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1.
Neurology ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the occurrence of diseases and symptoms in the five years prior to diagnosis in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a case-control study. METHODS: Using ambulatory claims data we systematically assessed differences in the occurrence of diseases and symptoms in the five years prior to first diagnosis in patients with MS (n=10,262) as compared to patients with two other autoimmune diseases - Crohn's disease (n=15,502) and psoriasis (n=98,432) - and individuals without these diseases (n=73,430). RESULTS: Forty-three ICD-10 codes were recorded more frequently for patients with MS before diagnosis as compared to controls without autoimmune disease. Many of these findings were confirmed in a comparison to the other control groups. A high proportion of these ICD-10 codes represent symptoms suggestive of demyelinating events or other neurological diagnoses. In a sensitivity analysis excluding patients with such recordings prior to first diagnosis, no association remained significant. Seven ICD-10 codes were associated with lower odds ratios of MS, four of which represented upper respiratory tract infections. Here, the relations with MS were even more pronounced in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses suggest that patients with MS are frequently not diagnosed at their first demyelinating event but often years later. Symptoms and physician encounters before MS diagnosis seem to be related to already ongoing disease rather than a prodrome. The observed association of upper respiratory tract infections with lower ORs of MS diagnosis suggests a link between protection from infection and MS that however needs to be validated and further investigated.

2.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585211005339, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) poses unique challenges in the management of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVES: To collect data about the impact of COVID-19 emergency on access to care for PwMS and on MS treatment practices. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) promoted an online survey covering patient access to care, management of relapses and visits, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) and experience with COVID-19. RESULTS: Three-hundred and sixty neurologists from 52 countries (68% from Europe) completed the survey. 98% reported COVID-19-related restrictions. Telemedicine was adopted to overcome the limited access to care and was newly activated (73%) or widely implemented (17%). 70% reported changes in DMT management. Interferons and glatiramer were considered safe. Dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide and fingolimod were considered safe except for patients developing lymphopenia. No modifications were considered for natalizumab in 64%, cladribine in 24%, anti-CD20 in 22% and alemtuzumab in 17%; 18% (for alemtuzumab and cladribine) and 43% (for anti-CD20) considered postponing treatment. CONCLUSION: The ECTRIMS survey highlighted the challenges in keeping standards of care in clinical practice. Telemedicine clearly needs to be implemented. Gathering data on DMT safety will remain crucial to inform treatment decisions.

3.
Ann Neurol ; 89(5): 884-894, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many multiple sclerosis (MS) genetic susceptibility variants have been identified, but understanding disease heterogeneity remains a key challenge. Relapses are a core feature of MS and a common primary outcome of clinical trials, with prevention of relapses benefiting patients immediately and potentially limiting long-term disability accrual. We aim to identify genetic variation associated with relapse hazard in MS by analyzing the largest study population to date. METHODS: We performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) in a discovery cohort and investigated the genomewide significant variants in a replication cohort. Combining both cohorts, we captured a total of 2,231 relapses occurring before the start of any immunomodulatory treatment in 991 patients. For assessing time to relapse, we applied a survival analysis utilizing Cox proportional hazards models. We also investigated the association between MS genetic risk scores and relapse hazard and performed a gene ontology pathway analysis. RESULTS: The low-frequency genetic variant rs11871306 within WNT9B reached genomewide significance in predicting relapse hazard and replicated (meta-analysis hazard ratio (HR) = 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.70-2.78, p = 2.07 × 10-10 ). A pathway analysis identified an association of the pathway "response to vitamin D" with relapse hazard (p = 4.33 × 10-6 ). The MS genetic risk scores, however, were not associated with relapse hazard. INTERPRETATION: Genetic factors underlying disease heterogeneity differ from variants associated with MS susceptibility. Our findings imply that genetic variation within the Wnt signaling and vitamin D pathways contributes to differences in relapse occurrence. The present study highlights these cross-talking pathways as potential modulators of MS disease activity. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:884-894.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between serum aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonistic activity levels with disease severity, its modulation over the course of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and its regulation in progressive MS (PMS) are unknown. Here, we report the analysis of AHR agonistic activity levels in cross-sectional and longitudinal serum samples of patients with RRMS and PMS. METHODS: In a cross-sectional investigation, a total of 36 control patients diagnosed with noninflammatory diseases, 84 patients with RRMS, 35 patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 41 patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) were included in this study. AHR activity was measured in a cell-based luciferase assay and correlated with age, sex, the presence of disease-modifying therapies, Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, and disease duration. In a second longitudinal investigation, we analyzed AHR activity in 13 patients diagnosed with RRMS over a period from 4 to 10 years and correlated AHR agonistic activity with white matter atrophy and lesion load volume changes. RESULTS: In RRMS, AHR ligand levels were globally decreased and associated with disease duration and neurologic disability. In SPMS and PPMS, serum AHR agonistic activity was decreased and correlated with disease severity. Finally, in longitudinal serum samples of patients with RRMS, decreased AHR agonistic activity was linked to progressive CNS atrophy and increased lesion load. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that serum AHR agonist levels negatively correlate with disability in RRMS and PMS and decrease longitudinally in correlation with MRI markers of disease progression. Thus, serum AHR agonistic activity may serve as novel biomarker for disability progression in MS.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376202

