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1.
Pain ; 161(4): 787-796, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197038

RESUMO

Pain is frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) and includes different types, with neuropathic pain (NP) being most closely related to MS pathology. However, prevalence estimates vary largely, and causal relationships between pain and biopsychosocial factors in MS are largely unknown. Longitudinal studies might help to clarify the prevalence and determinants of pain in MS. To this end, we analyzed data from 410 patients with newly diagnosed clinically isolated syndrome or relapsing-remitting MS participating in the prospective multicenter German National MS Cohort Study (NationMS) at baseline and after 4 years. Pain was assessed by self-report using the PainDETECT Questionnaire. Neuropsychiatric assessment included tests for fatigue, depression, and cognition. In addition, sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained. Prevalence of pain of any type was 40% and 36% at baseline and after 4 years, respectively, whereas prevalence of NP was 2% and 5%. Pain of any type and NP were both strongly linked to fatigue, depression, and disability. This link was even stronger after 4 years than at baseline. Moreover, changes in pain, depression, and fatigue were highly correlated without any of these symptoms preceding the others. Taken together, pain of any type seems to be much more frequent than NP in early nonprogressive MS. Moreover, the close relationship between pain, fatigue, and depression in MS should be considered for treatment decisions and future research on a possible common pathophysiology.

2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(2): e1007616, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012148

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify genetic variants associated with traits or diseases. GWAS never directly link variants to regulatory mechanisms. Instead, the functional annotation of variants is typically inferred by post hoc analyses. A specific class of deep learning-based methods allows for the prediction of regulatory effects per variant on several cell type-specific chromatin features. We here describe "DeepWAS", a new approach that integrates these regulatory effect predictions of single variants into a multivariate GWAS setting. Thereby, single variants associated with a trait or disease are directly coupled to their impact on a chromatin feature in a cell type. Up to 61 regulatory SNPs, called dSNPs, were associated with multiple sclerosis (MS, 4,888 cases and 10,395 controls), major depressive disorder (MDD, 1,475 cases and 2,144 controls), and height (5,974 individuals). These variants were mainly non-coding and reached at least nominal significance in classical GWAS. The prediction accuracy was higher for DeepWAS than for classical GWAS models for 91% of the genome-wide significant, MS-specific dSNPs. DSNPs were enriched in public or cohort-matched expression and methylation quantitative trait loci and we demonstrated the potential of DeepWAS to generate testable functional hypotheses based on genotype data alone. DeepWAS is available at https://github.com/cellmapslab/DeepWAS.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 157, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919466

