Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 100
Filtrar
1.
Mol Autism ; 12(1): 12, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition whose biological basis is yet to be elucidated. The Australian Autism Biobank (AAB) is an initiative of the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) to establish an Australian resource of biospecimens, phenotypes and genomic data for research on autism. METHODS: Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes were available for 2,477 individuals (after quality control) from 546 families (436 complete), including 886 participants aged 2 to 17 years with diagnosed (n = 871) or suspected (n = 15) ASD, 218 siblings without ASD, 1,256 parents, and 117 unrelated children without an ASD diagnosis. The genetic data were used to confirm familial relationships and assign ancestry, which was majority European (n = 1,964 European individuals). We generated polygenic scores (PGS) for ASD, IQ, chronotype and height in the subset of Europeans, and in 3,490 unrelated ancestry-matched participants from the UK Biobank. We tested for group differences for each PGS, and performed prediction analyses for related phenotypes in the AAB. We called copy-number variants (CNVs) in all participants, and intersected these with high-confidence ASD- and intellectual disability (ID)-associated CNVs and genes from the public domain. RESULTS: The ASD (p = 6.1e-13), sibling (p = 4.9e-3) and unrelated (p = 3.0e-3) groups had significantly higher ASD PGS than UK Biobank controls, whereas this was not the case for height-a control trait. The IQ PGS was a significant predictor of measured IQ in undiagnosed children (r = 0.24, p = 2.1e-3) and parents (r = 0.17, p = 8.0e-7; 4.0% of variance), but not the ASD group. Chronotype PGS predicted sleep disturbances within the ASD group (r = 0.13, p = 1.9e-3; 1.3% of variance). In the CNV analysis, we identified 13 individuals with CNVs overlapping ASD/ID-associated CNVs, and 12 with CNVs overlapping ASD/ID/developmental delay-associated genes identified on the basis of de novo variants. LIMITATIONS: This dataset is modest in size, and the publicly-available genome-wide-association-study (GWAS) summary statistics used to calculate PGS for ASD and other traits are relatively underpowered. CONCLUSIONS: We report on common genetic variation and rare CNVs within the AAB. Prediction analyses using currently available GWAS summary statistics are largely consistent with expected relationships based on published studies. As the size of publicly-available GWAS summary statistics grows, the phenotypic depth of the AAB dataset will provide many opportunities for analyses of autism profiles and co-occurring conditions, including when integrated with other omics datasets generated from AAB biospecimens (blood, urine, stool, hair).

2.
Cell Rep ; 33(4): 108323, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113361

RESUMO

We meta-analyze amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of European and Chinese populations (84,694 individuals). We find an additional significant association between rs58854276 spanning ACSL5-ZDHHC6 with ALS (p = 8.3 × 10-9), with replication in an independent Australian cohort (1,502 individuals; p = 0.037). Moreover, B4GALNT1, G2E3-SCFD1, and TRIP11-ATXN3 are identified using a gene-based analysis. ACSL5 has been associated with rapid weight loss, as has another ALS-associated gene, GPX3. Weight loss is frequent in ALS patients and is associated with shorter survival. We investigate the effect of the ACSL5 and GPX3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using longitudinal body composition and weight data of 77 patients and 77 controls. In patients' fat-free mass, although not significant, we observe an effect in the expected direction (rs58854276: -2.1 ± 1.3 kg/A allele, p = 0.053; rs3828599: -1.0 ± 1.3 kg/A allele, p = 0.22). No effect was observed in controls. Our findings support the increasing interest in lipid metabolism in ALS and link the disease genetics to weight loss in patients.

3.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(2): 109-111, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383421

RESUMO

Nick Martin is a pioneer in recognizing the need for large sample size to study the complex, heterogeneous and polygenic disorders of common mental disorders. In the predigital era, questionnaires were mailed to thousands of twin pairs around Australia. Always quick to adopt new technology, Nick's studies progressed to phone interviews and then online. Moreover, Nick was early to recognize the value of collecting DNA samples. As genotyping technologies improved over the years, these twin and family cohorts were used for linkage, candidate gene and genome-wide association studies. These cohorts have underpinned many analyses to disentangle the complex web of genetic and lifestyle factors associated with mental health. With characteristic foresight, Nick is chief investigator of our Australian Genetics of Depression Study, which has recruited 16,000 people with self-reported depression (plus DNA samples) over a time frame of a few months - analyses are currently ongoing. The mantra of sample size, sample size, sample size has guided Nick's research over the last 30 years and continues to do so.