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease risk is associated with reduced sun-exposure. This study assessed the relationship between measures of sun exposure (vitamin D [vitD], latitude) and MS severity in the setting of two multicenter cohort studies (n NationMS = 946, n BIONAT = 990). Additionally, effect-modification by medication and photosensitivity-associated MC1R variants was assessed. High serum vitD was associated with a reduced MS severity score (MSSS), reduced risk for relapses, and lower disability accumulation over time. Low latitude was associated with higher vitD, lower MSSS, fewer gadolinium-enhancing lesions, and lower disability accumulation. The association of latitude with disability was lacking in IFN-ß-treated patients. In carriers of MC1R:rs1805008(T), who reported increased sensitivity toward sunlight, lower latitude was associated with higher MRI activity, whereas for noncarriers there was less MRI activity at lower latitudes. In a further exploratory approach, the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-phototherapy on the transcriptome of immune cells of MS patients was assessed using samples from an earlier study. Phototherapy induced a vitD and type I IFN signature that was most apparent in monocytes but that could also be detected in B and T cells. In summary, our study suggests beneficial effects of sun exposure on established MS, as demonstrated by a correlative network between the three factors: Latitude, vitD, and disease severity. However, sun exposure might be detrimental for photosensitive patients. Furthermore, a direct induction of type I IFNs through sun exposure could be another mechanism of UV-mediated immune-modulation in MS.


Assuntos
Monócitos/efeitos da radiação , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação , Vitamina D/sangue , Linfócitos B/efeitos da radiação , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Interferon beta/farmacologia , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/radioterapia , Fenótipo , Fototerapia , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Luz Solar , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos da radiação , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458520972279, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179588

RESUMO

Fatigue, depression, and pain affect the majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, which causes a substantial burden to patients and society. The pathophysiology of these symptoms is not entirely clear, and current treatments are only partially effective. Clinically, these symptoms share signs of anhedonia, such as reduced motivation and a lack of positive affect. In the brain, they are associated with overlapping structural and functional alterations in areas involved in reward processing. Moreover, neuroinflammation has been shown to directly impede monoaminergic neurotransmission that plays a key role in reward processing. Here, we review recent neuroimaging and neuroimmunological findings, which indicate that dysfunctional reward processing might represent a shared functional mechanism fostering the symptom cluster of fatigue, depression, and pain in MS. We propose a framework that integrates these findings with a focus on monoaminergic neurotransmission and discuss its therapeutic implications, limitations, and perspectives.