RESUMO

Nano-flow liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-flow LC-MS/MS) is the mainstay in proteome research because of its excellent sensitivity but often comes at the expense of robustness. Here we show that micro-flow LC-MS/MS using a 1 × 150 mm column shows excellent reproducibility of chromatographic retention time (<0.3% coefficient of variation, CV) and protein quantification (<7.5% CV) using data from >2000 samples of human cell lines, tissues and body fluids. Deep proteome analysis identifies >9000 proteins and >120,000 peptides in 16 h and sample multiplexing using tandem mass tags increases throughput to 11 proteomes in 16 h. The system identifies >30,000 phosphopeptides in 12 h and protein-protein or protein-drug interaction experiments can be analyzed in 20 min per sample. We show that the same column can be used to analyze >7500 samples without apparent loss of performance. This study demonstrates that micro-flow LC-MS/MS is suitable for a broad range of proteomic applications.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peptídeos/análise
4.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 219, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytokines play multiple roles during neuro-inflammatory processes and several cytokines have been studied in the context of specific diseases. This study provides a comprehensive picture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes during neuro-inflammation by analyzing multiple cytokines in combination with immune cell subsets and standard CSF parameters. METHODS: Using multiplex assays, we simultaneously measured 36 cytokines (CCL1-3, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL19, CCL20, CCL22-27, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL11-13, CXCL16, CX3CL1, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL10, IL16, GM-CSF, IFNγ, MIF, TNFα, and MIB1ß) in the CSF and serum of 75 subjects. Diagnoses included clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 18), secondary progressive MS (n = 8), neuro-syphilis (n = 6), Lyme neuro-borreliosis (n = 13), bacterial and viral meningitis (n = 20), and patients with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 10). Cytokine concentrations were correlated with CSF standard parameters and CSF immune cell subsets (CD4 and CD8 T cells, B cells, plasmablasts, monocytes, and NK cells) quantified by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We observed increased levels of multiple cytokines (26/36) in patients with neuro-inflammatory diseases when compared to NIND that consistently correlated with CSF cell count and QAlbumin. Most CSF cytokine concentrations correlated with each other, but correlations between CSF and serum values were scarce (3/36). Within the CSF compartment, CXCL13 showed a strong association with B cells when analyzing all patients, as well as patients with an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). NK cells positively correlated with CSF concentrations of multiple cytokines (22/36) when analyzing all patients. These correlations were maintained when looking at patients with a disrupted BBB but not detectable in patients with an intact BBB. CONCLUSIONS: Under conditions of neuro-inflammation, multiple CSF cytokines are regulated in parallel and most likely produced locally. A combined increase of CSF CXCL13 levels and B cells occurs under conditions of an intact BBB. Under conditions of a disrupted BBB, CSF NK cells show significantly increased values and seem to have a major contribution to overall inflammatory processes, reflected by a strong correlation with multiple cytokines. Future studies are necessary to address the exact kinetics of these cytokines during neuro-inflammation and their relation to specific diseases phenotypes.

5.
Brain Behav ; 9(12): e01417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: New or enlarging T2-hyperintense white matter lesions (WML) are associated with clinical disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). The prognostic value of WML shrinking is unclear. Assuming that waning of acute inflammation and repair processes would be the main drivers of WML shrinking, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of WML shrinking in early MS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 144 early MS patients with three brain MRI scans at baseline and after 1 and 3 years available. All patients were therapy naïve at baseline and 70.5% of them treated with disease modifying drugs at year 1. We determined the volume of WML shrinking between MRI scans, total WML volumes, number of gadolinium-enhancing and new WML, white matter (WM) and gray matter volumes at each MRI scan. Clinical disability was measured by Expanded Disability Status Scale. We performed the correlation analyses of WML shrinking with other MRI parameters and clinical outcome. RESULTS: White matter lesions shrinking was highly variable between patients and correlated with the initial number of gadolinium-enhancing WML and with WM volume decrease. WML shrinking was not associated with clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: We found no indication of a prognostic value of WML shrinking in early MS patients. WML shrinking seems to be related to waning of acute inflammation.

6.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 13: 333, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474831

RESUMO

Primary cultures of glial and endothelial cells are important tools for basic and translational neuroscience research. Primary cell cultures are usually generated from rodent brain although considerable differences exist between human and rodent glia and endothelial cells. Because many translational research projects aim to identify mechanisms that eventually lead to diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to target human diseases, glia, and endothelial cultures are needed that better reflect the human central nervous system (CNS). Pig brain is easily accessible and, in many aspects, close to the human brain. We established an easy and cost-effective method to isolate and culture different primary glial and endothelial cells from adult pig brain. Oligodendrocyte, microglia, astrocyte, and endothelial primary cell cultures were generated from the same brain tissue and grown for up to 8 weeks. Primary cells showed lineage-specific morphology and expressed specific markers with a purity ranging from 60 to 95%. Cultured oligodendrocytes myelinated neurons and microglia secreted tumor necrosis factor alpha when induced with lipopolysaccharide. Endothelial cells showed typical tube formation when grown on Matrigel. Astrocytes enhanced survival of co-cultured neurons and were killed by Aquaporin-4 antibody positive sera from patients with Neuromyelitis optica. In summary, we established a new method for primary oligodendrocyte, microglia, endothelial and astrocyte cell cultures from pig brain that provide a tool for translational research on human CNS diseases.

