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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12516, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467394

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, the elongation phase of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is regulated by the transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), composed of Cyclin-T1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 9. The release of RNAP II is mediated by phosphorylation through P-TEFb that in turn is under control by the inhibitory 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex. The 7SK snRNP consists of the 7SK non-coding RNA and the proteins MEPCE, LARP7, and HEXIM1/2. Biallelic LARP7 loss-of-function variants underlie Alazami syndrome characterized by growth retardation and intellectual disability. We report a boy with global developmental delay and seizures carrying the de novo MEPCE nonsense variant c.1552 C > T/p.(Arg518*). mRNA and protein analyses identified nonsense-mediated mRNA decay to underlie the decreased amount of MEPCE in patient fibroblasts followed by LARP7 and 7SK snRNA downregulation and HEXIM1 upregulation. Reduced binding of HEXIM1 to Cyclin-T1, hyperphosphorylation of the RNAP II C-terminal domain, and upregulated expression of ID2, ID3, MRPL11 and snRNAs U1, U2 and U4 in patient cells are suggestive of enhanced activation of P-TEFb. Flavopiridol treatment and ectopic MEPCE protein expression in patient fibroblasts rescued increased expression of six RNAP II-sensitive genes and suggested a possible repressive effect of MEPCE on P-TEFb-dependent transcription of specific genes.

2.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(27-28): 487, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431241
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 302-316, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256877

RESUMO

Members of a paralogous gene family in which variation in one gene is known to cause disease are eight times more likely to also be associated with human disease. Recent studies have elucidated DHX30 and DDX3X as genes for which pathogenic variant alleles are involved in neurodevelopmental disorders. We hypothesized that variants in paralogous genes encoding members of the DExD/H-box RNA helicase superfamily might also underlie developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD and/or ID) disease phenotypes. Here we describe 15 unrelated individuals who have DD and/or ID, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, vertebral anomalies, and dysmorphic features and were found to have probably damaging variants in DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes. In addition, these individuals exhibit a variety of other tissue and organ system involvement including ocular, outer ear, hearing, cardiac, and kidney tissues. Five individuals with homozygous (one), compound-heterozygous (two), or de novo (two) missense variants in DHX37 were identified by exome sequencing. We identified ten total individuals with missense variants in three other DDX/DHX paralogs: DHX16 (four individuals), DDX54 (three individuals), and DHX34 (three individuals). Most identified variants are rare, predicted to be damaging, and occur at conserved amino acid residues. Taken together, these 15 individuals implicate the DExD/H-box helicases in both dominantly and recessively inherited neurodevelopmental phenotypes and highlight the potential for more than one disease mechanism underlying these disorders.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 395-402, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353022

RESUMO

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor links over 150 proteins to the cell surface and is present on every cell type. Many of these proteins play crucial roles in neuronal development and function. Mutations in 18 of the 29 genes implicated in the biosynthesis of the GPI anchor have been identified as the cause of GPI biosynthesis deficiencies (GPIBDs) in humans. GPIBDs are associated with intellectual disability and seizures as their cardinal features. An essential component of the GPI transamidase complex is PIGU, along with PIGK, PIGS, PIGT, and GPAA1, all of which link GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) onto the GPI anchor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we report two homozygous missense mutations (c.209T>A [p.Ile70Lys] and c.1149C>A [p.Asn383Lys]) in five individuals from three unrelated families. All individuals presented with global developmental delay, severe-to-profound intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, seizures, brain anomalies, scoliosis, and mild facial dysmorphism. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we determined a characteristic profile for GPI transamidase deficiency. On granulocytes this profile consisted of reduced cell-surface expression of fluorescein-labeled proaerolysin (FLAER), CD16, and CD24, but not of CD55 and CD59; additionally, B cells showed an increased expression of free GPI anchors determined by T5 antibody. Moreover, computer-assisted facial analysis of different GPIBDs revealed a characteristic facial gestalt shared among individuals with mutations in PIGU and GPAA1. Our findings improve our understanding of the role of the GPI transamidase complex in the development of nervous and skeletal systems and expand the clinical spectrum of disorders belonging to the group of inherited GPI-anchor deficiencies.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2966, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273213