8.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 298, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upon treatment with biopharmaceuticals, the immune system may produce anti-drug antibodies (ADA) that inhibit the therapy. Up to 40% of multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon ß (IFNß) develop ADA, for which a genetic predisposition exists. Here, we present a genome-wide association study on ADA and predict the occurrence of antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients treated with different interferon ß preparations. METHODS: We analyzed a large sample of 2757 genotyped and imputed patients from two cohorts (Sweden and Germany), split between a discovery and a replication dataset. Binding ADA (bADA) levels were measured by capture-ELISA, neutralizing ADA (nADA) titers using a bioassay. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted stratified by cohort and treatment preparation, followed by fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Binding ADA levels and nADA titers were correlated and showed a significant heritability (47% and 50%, respectively). The risk factors differed strongly by treatment preparation: The top-associated and replicated variants for nADA presence were the HLA-associated variants rs77278603 in IFNß-1a s.c.- (odds ratio (OR) = 3.55 (95% confidence interval = 2.81-4.48), p = 2.1 × 10-26) and rs28366299 in IFNß-1b s.c.-treated patients (OR = 3.56 (2.69-4.72), p = 6.6 × 10-19). The rs77278603-correlated HLA haplotype DR15-DQ6 conferred risk specifically for IFNß-1a s.c. (OR = 2.88 (2.29-3.61), p = 7.4 × 10-20) while DR3-DQ2 was protective (OR = 0.37 (0.27-0.52), p = 3.7 × 10-09). The haplotype DR4-DQ3 was the major risk haplotype for IFNß-1b s.c. (OR = 7.35 (4.33-12.47), p = 1.5 × 10-13). These haplotypes exhibit large population-specific frequency differences. The best prediction models were achieved for ADA in IFNß-1a s.c.-treated patients. Here, the prediction in the Swedish cohort showed AUC = 0.91 (0.85-0.95), sensitivity = 0.78, and specificity = 0.90; patients with the top 30% of genetic risk had, compared to patients in the bottom 30%, an OR = 73.9 (11.8-463.6, p = 4.4 × 10-6) of developing nADA. In the German cohort, the AUC of the same model was 0.83 (0.71-0.92), sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.76, with an OR = 13.8 (3.0-63.3, p = 7.5 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: We identified several HLA-associated genetic risk factors for ADA against interferon ß, which were specific for treatment preparations and population backgrounds. Genetic prediction models could robustly identify patients at risk for developing ADA and might be used for personalized therapy recommendations and stratified ADA screening in clinical practice. These analyses serve as a roadmap for genetic characterizations of ADA against other biopharmaceutical compounds.

9.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003348, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biopharmaceutical products (BPs) are widely used to treat autoimmune diseases, but immunogenicity limits their efficacy for an important proportion of patients. Our knowledge of patient-related factors influencing the occurrence of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) is still limited. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The European consortium ABIRISK (Anti-Biopharmaceutical Immunization: prediction and analysis of clinical relevance to minimize the RISK) conducted a clinical and genomic multicohort prospective study of 560 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 147), rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 229), Crohn's disease (n = 148), or ulcerative colitis (n = 36) treated with 8 different biopharmaceuticals (etanercept, n = 84; infliximab, n = 101; adalimumab, n = 153; interferon [IFN]-beta-1a intramuscularly [IM], n = 38; IFN-beta-1a subcutaneously [SC], n = 68; IFN-beta-1b SC, n = 41; rituximab, n = 31; tocilizumab, n = 44) and followed during the first 12 months of therapy for time to ADA development. From the bioclinical data collected, we explored the relationships between patient-related factors and the occurrence of ADAs. Both baseline and time-dependent factors such as concomitant medications were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Mean age and disease duration were 35.1 and 0.85 years, respectively, for MS; 54.2 and 3.17 years for RA; and 36.9 and 3.69 years for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In a multivariate Cox regression model including each of the clinical and genetic factors mentioned hereafter, among the clinical factors, immunosuppressants (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.408 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.253-0.657], p < 0.001) and antibiotics (aHR = 0.121 [0.0437-0.333], p < 0.0001) were independently negatively associated with time to ADA development, whereas infections during the study (aHR = 2.757 [1.616-4.704], p < 0.001) and tobacco smoking (aHR = 2.150 [1.319-3.503], p < 0.01) were positively associated. 351,824 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and 38 imputed Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles were analyzed through a genome-wide association study. We found that the HLA-DQA1*05 allele significantly increased the rate of immunogenicity (aHR = 3.9 [1.923-5.976], p < 0.0001 for the homozygotes). Among the 6 genetic variants selected at a 20% false discovery rate (FDR) threshold, the minor allele of rs10508884, which is situated in an intron of the CXCL12 gene, increased the rate of immunogenicity (aHR = 3.804 [2.139-6.764], p < 1 × 10-5 for patients homozygous for the minor allele) and was chosen for validation through a CXCL12 protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on patient serum at baseline before therapy start. CXCL12 protein levels were higher for patients homozygous for the minor allele carrying higher ADA risk (mean: 2,693 pg/ml) than for the other genotypes (mean: 2,317 pg/ml; p = 0.014), and patients with CXCL12 levels above the median in serum were more prone to develop ADAs (aHR = 2.329 [1.106-4.90], p = 0.026). A limitation of the study is the lack of replication; therefore, other studies are required to confirm our findings. CONCLUSION: In our study, we found that immunosuppressants and antibiotics were associated with decreased risk of ADA development, whereas tobacco smoking and infections during the study were associated with increased risk. We found that the HLA-DQA1*05 allele was associated with an increased rate of immunogenicity. Moreover, our results suggest a relationship between CXCL12 production and ADA development independent of the disease, which is consistent with its known function in affinity maturation of antibodies and plasma cell survival. Our findings may help physicians in the management of patients receiving biotherapies.