7.
Neurology ; 93(9): e908-e916, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that vaccination is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS) by use of German ambulatory claims data in a case-control study. METHODS: Using the ambulatory claims data of the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians covering 2005-2017, logistic regression models were used to assess the relation between MS (n = 12,262) and vaccinations in the 5 years before first diagnosis. Participants newly diagnosed with Crohn disease (n = 19,296) or psoriasis (n = 112,292) and participants with no history of these autoimmune diseases (n = 79,185) served as controls. RESULTS: The odds of MS were lower in participants with a recorded vaccination (odds ratio [OR] 0.870, p < 0.001 vs participants without autoimmune disease; OR 0.919, p < 0.001 vs participants with Crohn disease; OR 0.973, p = 0.177 vs participants with psoriasis). Lower odds were most pronounced for vaccinations against influenza and tick-borne encephalitis. These effects were consistently observed for different time frames, control cohorts, and definitions of the MS cohort. Effect sizes increased toward the time of first diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study do not reveal vaccination to be a risk factor for MS. On the contrary, they consistently suggest that vaccination is associated with a lower likelihood of being diagnosed with MS within the next 5 years. Whether this is a protective effect needs to be addressed by future studies.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença de Crohn/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nervenarzt ; 90(12): 1245-1253, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297574

RESUMO

After years of low incidence, a large increase of new tuberculosis (TB) cases has been reported in Germany since 2015. New immunotherapies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with a reduced immune competence and a potential increased risk for infections. Most neurologists lack specific experiences with TB infections. This article summarizes specific recommendations for the diagnostics and treatment of TB under MS immunotherapies with a focus on the situation in Germany. Due to low case numbers and little experience with the risk of TB under the new immunotherapies, the clinical competence network for MS (KKNMS) consensus recommendations have a low grade of evidence.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Tuberculose , Alemanha , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/terapia
9.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(4): 653-665, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346692

RESUMO

After many years of controversy, there is now recent and solid evidence that classical Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) can infect humans. On the basis of six brain autopsies, we provide the first systematic overview on BoDV-1 tissue distribution and the lesion pattern in fatal BoDV-1-induced encephalitis. All brains revealed a non-purulent, lymphocytic sclerosing panencephalomyelitis with detection of BoDV-1-typical eosinophilic, spherical intranuclear Joest-Degen inclusion bodies. While the composition of histopathological changes was constant, the inflammatory distribution pattern varied interindividually, affecting predominantly the basal nuclei in two patients, hippocampus in one patient, whereas two patients showed a more diffuse distribution. By immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization, BoDV-1 was detected in all examined brain tissue samples. Furthermore, infection of the peripheral nervous system was observed. This study aims at raising awareness to human bornavirus encephalitis as differential diagnosis in lymphocytic sclerosing panencephalomyelitis. A higher attention to human BoDV-1 infection by health professionals may likely increase the detection of more cases and foster a clearer picture of the disease.

10.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(4): e573, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355309

RESUMO

Objective: To identify CSF parameters at diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and MS that are associated with early inflammatory disease activity as measured by standardized cerebral MRI (cMRI). Methods: One hundred forty-nine patients with newly diagnosed CIS and MS were included in the retrospective study. cMRI at onset and after 12 months was analyzed for T2 and gadolinium-enhancing lesions. CSF was tested for oligoclonal bands and intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G (IgG), A (IgA), and M (IgM) before initiation of disease-modifying therapy (DMT). In a subgroup of patients, CSF and serum samples were analyzed for sCD27, neurofilament light chain, and IgG subclasses 1 and 3. Association between CSF parameters and cMRI activity was investigated by univariable and multivariable regression analysis in all patients, DMT-treated patients, and untreated patients. Results: IgG index, sCD27 levels in CSF, and to a lesser extent IgM index were associated with the occurrence of new cMRI lesions. IgG index and sCD27 levels in CSF were highly correlated. In a multivariable analysis, IgG index and to a lesser extent IgM index together with DMT treatment status and gender were strongest predictors of future cMRI activity. Conclusions: CSF parameters such as IgG and IgM index are independently associated with future MRI activity and thus might be helpful to support early treatment decisions in patients newly diagnosed with CIS and MS.

