Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 95
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.

2.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 54, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation changes with age. Chronological age predictors built from DNA methylation are termed 'epigenetic clocks'. The deviation of predicted age from the actual age ('age acceleration residual', AAR) has been reported to be associated with death. However, it is currently unclear how a better prediction of chronological age affects such association. METHODS: In this study, we build multiple predictors based on training DNA methylation samples selected from 13,661 samples (13,402 from blood and 259 from saliva). We use the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921) and 1936 (LBC1936) to examine whether the association between AAR (from these predictors) and death is affected by (1) improving prediction accuracy of an age predictor as its training sample size increases (from 335 to 12,710) and (2) additionally correcting for confounders (i.e., cellular compositions). In addition, we investigated the performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues. RESULTS: We found that in principle, a near-perfect age predictor could be developed when the training sample size is sufficiently large. The association between AAR and mortality attenuates as prediction accuracy increases. AAR from our best predictor (based on Elastic Net, https://github.com/qzhang314/DNAm-based-age-predictor ) exhibits no association with mortality in both LBC1921 (hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27) and LBC1936 (hazard ratio = 1.00, 95% CI 0.79-1.28). Predictors based on small sample size are prone to confounding by cellular compositions relative to those from large sample size. We observed comparable performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues with a multi-tissue-based predictor. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the epigenetic clock can be improved by increasing the training sample size and that its association with mortality attenuates with increased prediction of chronological age.

3.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867419844322, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current international trend is to create large datasets with existing data and/or deposit newly collected data into repositories accessible to the scientific community. These practices lead to more efficient data sharing, better detection of small effects, modelling of confounders, establishment of sample generalizability and identification of differences between any given disorders. In Australia, to facilitate such data-sharing and collaborative opportunities, the Neurobiology in Youth Mental Health Partnership was created. This initiative brings together specialised researchers from around Australia to work towards a better understanding of the cross-diagnostic neurobiology of youth mental health and the translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. One of the mandates of the partnership was to develop a protocol for harmonised prospective collection of data across research centres in the field of youth mental health in order to create large datasets. METHODS: Four key research modalities were identified: clinical assessments, brain imaging, neurocognitive assessment and collection of blood samples. This paper presents the consensus set of assessments/data collection that has been selected by experts in each domain. CONCLUSION: The use of this core set of data will facilitate the pooling of psychopathological and neurobiological data into large datasets allowing researchers to tackle important questions requiring very large numbers. The aspiration of this transdiagnostic approach is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying mental illnesses.

5.
J Neuroimmunol ; 328: 38-49, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579155

RESUMO

Pregnancy reduces the frequency of relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and parity also has a beneficial long term effect on disease outcome. We aimed to uncover the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial long-term effects of parity in MS. Genome-wide gene expression revealed 574 genes associated with parity; 38.3% showed significant DNA methylation changes (enrichment p = 0.029). These genes overlapped with previous MS genes in humans and a rat MS model and were overrepresented within axon guidance (P = 1.6e-05), developmental biology (P = 0.0094) and cell-cell communication (P = 0.019) pathways. This gene regulation could provide a basis for a protective effect of parity on the long-term outcome of MS.

6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17605, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514905

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of transcription. Genetic control of DNA methylation is a potential candidate for explaining the many identified SNP associations with disease that are not found in coding regions. We replicated 52,916 cis and 2,025 trans DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) using methylation from whole blood measured on Illumina HumanMethylation450 arrays in the Brisbane Systems Genetics Study (n = 614 from 177 families) and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 (combined n = 1366). The trans mQTL SNPs were found to be over-represented in 1 Mbp subtelomeric regions, and on chromosomes 16 and 19. There was a significant increase in trans mQTL DNA methylation sites in upstream and 5' UTR regions. The genetic heritability of a number of complex traits and diseases was partitioned into components due to mQTL and the remainder of the genome. Significant enrichment was observed for height (p = 2.1 × 10-10), ulcerative colitis (p = 2 × 10-5), Crohn's disease (p = 6 × 10-8) and coronary artery disease (p = 5.5 × 10-6) when compared to a random sample of SNPs with matched minor allele frequency, although this enrichment is explained by the genomic location of the mQTL SNPs.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 260, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498212