RESUMO

Mutations in genes encoding components of BAF (BRG1/BRM-associated factor) chromatin remodeling complexes cause neurodevelopmental disorders and tumors. The mechanisms leading to the development of these two disease entities alone or in combination remain unclear. We generated mice with a heterozygous nervous system-specific partial loss-of-function mutation in a BAF core component gene, Smarcb1. These Smarcb1 mutant mice show various brain midline abnormalities that are also found in individuals with Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) caused by SMARCB1, SMARCE1, and ARID1B mutations and in SMARCB1-related intellectual disability (ID) with choroid plexus hyperplasia (CPH). Analyses of the Smarcb1 mutant animals indicate that one prominent midline abnormality, corpus callosum agenesis, is due to midline glia aberrations. Our results establish a novel role of Smarcb1 in the development of the brain midline and have important clinical implications for BAF complex-related ID/neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Corpo Caloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Face/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/patologia , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpo Caloso/citologia , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião de Mamíferos , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Micrognatismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroglia/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 132-150, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230720

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis is a clinical finding that is present either as a feature of a neuromuscular condition or as part of a systemic disease in over 400 Mendelian conditions. The underlying molecular etiology remains largely unknown because of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. We applied exome sequencing (ES) in a cohort of 89 families with the clinical sign of arthrogryposis. Additional molecular techniques including array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) were performed on individuals who were found to have pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and mosaicism, respectively. A molecular diagnosis was established in 65.2% (58/89) of families. Eleven out of 58 families (19.0%) showed evidence for potential involvement of pathogenic variation at more than one locus, probably driven by absence of heterozygosity (AOH) burden due to identity-by-descent (IBD). RYR3, MYOM2, ERGIC1, SPTBN4, and ABCA7 represent genes, identified in two or more families, for which mutations are probably causative for arthrogryposis. We also provide evidence for the involvement of CNVs in the etiology of arthrogryposis and for the idea that both mono-allelic and bi-allelic variants in the same gene cause either similar or distinct syndromes. We were able to identify the molecular etiology in nine out of 20 families who underwent reanalysis. In summary, our data from family-based ES further delineate the molecular etiology of arthrogryposis, yielded several candidate disease-associated genes, and provide evidence for mutational burden in a biological pathway or network. Our study also highlights the importance of reanalysis of individuals with unsolved diagnoses in conjunction with sequencing extended family members.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 129(7): 2841-2855, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094706

RESUMO

About 1% of all newborns are affected by congenital heart disease (CHD). Recent findings identify aberrantly functioning cilia as a possible source for CHD. Faulty cilia also prevent the development of proper left-right asymmetry and cause heterotaxy, the incorrect placement of visceral organs. Intriguingly, signaling cascades such as mTor that influence mitochondrial biogenesis also affect ciliogenesis, and can cause heterotaxy-like phenotypes in zebrafish. Here, we identify levels of mitochondrial function as a determinant for ciliogenesis and a cause for heterotaxy. We detected reduced mitochondrial DNA content in biopsies of heterotaxy patients. Manipulation of mitochondrial function revealed a reciprocal influence on ciliogenesis and affected cilia-dependent processes in zebrafish, human fibroblasts and Tetrahymena thermophila. Exome analysis of heterotaxy patients revealed an increased burden of rare damaging variants in mitochondria-associated genes as compared to 1000 Genome controls. Knockdown of such candidate genes caused cilia elongation and ciliopathy-like phenotypes in zebrafish, which could not be rescued by RNA encoding damaging rare variants identified in heterotaxy patients. Our findings suggest that ciliogenesis is coupled to the abundance and function of mitochondria. Our data further reveal disturbed mitochondrial function as an underlying cause for heterotaxy-linked CHD and provide a mechanism for unexplained phenotypes of mitochondrial disease.

9.
Clin Genet ; 96(1): 85-90, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044419

RESUMO

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS), a rare condition that affects smooth muscle cells, is caused by biallelic null alleles in MYH11. We report on a girl with MMIHS in addition to growth hormone deficiency, central hypothyroidism and a tonically dilated pupil with accommodation deficit. Sanger sequencing and arrayCGH uncovered the novel heterozygous missense variant c.379C>T in MYH11 and a heterozygous 1.3 Mb deletion in 16q13.11 encompassing MYH11, respectively. Her mother carries the deletion, whereas her father is heterozygous for the c.379C>T p.(Pro127Ser) change. Proline 127 is crucial for the formation of the Adenosine triphosphate binding pocket of the MYH11 motor domain and molecular modeling indicated that p.Pro127Ser alters nucleotide binding properties. Thus, the unusual and complex clinical presentation of the patient results from compound heterozygosity for a 16p13.11 microdeletion including the entire MYH11 gene and a loss-of-function missense variant on the remaining MYH11 allele. In conclusion, we recommend genetic testing both for MYH11 sequence alterations and copy number imbalances in individuals with MMIHS and smooth muscle cell-associated abnormalities in additional organs, that is, multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction.