11.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 12: 1756286419847095, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205492

RESUMO

Clinical trials of new treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS) currently require large sample sizes and long durations in order to yield reliable results. The differential responses of an already heterogeneous population of MS patients to individual disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) will further complicate future trials. MS trials with smaller samples and faster outcomes are conceivable through the substitution of current clinical and MRI outcomes with objectively measureable genomic and proteomic biomarkers. Currently, biomarkers that could be utilized for diagnosis and monitoring of MS disease activity are in the early validation phase. The power of single biomarkers or multiple correlated biomarkers to predict prognosis and response to treatment could initially be compared with currently accepted methods. These prospectively validated disease biomarkers could then be used to subcategorize the spectrum of MS patients into a finite number of endophenotypes with demonstrable different molecular pathogeneses and DMT response profiles. Newly developed DMT could potentially be assessed within specific endophenotypes and compared with pharmacogenomically relevant active comparator DMT. This approach may increase the efficiency of MS trials through homogenization of patient population and minimization of nonresponders in study groups, providing the potential for the development of targeted therapies.

12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101849, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085465

RESUMO

Longitudinal analysis of white matter lesion changes on serial MRI has become an important parameter to study diseases with white-matter lesions. Here, we build on earlier work on cross-sectional lesion segmentation; we present a fully automatic pipeline for serial analysis of FLAIR-hyperintense white matter lesions. Our algorithm requires three-dimensional gradient echo T1- and FLAIR- weighted images at 3 Tesla as well as available cross-sectional lesion segmentations of both time points. Preprocessing steps include lesion filling and intrasubject registration. For segmentation of lesion changes, initial lesion maps of different time points are fused; herein changes in intensity are analyzed at the voxel level. Significance of lesion change is estimated by comparison with the difference distribution of FLAIR intensities within normal appearing white matter. The method is validated on MRI data of two time points from 40 subjects with multiple sclerosis derived from two different scanners (20 subjects per scanner). Manual segmentation of lesion increases served as gold standard. Across all lesion increases, voxel-wise Dice coefficient (0.7) as well as lesion-wise detection rate (0.8) and false-discovery rate (0.2) indicate good overall performance. Analysis of scans from a repositioning experiment in a single patient with multiple sclerosis did not yield a single false positive lesion. We also introduce the lesion change plot as a descriptive tool for the lesion change of individual patients with regard to both number and volume. An open source implementation of the algorithm is available at http://www.statistical-modeling.de/lst.html.

13.
Front Neurol ; 10: 463, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133968

RESUMO

Background: CSF protein concentrations vary greatly among individuals. Accounting for brain volume may lower the variance and increase the diagnostic value of CSF protein concentrations. Objective: To determine the relation between CSF protein concentrations and brain volume. Methods: Brain volumes (total intracranial, gray matter, white matter volumes) derived from brain MRI and CSF protein concentrations (total protein, albumin, albumin CSF/serum ratio) of 29 control patients and 497 patients with clinically isolated syndrome or multiple sclerosis were studied. Finding: We found significant positive correlations of CSF protein concentrations with intracranial, gray matter, and white matter volumes. None of the correlations remained significant after correction for age and sex. Conclusion: Accounting for brain volume derived from brain MRI is unlikely to improve the diagnostic value of protein concentrations in CSF.

14.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(7): 841-849, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034002