4.
NPJ Genom Med ; 5: 10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140259

RESUMO

We conducted DNA methylation association analyses using Illumina 450K data from whole blood for an Australian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) case-control cohort (782 cases and 613 controls). Analyses used mixed linear models as implemented in the OSCA software. We found a significantly higher proportion of neutrophils in cases compared to controls which replicated in an independent cohort from the Netherlands (1159 cases and 637 controls). The OSCA MOMENT linear mixed model has been shown in simulations to best account for confounders. When combined in a methylation profile score, the 25 most-associated probes identified by MOMENT significantly classified case-control status in the Netherlands sample (area under the curve, AUC = 0.65, CI95% = [0.62-0.68], p = 8.3 × 10-22). The maximum AUC achieved was 0.69 (CI95% = [0.66-0.71], p = 4.3 × 10-34) when cell-type proportion was included in the predictor.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1238, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144264

RESUMO

An improved understanding of etiological mechanisms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is urgently needed because the number of affected individuals is projected to increase rapidly as populations age. We present results from a blood-based methylome-wide association study of PD involving meta-analysis of 229 K CpG probes in 1,132 cases and 999 controls from two independent cohorts. We identify two previously unreported epigenome-wide significant associations with PD, including cg06690548 on chromosome 4. We demonstrate that cg06690548 hypermethylation in PD is associated with down-regulation of the SLC7A11 gene and show this is consistent with an environmental exposure, as opposed to medications or genetic factors with effects on DNA methylation or gene expression. These findings are notable because SLC7A11 codes for a cysteine-glutamate anti-porter regulating levels of the antioxidant glutathione, and it is a known target of the environmental neurotoxin ß-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Our study identifies the SLC7A11 gene as a plausible biological target in PD.


Assuntos
Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Metilação de DNA , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Doença de Parkinson/sangue , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
6.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 54(1): 46-56, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current international trend is to create large datasets with existing data and/or deposit newly collected data into repositories accessible to the scientific community. These practices lead to more efficient data sharing, better detection of small effects, modelling of confounders, establishment of sample generalizability and identification of differences between any given disorders. In Australia, to facilitate such data-sharing and collaborative opportunities, the Neurobiology in Youth Mental Health Partnership was created. This initiative brings together specialised researchers from around Australia to work towards a better understanding of the cross-diagnostic neurobiology of youth mental health and the translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. One of the mandates of the partnership was to develop a protocol for harmonised prospective collection of data across research centres in the field of youth mental health in order to create large datasets. METHODS: Four key research modalities were identified: clinical assessments, brain imaging, neurocognitive assessment and collection of blood samples. This paper presents the consensus set of assessments/data collection that has been selected by experts in each domain. CONCLUSION: The use of this core set of data will facilitate the pooling of psychopathological and neurobiological data into large datasets allowing researchers to tackle important questions requiring very large numbers. The aspiration of this transdiagnostic approach is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying mental illnesses.


Assuntos
Big Data , Coleta de Dados , Disseminação de Informação , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Adulto Jovem
7.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 54, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation changes with age. Chronological age predictors built from DNA methylation are termed 'epigenetic clocks'. The deviation of predicted age from the actual age ('age acceleration residual', AAR) has been reported to be associated with death. However, it is currently unclear how a better prediction of chronological age affects such association. METHODS: In this study, we build multiple predictors based on training DNA methylation samples selected from 13,661 samples (13,402 from blood and 259 from saliva). We use the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921) and 1936 (LBC1936) to examine whether the association between AAR (from these predictors) and death is affected by (1) improving prediction accuracy of an age predictor as its training sample size increases (from 335 to 12,710) and (2) additionally correcting for confounders (i.e., cellular compositions). In addition, we investigated the performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues. RESULTS: We found that in principle, a near-perfect age predictor could be developed when the training sample size is sufficiently large. The association between AAR and mortality attenuates as prediction accuracy increases. AAR from our best predictor (based on Elastic Net, https://github.com/qzhang314/DNAm-based-age-predictor ) exhibits no association with mortality in both LBC1921 (hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27) and LBC1936 (hazard ratio = 1.00, 95% CI 0.79-1.28). Predictors based on small sample size are prone to confounding by cellular compositions relative to those from large sample size. We observed comparable performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues with a multi-tissue-based predictor. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the epigenetic clock can be improved by increasing the training sample size and that its association with mortality attenuates with increased prediction of chronological age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saliva
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Homocisteína/metabolismo , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metabolômica/métodos , Telômero , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encurtamento do Telômero
10.
J Neuroimmunol ; 328: 38-49, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579155