10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105175, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused public lockdowns around the world. We analyzed if the public lockdown altered the referral pattern of Code Stroke patients by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to our Comprehensive Stroke Center. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study at a Bavarian Comprehensive Stroke Center. Patients who were directly referred to our stroke unit by EMS between the 1st of January 2020 and the 19th of April 2020 were identified and number of referrals, clinical characteristics and treatment strategies were analyzed during the public lockdown and before. The public lockdown started on 21st of March and ended on 19th April 2020. RESULTS: In total 241 patients were referred to our center during the study period, i.e. 171 before and 70 during the lockdown. The absolute daily number of Code Stroke referrals and the portion of patients with stroke mimics remained stable. The portion of female stroke patients decreased (55% to 33%; p = 0.03), and stroke severity as measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (median 3 (IQR 0-7) versus 6 (IQR 1-15.5) points; p = 0.04) increased during the lockdown. There was no difference of daily numbers of patients receiving thrombolysis and thrombectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Referral of Code Stroke patients by EMS could be maintained sufficiently despite the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. However, patients' health care utilization of the EMS may have changed within the public lockdown. EMS remains a useful tool for Code Stroke patient referral during lockdowns, but public education about stroke is required prior to further lockdowns.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Quarentena , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia/tendências , Terapia Trombolítica/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this observational study, we investigated the impact of genetic factors at the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant locus on chromosome 14 and the major histocompatibility complex region on intrathecal immunoglobulin G, A, and M levels as well as on B cells and plasmablasts in the CSF and blood of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Using regression analyses, we tested genetic variants on chromosome 14 and imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for associations with intrathecal immunoglobulins in 1,279 patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome and with blood and CSF B cells and plasmablasts in 301 and 348 patients, respectively. RESULTS: The minor alleles of variants on chromosome 14 were associated with higher intrathecal immunoglobulin G levels (ß = 0.58 [0.47 to 0.68], lowest adjusted p = 2.32 × 10-23), and lower intrathecal immunoglobulin M (ß = -0.56 [-0.67 to -0.46], p = 2.06 × 10-24) and A (ß = -0.42 [-0.54 to -0.31], p = 7.48 × 10-11) levels. Alleles from the HLA-B*07:02-DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 haplotype were associated with higher (lowest p = 2.14 × 10-7) and HLA-B*44:02 with lower (ß = -0.35 [-0.54 to -0.17], p = 1.38 × 10-2) immunoglobulin G levels. Of interest, different HLA alleles were associated with lower intrathecal immunoglobulin M (HLA-C*02:02, ß = -0.45 [-0.61 to -0.28], p = 1.01 × 10-5) and higher immunoglobulin A levels (HLA-DQA1*01:03-DQB1*06:03-DRB1*13:01 haplotype, ß = 0.40 [0.21 to 0.60], p = 4.46 × 10-3). The impact of HLA alleles on intrathecal immunoglobulin G and M levels could mostly be explained by associations with CSF B cells and plasmablasts. CONCLUSION: Although some HLA alleles seem to primarily drive the extent of humoral immune responses in the CNS by increasing CSF B cells and plasmablasts, genetic variants at the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant locus might regulate intrathecal immunoglobulins levels via different mechanisms.