RESUMO

Importance: Reliable biomarkers associated with disability worsening in multiple sclerosis (MS) are still needed. Objective: To determine a possible association of intrathecal IgG synthesis and early disability worsening as measured by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scoring in patients with relapsing-remitting MS or clinically isolated syndrome. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cerebrospinal fluid measurements and clinical data from the observational longitudinal German national multiple sclerosis cohort were analyzed. Patients were recruited between August 2010 and November 2015 from 18 centers. Data analysis was completed from August 2018 to December 2018. Exposure: Patients were offered standard immunotherapies per national treatment guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: A possible association between intrathecal IgG synthesis and risk of EDSS worsening 4 years after study inclusion was tested as the primary end point by multivariable binomial regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test was used to assess the association of intrathecal IgG synthesis with the time to EDSS worsening. Associations between intrathecal IgM or IgA synthesis and other cerebrospinal fluid parameters and EDSS worsening were analyzed as exploratory end points. Data collection began before the hypotheses were formulated. Results: Of all 1376 patients in the German Competence Network of Multiple Sclerosis cohort, 703 patients were excluded owing to missing cerebrospinal fluid or EDSS data. Of the 673 included patients, 459 (68.2%) were women. The mean (SD) age at baseline was 34 (10) years. Intrathecal IgG synthesis was associated with a higher risk of EDSS worsening after 4 years (odds ratio, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.15-3.58]; P = .01), independent of the occurrence of relapses and disease-modifying therapy. Additionally, intrathecal IgG synthesis was associated with earlier EDSS worsening; 4 years after study entry, worsening occurred in 28.4% (95% CI, 22.7%-34.1%) and 18.1% (95% CI, 12.4%-23.9%) of patients with and without intrathecal IgG synthesis, respectively. No association of other routine cerebrospinal fluid parameters with EDSS worsening was found. Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with new diagnoses of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome with intrathecal IgG synthesis had a higher risk of and shorter time to EDSS worsening across a 4-year period of follow-up. Intrathecal IgG synthesis is a potentially useful marker for disability worsening in patients with multiple sclerosis and may be useful for early treatment decisions.

15.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 19(8): 829-843, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027436

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Featuring demyelination and axonal degeneration, multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system representing a prominent cause of disability in young adults. The recently established therapeutic targeting of B cells in MS patients using CD20 monoclonal antibodies (CD20-mAbs) not only profoundly suppresses inflammatory disease activity but also materializes as the first treatment approach against disability accumulation in a subset of patients with primary progressive MS. AREAS COVERED: We will review current concepts regarding the immunopathology of B cells as well as results of clinical trials with CD20-mAbs in MS, from the murine-human chimeras rituximab and ublituximab to their increasingly humanized counterparts ocrelizumab and ofatumumab. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov, and clinicaltrialsregister.eu. We will focus on studies emphasizing the effectiveness of these mAbs in reducing MS disease activity and progression, long-term safety, optimal dosage and maintenance regimens. Lastly, we will turn to outstanding questions regarding anti-CD20 therapy in MS. EXPERT OPINION: CD20-mAbs could become first-line drugs in selected patients with highly active MS and already constitute an option for PPMS. Future studies could evaluate whether administration regimens currently in use can be optimized, while registry data could shed light on risk versus benefits on the long run, considering immunosenescence and a potentially increased risk of malignancies and infections in an aging population.

16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 69(1): 83-90, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909232

RESUMO

Cost- and time-effective markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), reliable and feasible at the population level are urgently needed. Soluble amyloid-ß protein precursor ß (sAßPPß) in plasma has attracted scientific attention as a potential AD biomarker candidate. Here we report that plasma sAßPPß levels in patients with AD dementia and typical for AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profiles (N = 33) are significantly lower (p < 0.01) than those of cognitively healthy elderly individuals without AD (N = 39), while CSF sAßPPß levels did not differ between the studied groups. This provides further evidence for the potential of sAßPPß in plasma as an AD biomarker candidate.