RESUMO

Pregnancy reduces the frequency of relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and parity also has a beneficial long term effect on disease outcome. We aimed to uncover the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial long-term effects of parity in MS. Genome-wide gene expression revealed 574 genes associated with parity; 38.3% showed significant DNA methylation changes (enrichment p = 0.029). These genes overlapped with previous MS genes in humans and a rat MS model and were overrepresented within axon guidance (P = 1.6e-05), developmental biology (P = 0.0094) and cell-cell communication (P = 0.019) pathways. This gene regulation could provide a basis for a protective effect of parity on the long-term outcome of MS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Paridade , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Gravidez , Ratos
11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 260, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498212

RESUMO

Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the most frequent complications of childbirth and particularly is suited to genetic investigation as it is more homogenous than major depression outside of the perinatal period. We developed an iOS app (PPD ACT) to recruit, consent, screen, and enable DNA collection from women with a lifetime history of PPD to sufficiently power genome-wide association studies. In 1 year, we recruited 7344 women with a history of PPD and have biobanked 2946 DNA samples from the US. This sample of PPD cases was notably severely affected and within 2 years of their worst episode of PPD. Clinical validation was performed within a hospital setting on a subset of participants and recall validity assessed 6-9 months after initial assessment to ensure reliability of screening tools. Here we detail the creation of the PPD ACT mobile app including design, ethical, security, and deployment considerations. We emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration to correctly implement such a research project. Additionally, we describe our ability to customize the PPD ACT platform to deploy internationally in order to collect a global sample of women with PPD.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17605, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514905

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of transcription. Genetic control of DNA methylation is a potential candidate for explaining the many identified SNP associations with disease that are not found in coding regions. We replicated 52,916 cis and 2,025 trans DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) using methylation from whole blood measured on Illumina HumanMethylation450 arrays in the Brisbane Systems Genetics Study (n = 614 from 177 families) and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 (combined n = 1366). The trans mQTL SNPs were found to be over-represented in 1 Mbp subtelomeric regions, and on chromosomes 16 and 19. There was a significant increase in trans mQTL DNA methylation sites in upstream and 5' UTR regions. The genetic heritability of a number of complex traits and diseases was partitioned into components due to mQTL and the remainder of the genome. Significant enrichment was observed for height (p = 2.1 × 10-10), ulcerative colitis (p = 2 × 10-5), Crohn's disease (p = 6 × 10-8) and coronary artery disease (p = 5.5 × 10-6) when compared to a random sample of SNPs with matched minor allele frequency, although this enrichment is explained by the genomic location of the mQTL SNPs.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4774, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429480

RESUMO

The total number of acquired melanocytic nevi on the skin is strongly correlated with melanoma risk. Here we report a meta-analysis of 11 nevus GWAS from Australia, Netherlands, UK, and USA comprising 52,506 individuals. We confirm known loci including MTAP, PLA2G6, and IRF4, and detect novel SNPs in KITLG and a region of 9q32. In a bivariate analysis combining the nevus results with a recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis (12,874 cases, 23,203 controls), SNPs near GPRC5A, CYP1B1, PPARGC1B, HDAC4, FAM208B, DOCK8, and SYNE2 reached global significance, and other loci, including MIR146A and OBFC1, reached a suggestive level. Overall, we conclude that most nevus genes affect melanoma risk (KITLG an exception), while many melanoma risk loci do not alter nevus count. For example, variants in TERC and OBFC1 affect both traits, but other telomere length maintenance genes seem to affect melanoma risk only. Our findings implicate multiple pathways in nevogenesis.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Melanoma/genética , Nevo Pigmentado/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fator de Células-Tronco/genética , Telomerase/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética
14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 74: 61-69, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors contribute to anorexia nervosa (AN); and the first genome-wide significant locus has been identified. We describe methods and procedures for the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI), an international collaboration designed to rapidly recruit 13,000 individuals with AN and ancestrally matched controls. We present sample characteristics and the utility of an online eating disorder diagnostic questionnaire suitable for large-scale genetic and population research. METHODS: ANGI recruited from the United States (US), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Sweden (SE), and Denmark (DK). Recruitment was via national registers (SE, DK); treatment centers (US, ANZ, SE, DK); and social and traditional media (US, ANZ, SE). All cases had a lifetime AN diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria (excluding amenorrhea). Recruited controls had no lifetime history of disordered eating behaviors. To assess the positive and negative predictive validity of the online eating disorder questionnaire (ED100K-v1), 109 women also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Module H. RESULTS: Blood samples and clinical information were collected from 13,363 individuals with lifetime AN and from controls. Online diagnostic phenotyping was effective and efficient; the validity of the questionnaire was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-pronged recruitment approach was highly effective for rapid recruitment and can be used as a model for efforts by other groups. High online presence of individuals with AN rendered the Internet/social media a remarkably effective recruitment tool in some countries. ANGI has substantially augmented Psychiatric Genomics Consortium AN sample collection. ANGI is a registered clinical trial: clinicaltrials.govNCT01916538; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01916538?cond=Anorexia+Nervosa&draw=1&rank=3.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Seleção de Pacientes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 64(1): 49-54, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865051

