorrect and weaker memories than for correct and stronger memories, and they judiciously excluded their least confident memories, which resulted in accuracy gains for selected memories; these findings highlight age-related improvements in introspection on memory accuracy. Among accurate responses only, even 3-year-olds excluded their least confident answers, which suggests that the connection between uncertainty and decision making precedes the ability to monitor memory accuracy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Tomada de Decisões , Memória , Incerteza , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino
6.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 126: 213-28, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24945686

RESUMO

The goal of the current investigation was to compare two monitoring processes (judgments of learning [JOLs] and confidence judgments [CJs]) and their corresponding control processes (allocation of study time and selection of answers to maximize accuracy, respectively) in 5-, 6-, and 7-year-old children (N=101). Children learned the meanings of Japanese characters and provided JOLs after a study phase and CJs after a memory test. They were given the opportunity to control their learning in self-paced study phases and to control their accuracy by placing correct answers in a treasure chest and placing incorrect answers in a trash can. All three age groups gave significantly higher CJs for correct answers compared with incorrect answers, with no age-related differences in the magnitude of this difference, suggesting robust metacognitive monitoring skills in children as young as 5 years. Furthermore, a link between JOLs and study time was found in 6- and 7-year-olds, such that children spent more time studying items with low JOLs compared with items with high JOLs. In addition, 6- and 7-year-olds, but not 5-year-olds, spent more time studying difficult items compared with easier items. Moreover, age-related improvements were found in children's use of CJs to guide their selection of answers; although children as young as 5 years placed their most confident answers in the treasure chest and placed their least confident answers in the trash can, this pattern was more robust in older children. Overall, results support the view that some metacognitive judgments may be acted on with greater ease than others among young children.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Aprendizagem , Masculino
7.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 115(3): 436-52, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23665179

RESUMO

The current study investigated the development of subjective recollection and its role in supporting decisions in 6- and 7-year-olds, 9- and 10-year-olds, and adults (N=78). Participants encoded items and details about them. Later, they were asked to recognize the items, recall the details, and report on subjective feelings of recollection and familiarity for test items. Critically, they were required to select a subset of trials to be evaluated for the possibility of a reward. All age groups were more likely to report subjective recollection when they accurately recalled details, demonstrating an ability to introspect on subtle differences in subjective memory states, although 6- and 7-year-olds could do so reliably only for color details. However, only 9- and 10-year-olds and adults were more likely to select trials that were associated with subjective recollection, suggesting that a connection between this subjective experience and decision making emerges later during middle childhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Tomada de Decisões , Rememoração Mental , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 204(2-3): 132-9, 2012 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23137801

RESUMO

Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) often experience anxiety, as well as perceptual distortions of appearance. Anxiety has previously been found to impact visual processing. This study therefore tested the relationship between anxiety and visual processing of faces in BDD. Medication-free participants with BDD (N=17) and healthy controls (N=16) viewed photographs of their face and a familiar face during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blood-oxygen-level dependent signal changes in regions involved in anxiety (amygdala) and detailed visual processing (ventral visual stream-VVS) were regressed on anxiety scores. Significant linear relationships between activity in the amygdala and VVS were found in both healthy controls and individuals with BDD. There was a trend of a quadratic relationship between anxiety and activity in the right VVS and a linear relationship between anxiety and activity in the left VVS for the BDD sample, and this was stronger for own-face stimuli versus familiar-face. Results suggest that anxiety symptoms in BDD may be associated with activity in systems responsible for detailed visual processing. This may have clinical implications related to heightened perceptual distortions associated with anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais , Dinâmica não Linear , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/patologia , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/complicações , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/patologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Modelos Lineares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Estimulação Luminosa , Vias Visuais/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto Jovem
9.
Brain Behav ; 2(3): 211-20, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22741094

RESUMO

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for insomnia, depression, and anxiety consisting of pulsed, low-intensity current applied to the earlobes or scalp. Despite empirical evidence of clinical efficacy, its mechanism of action is largely unknown. The goal was to characterize the acute effects of CES on resting state brain activity. Our primary hypothesis was that CES would result in deactivation in cortical and subcortical regions. Eleven healthy controls were administered CES applied to the earlobes at subsensory thresholds while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the resting state. We tested 0.5- and 100-Hz stimulation, using blocks of 22 sec "on" alternating with 22 sec of baseline (device was "off"). The primary outcome measure was differences in blood oxygen level dependent data associated with the device being on versus baseline. The secondary outcome measures were the effects of stimulation on connectivity within the default mode, sensorimotor, and fronto-parietal networks. Both 0.5- and 100-Hz stimulation resulted in significant deactivation in midline frontal and parietal regions. 100-Hz stimulation was associated with both increases and decreases in connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). Results suggest that CES causes cortical brain deactivation, with a similar pattern for high- and low-frequency stimulation, and alters connectivity in the DMN. These effects may result from interference from high- or low-frequency noise. Small perturbations of brain oscillations may therefore have significant effects on normal resting state brain activity. These results provide insight into the mechanism of action of CES, and may assist in the future development of optimal parameters for effective treatment.