10.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(12): 197-204, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In developed countries, global developmental disorders are encounter- ed in approximately 1% of all children. The causes are manifold, and no exogenous cause can be identified in about half of the affected children. The parallel investi- gation of the coding sequences of all genes of the affected individual (whole exome sequencing, WES) has developed into a successful diagnostic method for identify- ing the cause of the problem. It is not yet clear, however, when WES should best be used in routine clinical practice in order to exploit the potential of this method to the fullest. METHODS: In an interdisciplinary study, we carried out standardized clinical pheno- typing and a systematic genetic analysis (WES of the index patient and his or her parents, so-called trio WES) in 50 children with developmental disturbances of unclear etiology and with nonspecific neurological manifestations. RESULTS: In 21 children (42% of the collective), we were able to identify the cause of the disorder by demonstrating a mutation in a gene known to be associated with disease. Three of these children subsequently underwent specific treatment. In 22 other children (44%), we detected possibly etiological changes in candidate genes not currently known to be associated with human disease. CONCLUSION: Our detection rate of at least 42% is high in comparison with the results obtained in other studies from Germany and other countries to date and implies that WES can be used to good effect as a differential diagnostic tool in pediatric neurol- ogy. WES should be carried out in both the index patient and his or her parents (trio- WES) and accompanied by close interdisciplinary collaboration of human geneti- cists and pediatricians, by comprehensive and targeted phenotyping (also after the diagnosis is established), and by the meticulous evaluation of all gene variants.

11.
Kidney Int ; 95(6): 1494-1504, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005274

RESUMO

Although genetic testing is increasingly used in clinical nephrology, a large number of patients with congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) remain undiagnosed with current gene panels. Therefore, careful curation of novel genetic findings is key to improving diagnostic yields. We recently described a novel intellectual disability syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the splicing factor SON. Here, we show that many of these patients, including two previously unreported, exhibit a wide array of kidney abnormalities. Detailed phenotyping of 14 patients with SON haploinsufficiency identified kidney anomalies in 8 patients, including horseshoe kidney, unilateral renal hypoplasia, and renal cysts. Recurrent urinary tract infections, electrolyte disturbances, and hypertension were also observed in some patients. SON knockdown in kidney cell lines leads to abnormal pre-mRNA splicing, resulting in decreased expression of several established CAKUT genes. Furthermore, these molecular events were observed in patient-derived cells with SON haploinsufficiency. Taken together, our data suggest that the wide spectrum of phenotypes in patients with a pathogenic SON mutation is a consequence of impaired pre-mRNA splicing of several CAKUT genes. We propose that genetic testing panels designed to diagnose children with a kidney phenotype should include the SON gene.

12.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1832-1841, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675029

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heritable factors play an important etiologic role in connective tissue disorders (CTD) with vascular involvement, and a genetic diagnosis is getting increasingly important for gene-tailored, personalized patient management. METHODS: We analyzed 32 disease-associated genes by using targeted next-generation sequencing and exome sequencing in a clinically relevant cohort of 199 individuals. We classified and refined sequence variants according to their likelihood for pathogenicity. RESULTS: We identified 1 pathogenic variant (PV; in FBN1 or SMAD3) in 15 patients (7.5%) and ≥1 likely pathogenic variant (LPV; in COL3A1, FBN1, FBN2, LOX, MYH11, SMAD3, TGFBR1, or TGFBR2) in 19 individuals (9.6%), together resulting in 17.1% diagnostic yield. Thirteen PV/LPV were novel. Of PV/LPV-negative patients 47 (23.6%) showed ≥1 variant of uncertain significance (VUS). Twenty-five patients had concomitant variants. In-depth evaluation of reported/calculated variant classes resulted in reclassification of 19.8% of variants. CONCLUSION: Variant classification and refinement are essential for shaping mutational spectra of disease genes, thereby improving clinical sensitivity. Obligate stringent multigene analysis is a powerful tool for identifying genetic causes of clinically related CTDs. Nonetheless, the relatively high rate of PV/LPV/VUS-negative patients underscores the existence of yet unknown disease loci and/or oligogenic/polygenic inheritance.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 579-591, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290153