RESUMO

Cohort studies investigating aging and dementia require APOE genotyping. We compared directly measured APOE genotypes to 'hard-call' genotypes derived from imputing genome-wide genotyping data from a range of platforms using several imputation panels. Older GWAS arrays imputed to 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) phases and the Haplotype Reference Consortium (HRC) reference panels were able to achieve concordance rates of over 98% with stringent quality control (hard-call-threshold 0.8). However, this resulted in high levels of missingness (>12% with 1KGP and 5% with HRC). With recent GWAS arrays, concordance of 99% could be obtained with relatively lenient QC, resulting in no missingness.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(10): 1016-1023, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hypermetabolism, relative to body composition, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its relationship with clinical features of disease and survival. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with clinically definite or probable ALS as defined by El Escorial criteria, and 58 age and sex-matched control participants underwent assessment of energy expenditure. Our primary outcome was the prevalence of hypermetabolism in cases and controls. Longitudinal changes in clinical parameters between hypermetabolic and normometabolic patients with ALS were determined for up to 12 months following metabolic assessment. Survival was monitored over a 30-month period following metabolic assessment. RESULTS: Hypermetabolism was more prevalent in patients with ALS than controls (41% vs 12%, adjusted OR=5.4; p<0.01). Change in body weight, body mass index and fat mass (%) was similar between normometabolic and hypermetabolic patients with ALS. Mean lower motor neuron score (SD) was greater in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (4 (0.3) vs 3 (0.7); p=0.04). In the 12 months following metabolic assessment, there was a greater change in Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale score in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (-0.68 points/month vs -0.39 points/month; p=0.01). Hypermetabolism was inversely associated with survival. Overall, hypermetabolism increased the risk of death during follow-up to 220% (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.4, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Hypermetabolic patients with ALS have a greater level of lower motor neuron involvement, faster rate of functional decline and shorter survival. The metabolic index could be important for informing prognosis in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Cancer Med ; 7(5): 1978-1987, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608257