10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 44(15): 1088-94, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20434170

RESUMO

Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are preoccupied with perceived defects in appearance. Preliminary evidence suggests abnormalities in global and local visual information processing. The objective of this study was to compare global and local processing in BDD subjects and healthy controls by testing the face inversion effect, in which inverted (upside-down) faces are recognized more slowly and less accurately relative to upright faces. Eighteen medication-free subjects with BDD and 17 matched, healthy controls performed a recognition task with sets of upright and inverted faces on a computer screen that were either presented for short duration (500 ms) or long duration (5000 ms). Response time and accuracy rates were analyzed using linear and logistic mixed effects models, respectively. Results indicated that the inversion effect for response time was smaller in BDD subjects than controls during the long duration stimuli, but was not significantly different during the short duration stimuli. Inversion effect on accuracy rates did not differ significantly between groups during either of the two durations. Lesser inversion effect in BDD subjects may be due to greater detail-oriented and piecemeal processing for long duration stimuli. Similar results between groups for short duration stimuli suggest that they may be normally engaging configural and holistic processing for brief presentations. Abnormal visual information processing in BDD may contribute to distorted perception of appearance; this may not be limited to their own faces, but to others' faces as well.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/fisiopatologia , Face , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 67(2): 197-205, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20124119

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder in which individuals are preoccupied with perceived defects in their appearance, often related to their face. Little is known about its pathophysiology, although early research provides evidence of abnormal visual processing. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with BDD have abnormal patterns of brain activation when visually processing their own face with high, low, or normal spatial resolution. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: A university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen right-handed medication-free subjects with BDD and 16 matched healthy control subjects. Intervention Functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing photographs of face stimuli. Stimuli were neutral-expression photographs of the patient's own face and a familiar face (control stimuli) that were unaltered, altered to include only high spatial frequency (fine spatial resolution), or altered to include only low spatial frequency (low spatial resolution). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes in the BDD and control groups during each stimulus type. RESULTS: Subjects with BDD showed relative hyperactivity in the left orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral head of the caudate for the unaltered own-face vs familiar-face condition. They showed relative hypoactivity in the left occipital cortex for the low spatial frequency faces. Differences in activity in frontostriatal systems but not visual cortex covaried with aversiveness ratings of the faces. Severity of BDD symptoms correlated with activity in frontostriatal systems and visual cortex. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest abnormalities in visual processing and frontostriatal systems in BDD. Hypoactivation in the occipital cortex for low spatial frequency faces may indicate either primary visual system abnormalities for configural face elements or top-down modulation of visual processing. Frontostriatal hyperactivity may be associated both with aversion and with symptoms of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/fisiopatologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Percepção/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
12.
CNS Spectr ; 14(9): 503-13, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19890232

RESUMO

The basic science literature is replete with descriptions of naturally occurring or experimentally induced pathological grooming behaviors in animals, which are widely considered animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These animal models rely largely on observed similarities between animal behaviors and human OCD behaviors, and on studies of animal pathological grooming disorders that respond to serotonin enhancing drugs. However, current limitations in assessment of complex cognition and affect in animals precludes the field's ability to match the driving primary processes behind observable phenomenology in animal "OCD" with human behavioral disorders. We propose that excessive grooming behaviors in animals may eventually prove to be equally, or possibly more relevant to, other conditions in humans that involve pathological grooming or grooming-like behaviors, such as trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder, olfactory reference syndrome, compulsive skin-picking, and onychophagia. Research is needed to better understand pathological grooming behaviors in both humans and animals, as animal models have the potential to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and inform the treatment of these psychiatric conditions in humans.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Alopecia/etiologia , Alopecia/psicologia , Animais , Aves , Imagem Corporal , Dermatite/psicologia , Plumas , Humanos , Camundongos , Olfato , Tricotilomania/psicologia
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