17.
Radiology ; 291(2): 429-435, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860448

RESUMO

Background Administration of a gadolinium-based contrast material is widely considered obligatory for follow-up imaging of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, advances in MRI have substantially improved the sensitivity for detecting new or enlarged lesions in MS. Purpose To investigate whether the use of contrast material has an effect on the detection of new or enlarged MS lesions and, consequently, the assessment of interval progression. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study based on a local prospective observational cohort, 507 follow-up MR images obtained in 359 patients with MS (mean age, 38.2 years ± 10.3; 246 women, 113 men) were evaluated. With use of subtraction maps, nonenhanced images (double inversion recovery [DIR], fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR]) and contrast material-enhanced (gadoterate meglumine, 0.1 mmol/kg) T1-weighted images were separately assessed for new or enlarged lesions in independent readings by two readers blinded to each other's findings and to clinical information. Primary outcome was the percentage of new or enlarged lesions detected only on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images and the assessment of interval progression. Interval progression was defined as at least one new or unequivocally enlarged lesion on follow-up MR images. Results Of 507 follow-up images, 264 showed interval progression, with a total of 1992 new or enlarged and 207 contrast-enhancing lesions. Four of these lesions (on three MR images) were retrospectively detected on only the nonenhanced images, corresponding to 1.9% (four of 207) of the enhancing and 0.2% (four of 1992) of all new or enlarged lesions. Nine enhancing lesions were not detected on FLAIR-based subtraction maps (nine of 1442, 0.6%). In none of the 507 images did the contrast-enhanced sequences reveal interval progression that was missed in the readouts of the nonenhanced sequences, with use of either DIR- or FLAIR-based subtraction maps. Interrater agreement was high for all three measures, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.91 with FLAIR, 0.94 with DIR, and 0.99 with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Conclusion At 3.0 T, use of a gadolinium-based contrast agent at follow-up MRI did not change the diagnosis of interval disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis. © RSNA, 2019 See also the editorial by Saindane in this issue.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gadolínio/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Ann Neurol ; 85(5): 618-629, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal thresholds for intereye differences in retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer thicknesses for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis. Current international diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis do not include the optic nerve as a lesion site despite frequent involvement. Optical coherence tomography detects retinal thinning associated with optic nerve lesions. METHODS: In this multicenter international study at 11 sites, optical coherence tomography was measured for patients and healthy controls as part of the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System Consortium. High- and low-contrast acuity were also collected in a subset of participants. Presence of an optic nerve lesion for this study was defined as history of acute unilateral optic neuritis. RESULTS: Among patients (n = 1,530), receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated an optimal peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer intereye difference threshold of 5µm and ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer threshold of 4µm for identifying unilateral optic neuritis (n = 477). Greater intereye differences in acuities were associated with greater intereye retinal layer thickness differences (p ≤ 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Intereye differences of 5µm for retinal nerve fiber layer and 4µm for macular ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer are robust thresholds for identifying unilateral optic nerve lesions. These thresholds may be useful in establishing the presence of asymptomatic and symptomatic optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis and could be useful in a new version of the diagnostic criteria. Our findings lend further validation for utilizing the visual system in a multiple sclerosis clinical trial setting. Ann Neurol 2019;85:618-629.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Neurônios Retinianos/patologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mult Scler ; 25(4): 565-573, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) with interferon ß can lead to the development of antibodies directed against interferon ß that interfere with treatment efficacy. Several observational studies have proposed different HLA alleles and genetic variants associated with the development of antibodies against interferon ß. OBJECTIVE: To validate the proposed genetic markers and to identify new markers. METHODS: Associations of genetic candidate markers with antibody presence and development were examined in a post hoc analysis in 941 patients treated with interferon ß-1b in the Betaferon® Efficacy Yielding Outcomes of a New Dose (BEYOND) and BEtaseron®/BEtaferon® in Newly Emerging multiple sclerosis For Initial Treatment (BENEFIT) prospective phase III trials. All patients were treated with interferon ß-1b for at least 6 months. In addition, a genome-wide association study was conducted to identify new genetic variants. RESULTS: We confirmed an increased risk for carriers of HLA-DRB1*04:01 (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, p = 6.9 × 10-4) and HLA-DRB1*07:01 (OR = 1.8, p = 3.5 × 10-3) for developing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Several additional, previously proposed HLA alleles and genetic variants showed nominally significant associations. In the exploratory analysis, variants in the HLA region were associated with NAb development at genome-wide significance (OR = 2.6, p = 2.30 × 10-15). CONCLUSION: The contribution of HLA alleles and HLA-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the development and titer of antibodies against interferon ß was confirmed in the combined analysis of two multi-national, multi-center studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Interferon beta-1b/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Interferon beta-1b/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/genética , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos
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