RESUMO

p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases acting as effectors of CDC42 and RAC, which are members of the RHO family of small GTPases. PAK1's kinase activity is autoinhibited by homodimerization, whereas CDC42 or RAC1 binding causes PAK1 activation by dimer dissociation. Major functions of the PAKs include actin cytoskeleton reorganization, for example regulation of the cellular protruding activity during cell spreading. We report the de novo PAK1 mutations c.392A>G (p.Tyr131Cys) and c.1286A>G (p.Tyr429Cys) in two unrelated subjects with developmental delay, secondary macrocephaly, seizures, and ataxic gait. We identified enhanced phosphorylation of the PAK1 targets JNK and AKT in fibroblasts of one subject and of c-JUN in those of both subjects compared with control subjects. In fibroblasts of the two affected individuals, we observed a trend toward enhanced PAK1 kinase activity. By using co-immunoprecipitation and size-exclusion chromatography, we observed a significantly reduced dimerization for both PAK1 mutants compared with wild-type PAK1. These data demonstrate that the two PAK1 variants function as activating alleles. In a cell spreading assay, subject-derived fibroblasts showed significant enrichment in cells occupied by filopodia. Interestingly, application of the PAK1 inhibitor FRAX486 completely reversed this cellular phenotype. Together, our data reveal that dominantly acting, gain-of-function PAK1 mutations cause a neurodevelopmental phenotype with increased head circumference, possibly by a combined effect of defective homodimerization and enhanced kinase activity of PAK1. This condition, along with the developmental disorders associated with RAC1 and CDC42 missense mutations, highlight the importance of RHO GTPase members and effectors in neuronal development.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

15.
Brain ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985992

RESUMO

The transcription factor BCL11B is essential for development of the nervous and the immune system, and Bcl11b deficiency results in structural brain defects, reduced learning capacity, and impaired immune cell development in mice. However, the precise role of BCL11B in humans is largely unexplored, except for a single patient with a BCL11B missense mutation, affected by multisystem anomalies and profound immune deficiency. Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 13 patients bearing heterozygous germline alterations in BCL11B. Notably, all of them are affected by global developmental delay with speech impairment and intellectual disability; however, none displayed overt clinical signs of immune deficiency. Six frameshift mutations, two nonsense mutations, one missense mutation, and two chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diminished BCL11B expression, arose de novo. A further frameshift mutation was transmitted from a similarly affected mother. Interestingly, the most severely affected patient harbours a missense mutation within a zinc-finger domain of BCL11B, probably affecting the DNA-binding structural interface, similar to the recently published patient. Furthermore, the most C-terminally located premature termination codon mutation fails to rescue the progenitor cell proliferation defect in hippocampal slice cultures from Bcl11b-deficient mice. Concerning the role of BCL11B in the immune system, extensive immune phenotyping of our patients revealed alterations in the T cell compartment and lack of peripheral type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), consistent with the findings described in Bcl11b-deficient mice. Unsupervised analysis of 102 T lymphocyte subpopulations showed that the patients clearly cluster apart from healthy children, further supporting the common aetiology of the disorder. Taken together, we show here that mutations leading either to BCL11B haploinsufficiency or to a truncated BCL11B protein clinically cause a non-syndromic neurodevelopmental delay. In addition, we suggest that missense mutations affecting specific sites within zinc-finger domains might result in distinct and more severe clinical outcomes.

16.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1089-1095, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518281

RESUMO

VPS13 protein family members VPS13A through VPS13C have been associated with various recessive movement disorders. We describe the first disease association of rare recessive VPS13D variants including frameshift, missense, and partial duplication mutations with a novel complex, hyperkinetic neurological disorder. The clinical features include developmental delay, a childhood onset movement disorder (chorea, dystonia, or tremor), and progressive spastic ataxia or paraparesis. Characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging shows basal ganglia or diffuse white matter T2 hyperintensities as seen in Leigh syndrome and choreoacanthocytosis. Muscle biopsy in 1 case showed mitochondrial aggregates and lipidosis, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings underline the importance of the VPS13 complex in neurological diseases and a possible role in mitochondrial function. Ann Neurol 2018;83:1089-1095.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 1013-1020, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220673