14.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458520924595, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530366

RESUMO

The natural history of multiple sclerosis (MS) is highly heterogeneous. A subgroup of patients has what might be termed aggressive MS. These patients may have frequent, severe relapses with incomplete recovery and are at risk of developing greater and permanent disability at the earlier stages of the disease. Their therapeutic window of opportunity may be narrow, and while it is generally considered that they will benefit from starting early with a highly efficacious treatment, a unified definition of aggressive MS does not exist and data on its treatment are largely lacking. Based on discussions at an international focused workshop sponsored by the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), we review our current knowledge about treatment of individuals with aggressive MS. We analyse the available evidence, identify gaps in knowledge and suggest future research needed to fill those gaps. A companion paper details the difficulties in developing a consensus about what defines aggressive MS.

15.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458520925369, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530385

RESUMO

While the major phenotypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) and relapsing-remitting, primary and secondary progressive MS have been well characterized, a subgroup of patients with an active, aggressive disease course and rapid disability accumulation remains difficult to define and there is no consensus about their management and treatment. The current lack of an accepted definition and treatment guidelines for aggressive MS triggered a 2018 focused workshop of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) on aggressive MS. The aim of the workshop was to discuss approaches on how to describe and define the disease phenotype and its treatments. Unfortunately, it was not possible to come to consensus on a definition because of unavailable data correlating severe disease with imaging and molecular biomarkers. However, the workshop highlighted the need for future research needed to define this disease subtype while also focusing on its treatment and management. Here, we review previous attempts to define aggressive MS and present characteristics that might, with additional research, eventually help characterize it. A companion paper summarizes data regarding treatment and management.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of APOE polymorphisms on cognitive performance in patients newly diagnosed with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). METHODS: This multicenter cohort study included 552 untreated patients recently diagnosed with CIS or RRMS according to the 2005 revised McDonald criteria. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs429358 (ε4) and rs7412 (ε2) of the APOE haplotype were assessed by allelic discrimination assays. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the 3-second paced auditory serial addition test and the Multiple Sclerosis Inventory Cognition (MUSIC). Sum scores were calculated to approximate the overall cognitive performance and memory-centered cognitive functions. The impact of the APOE carrier status on cognitive performance was assessed using multiple linear regression models, also including demographic, clinical, MRI, and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: APOE ε4 homozygosity was associated with lower overall cognitive performance, whereas no relevant association was observed for APOE ε4 heterozygosity or APOE ε2 carrier status. Furthermore, higher disability levels, MRI lesion load, and depressive symptoms were associated with lower cognitive performance. Patients consuming alcohol had higher test scores than patients not consuming alcohol. Female sex, lower disability, and alcohol consumption were associated with better performance in the memory-centered subtests of MUSIC, whereas no relevant association was observed for APOE carrier status. CONCLUSION: Along with parameters of a higher disease burden, APOE ε4 homozygosity was identified as a potential predictor of cognitive performance in this large cohort of patients with CIS and early RRMS.