RESUMO

Epidemiological, biological, and molecular data suggest links between endometriosis and endometrial cancer, with recent epidemiological studies providing evidence for an association between a previous diagnosis of endometriosis and risk of endometrial cancer. We used genetic data as an alternative approach to investigate shared biological etiology of these two diseases. Genetic correlation analysis of summary level statistics from genomewide association studies (GWAS) using LD Score regression revealed moderate but significant genetic correlation (rg  = 0.23, P = 9.3 × 10-3 ), and SNP effect concordance analysis provided evidence for significant SNP pleiotropy (P = 6.0 × 10-3 ) and concordance in effect direction (P = 2.0 × 10-3 ) between the two diseases. Cross-disease GWAS meta-analysis highlighted 13 distinct loci associated at P ≤ 10-5 with both endometriosis and endometrial cancer, with one locus (SNP rs2475335) located within PTPRD associated at a genomewide significant level (P = 4.9 × 10-8 , OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07-1.15). PTPRD acts in the STAT3 pathway, which has been implicated in both endometriosis and endometrial cancer. This study demonstrates the value of cross-disease genetic analysis to support epidemiological observations and to identify biological pathways of relevance to multiple diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Endometriose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 84(2): 138-147, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of genetic effects on major depressive disorder (MDD) may be partly attributable to moderation of genetic effects by environment, such as exposure to childhood trauma (CT). Indeed, previous findings in two independent cohorts showed evidence for interaction between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and CT, albeit in opposing directions. This study aims to meta-analyze MDD-PRS × CT interaction results across these two and other cohorts, while applying more accurate PRSs based on a larger discovery sample. METHODS: Data were combined from 3024 MDD cases and 2741 control subjects from nine cohorts contributing to the MDD Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. MDD-PRS were based on a discovery sample of ∼110,000 independent individuals. CT was assessed as exposure to sexual or physical abuse during childhood. In a subset of 1957 cases and 2002 control subjects, a more detailed five-domain measure additionally included emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. RESULTS: MDD was associated with the MDD-PRS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, p = 3.6 × 10-5, R2 = 1.18%) and with CT (OR = 2.63, p = 3.5 × 10-18 and OR = 2.62, p = 1.4 ×10-5 for the two- and five-domain measures, respectively). No interaction was found between MDD-PRS and the two-domain and five-domain CT measure (OR = 1.00, p = .89 and OR = 1.05, p = .66). CONCLUSIONS: No meta-analytic evidence for interaction between MDD-PRS and CT was found. This suggests that the previously reported interaction effects, although both statistically significant, can best be interpreted as chance findings. Further research is required, but this study suggests that the genetic heterogeneity of MDD is not attributable to genome-wide moderation of genetic effects by CT.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 97, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease characterised by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are responsible for voluntary movement. There remains limited understanding of disease aetiology, with median survival of ALS of three years and no effective treatment. Identifying genes that contribute to ALS susceptibility is an important step towards understanding aetiology. The vast majority of published human genetic studies, including for ALS, have used samples of European ancestry. The importance of trans-ethnic studies in human genetic studies is widely recognised, yet a dearth of studies of non-European ancestries remains. Here, we report analyses of novel whole-exome sequencing (WES) data from Chinese ALS and control individuals. METHODS: WES data were generated for 610 ALS cases and 460 controls drawn from Chinese populations. We assessed evidence for an excess of rare damaging mutations at the gene level and the gene set level, considering only singleton variants filtered to have allele frequency less than 5 × 10-5 in reference databases. To meta-analyse our results with a published study of European ancestry, we used a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to compare gene-level variant counts in cases vs controls. RESULTS: No gene passed the genome-wide significance threshold with ALS in Chinese samples alone. Combining rare variant counts in Chinese with those from the largest WES study of European ancestry resulted in three genes surpassing genome-wide significance: TBK1 (p = 8.3 × 10-12), SOD1 (p = 8.9 × 10-9) and NEK1 (p = 1.1 × 10-9). In the Chinese data alone, SOD1 and NEK1 were nominally significantly associated with ALS (p = 0.04 and p = 7 × 10-3, respectively) and the case/control frequencies of rare coding variants in these genes were similar in Chinese and Europeans (SOD1: 1.5%/0.2% vs 0.9%/0.1%, NEK1 1.8%/0.4% vs 1.9%/0.8%). This was also true for TBK1 (1.2%/0.2% vs 1.4%/0.4%), but the association with ALS in Chinese was not significant (p = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: While SOD1 is already recognised as an ALS-associated gene in Chinese, we provide novel evidence for association of NEK1 with ALS in Chinese, reporting variants in these genes not previously found in Europeans.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Quinase 1 Relacionada a NIMA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 611, 2017 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931804

RESUMO

Cross-ethnic genetic studies can leverage power from differences in disease epidemiology and population-specific genetic architecture. In particular, the differences in linkage disequilibrium and allele frequency patterns across ethnic groups may increase gene-mapping resolution. Here we use cross-ethnic genetic data in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset, rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease. We report analyses of novel genome-wide association study data of 1,234 ALS cases and 2,850 controls. We find a significant association of rs10463311 spanning GPX3-TNIP1 with ALS (p = 1.3 × 10-8), with replication support from two independent Australian samples (combined 576 cases and 683 controls, p = 1.7 × 10-3). Both GPX3 and TNIP1 interact with other known ALS genes (SOD1 and OPTN, respectively). In addition, GGNBP2 was identified using gene-based analysis and summary statistics-based Mendelian randomization analysis, although further replication is needed to confirm this result. Our results increase our understanding of genetic aetiology of ALS.Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease. Here, Wray and colleagues identify association of the GPX3-TNIP1 locus with ALS using cross-ethnic meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etnologia , Austrália , China , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...