RESUMO

Using trio whole-exome sequencing, we have identified de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants in GRIA4 in five unrelated individuals with intellectual disability and other symptoms. GRIA4 encodes an AMPA receptor subunit known as GluR4, which is found on excitatory glutamatergic synapses and is important for learning and memory. Four of the variants are located in the highly conserved SYTANLAAF motif in the transmembrane protein M3, and the fifth is in an extra-cellular domain. Molecular modeling of the altered protein showed that three of the variants in the SYTANLAAF motif orient toward the center of the pore region and most likely lead to disturbance of the gating mechanism. The fourth variant in the SYTANLAAF motif most likely results in reduced permeability. The variant in the extracellular domain potentially interferes with the binding between the monomers. On the basis of clinical information and genetic results, and the fact that other subunits of the AMPA receptor have already been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, we suggest that pathogenic de novo variants in GRIA4 lead to intellectual disability with or without seizures, gait abnormalities, problems of social behavior, and other variable features.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Convulsões/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Comportamento Problema , Comportamento Social , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neurogenetics ; 18(4): 227-235, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29075935

RESUMO

Mitochondrial diseases are characterised by clinical, molecular and functional heterogeneity, reflecting their bi-genomic control. The nuclear gene GFM2 encodes mtEFG2, a protein with an essential role during the termination stage of mitochondrial translation. We present here two unrelated patients harbouring different and previously unreported compound heterozygous (c.569G>A, p.(Arg190Gln); c.636delA, p.(Glu213Argfs*3)) and homozygous (c.275A>C, p.(Tyr92Ser)) recessive variants in GFM2 identified by whole exome sequencing (WES) together with histochemical and biochemical findings to support the diagnoses of pathological GFM2 variants in each case. Both patients presented similarly in early childhood with global developmental delay, raised CSF lactate and abnormalities on cranial MRI. Sanger sequencing of familial samples confirmed the segregation of bi-allelic GFM2 variants with disease, while investigations into steady-state mitochondrial protein levels revealed respiratory chain subunit defects and loss of mtEFG2 protein in muscle. These data demonstrate the effects of defective mtEFG2 function, caused by previously unreported variants, confirming pathogenicity and expanding the clinical phenotypes associated with GFM2 variants.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Criança , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(11): 3098-3103, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884921

RESUMO

Mutations in GLE1 underlie Lethal Congenital Contracture syndrome (LCCS) and Lethal Arthrogryposis with Anterior Horn Cell Disease (LAAHD). Both LCCS and LAAHD are characterized by reduced fetal movements, congenital contractures, and a severe form of motor neuron disease that results in fetal death or death in the perinatal period, respectively. We identified bi-allelic mutations in GLE1 in two unrelated individuals with motor delays, feeding difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency who survived beyond the perinatal period. Each affected child had missense variants predicted to result in amino acid substitutions near the C-terminus of GLE1 that are predicted to disrupt protein-protein interaction or GLE1 protein targeting. We hypothesize that mutations that preserve function of the coiled-coil domain of GLE1 cause LAAHD whereas mutations that abolish the function of the coiled-coil domain cause LCCS. The phenotype of LAAHD is now expanded to include multiple individuals surviving into childhood suggesting that LAAHD is a misnomer and should be re-named Arthrogryposis with Anterior Horn Cell Disease (AAHD).


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Transtornos Motores/genética , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/genética , Artrogripose/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Motores/fisiopatologia , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Linhagem , Gravidez
20.
Hum Mutat ; 38(12): 1649-1659, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940506

RESUMO

F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 4 (FBXL4) is a mitochondrial protein whose exact function is not yet known. However, cellular studies have suggested that it plays significant roles in mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, and mitochondrial dynamics. Biallelic pathogenic variants in FBXL4 are associated with an encephalopathic mtDNA maintenance defect syndrome that is a multisystem disease characterized by lactic acidemia, developmental delay, and hypotonia. Other features are feeding difficulties, growth failure, microcephaly, hyperammonemia, seizures, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, elevated liver transaminases, recurrent infections, variable distinctive facial features, white matter abnormalities and cerebral atrophy found in neuroimaging, combined deficiencies of multiple electron transport complexes, and mtDNA depletion. Since its initial description in 2013, 36 different pathogenic variants in FBXL4 were reported in 50 affected individuals. In this report, we present 37 additional affected individuals and 11 previously unreported pathogenic variants. We summarize the clinical features of all 87 individuals with FBXL4-related mtDNA maintenance defect, review FBXL4 structure and function, map the 47 pathogenic variants onto the gene structure to assess the variants distribution, and investigate the genotype-phenotype correlation. Finally, we provide future directions to understand the disease mechanism and identify treatment strategies.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Acidose Láctica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Mitocôndrias/genética , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/epidemiologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Proteoma/genética
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