17.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(7): 681-686, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a large cohort of patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 901 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) participating in the German National MS cohort, a prospective cohort of patients with early MS with stringent inclusion criteria. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1 and viral capsid antigen (VCA) antibodies were measured in diluted sera by chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs). Sera of EBNA-1 and VCA antibody-negative patients were retested undiluted by an EBV IgG immunoblot. For comparison, we retrospectively analysed the EBV seroprevalence across different age cohorts, ranging from 0 to >80 years, in a large hospital population (N=16 163) from Berlin/Northern Germany. RESULTS: EBNA-1 antibodies were detected by CLIA in 839 of 901 patients with CIS/RRMS. Of the 62 patients without EBNA-1 antibodies, 45 had antibodies to VCA as detected by CLIA. In all of the remaining 17 patients, antibodies to EBV were detected by immunoblot. Altogether, 901 of 901 (100%) patients with CIS/RRMS were EBV-seropositive. EBV seropositivity increased with age in the hospital population but did not reach 100% in any of the investigated age cohorts. CONCLUSION: The complete EBV seropositivity in this large cohort of patients with early MS strengthens the evidence for a role of EBV in MS. It also suggests that a negative EBV serology in patients with suspected inflammatory central nervous system disease should alert clinicians to consider diagnoses other than MS.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
EBioMedicine ; 56: 102807, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aim to evaluate serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL), indicating neuroaxonal damage, as a biomarker at diagnosis in a large cohort of early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: In a multicentre prospective longitudinal observational cohort, patients with newly diagnosed relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) were recruited between August 2010 and November 2015 in 22 centers. Clinical parameters, MRI, and sNfL levels (measured by single molecule array) were assessed at baseline and up to four-year follow-up. FINDINGS: Of 814 patients, 54.7% (445) were diagnosed with RRMS and 45.3% (369) with CIS when applying 2010 McDonald criteria (RRMS[2010] and CIS[2010]). After reclassification of CIS[2010] patients with existing CSF analysis, according to 2017 criteria, sNfL levels were lower in CIS[2017] than RRMS[2017] patients (9.1 pg/ml, IQR 6.2-13.7 pg/ml, n = 45; 10.8 pg/ml, IQR 7.4-20.1 pg/ml, n = 213; p = 0.036). sNfL levels correlated with number of T2 and Gd+ lesions at baseline and future clinical relapses. Patients receiving disease-modifying therapy (DMT) during the first four years had higher baseline sNfL levels than DMT-naïve patients (11.8 pg/ml, IQR 7.5-20.7 pg/ml, n = 726; 9.7 pg/ml, IQR 6.4-15.3 pg/ml, n = 88). Therapy escalation decisions within this period were reflected by longitudinal changes in sNfL levels. INTERPRETATION: Assessment of sNfL increases diagnostic accuracy, is associated with disease course prognosis and may, particularly when measured longitudinally, facilitate therapeutic decisions. FUNDING: Supported the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, the German Research Council, and Hertie-Stiftung.

20.
J Neurol ; 267(8): 2307-2318, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is a frequent and debilitating symptom in MS. To better understand the neural bases of CI in MS, this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study aimed to identify and quantify related structural brain changes and to investigate their relation to each other. METHODS: We studied 51 patients with CI and 391 patients with cognitive preservation (CP). We analyzed three-dimensional T1-weighted and FLAIR scans at 3 Tesla. We determined mean cortical thickness as well as volumes of cortical grey matter (GM), deep GM including thalamus, cerebellar cortex, white matter, corpus callosum, and white matter lesions (WML). We also analyzed GM across the whole brain by voxel-wise and surface-based techniques. RESULTS: Mean disease duration was 5 years. Comparing MS patients with CI and CP, we found higher volumes of WML, lower volumes of deep and cortical GM structures, and lower volumes of the corpus callosum (all corrected p values < 0.05). Effect sizes were largest for WML and thalamic volume (standardized ß values 0.25 and - 0.25). By logistic regression analysis including both WML and thalamic volume, we found a significant effect only for WML volume. Inclusion of the interaction term of WML and thalamic volume increased the model fit and revealed a highly significant interaction of WML and thalamic volume. Moreover, voxel-wise and surface-based comparisons of MS patients with CI and CP showed regional atrophy of both deep and cortical GM independent of WML volume and overall disability, but effect sizes were lower. CONCLUSION: Although several mechanisms contribute to CI already in the early stage of MS, WML seem to be the main driver with thalamic atrophy primarily intensifying this effect.

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