RESUMO

Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the most frequent complications of childbirth and particularly is suited to genetic investigation as it is more homogenous than major depression outside of the perinatal period. We developed an iOS app (PPD ACT) to recruit, consent, screen, and enable DNA collection from women with a lifetime history of PPD to sufficiently power genome-wide association studies. In 1 year, we recruited 7344 women with a history of PPD and have biobanked 2946 DNA samples from the US. This sample of PPD cases was notably severely affected and within 2 years of their worst episode of PPD. Clinical validation was performed within a hospital setting on a subset of participants and recall validity assessed 6-9 months after initial assessment to ensure reliability of screening tools. Here we detail the creation of the PPD ACT mobile app including design, ethical, security, and deployment considerations. We emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration to correctly implement such a research project. Additionally, we describe our ability to customize the PPD ACT platform to deploy internationally in order to collect a global sample of women with PPD.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4774, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429480

RESUMO

The total number of acquired melanocytic nevi on the skin is strongly correlated with melanoma risk. Here we report a meta-analysis of 11 nevus GWAS from Australia, Netherlands, UK, and USA comprising 52,506 individuals. We confirm known loci including MTAP, PLA2G6, and IRF4, and detect novel SNPs in KITLG and a region of 9q32. In a bivariate analysis combining the nevus results with a recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis (12,874 cases, 23,203 controls), SNPs near GPRC5A, CYP1B1, PPARGC1B, HDAC4, FAM208B, DOCK8, and SYNE2 reached global significance, and other loci, including MIR146A and OBFC1, reached a suggestive level. Overall, we conclude that most nevus genes affect melanoma risk (KITLG an exception), while many melanoma risk loci do not alter nevus count. For example, variants in TERC and OBFC1 affect both traits, but other telomere length maintenance genes seem to affect melanoma risk only. Our findings implicate multiple pathways in nevogenesis.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 74: 61-69, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors contribute to anorexia nervosa (AN); and the first genome-wide significant locus has been identified. We describe methods and procedures for the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI), an international collaboration designed to rapidly recruit 13,000 individuals with AN and ancestrally matched controls. We present sample characteristics and the utility of an online eating disorder diagnostic questionnaire suitable for large-scale genetic and population research. METHODS: ANGI recruited from the United States (US), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Sweden (SE), and Denmark (DK). Recruitment was via national registers (SE, DK); treatment centers (US, ANZ, SE, DK); and social and traditional media (US, ANZ, SE). All cases had a lifetime AN diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria (excluding amenorrhea). Recruited controls had no lifetime history of disordered eating behaviors. To assess the positive and negative predictive validity of the online eating disorder questionnaire (ED100K-v1), 109 women also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Module H. RESULTS: Blood samples and clinical information were collected from 13,363 individuals with lifetime AN and from controls. Online diagnostic phenotyping was effective and efficient; the validity of the questionnaire was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-pronged recruitment approach was highly effective for rapid recruitment and can be used as a model for efforts by other groups. High online presence of individuals with AN rendered the Internet/social media a remarkably effective recruitment tool in some countries. ANGI has substantially augmented Psychiatric Genomics Consortium AN sample collection. ANGI is a registered clinical trial: clinicaltrials.govNCT01916538; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01916538?cond=Anorexia+Nervosa&draw=1&rank=3.

10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 64(1): 49-54, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865051

RESUMO

Cohort studies investigating aging and dementia require APOE genotyping. We compared directly measured APOE genotypes to 'hard-call' genotypes derived from imputing genome-wide genotyping data from a range of platforms using several imputation panels. Older GWAS arrays imputed to 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) phases and the Haplotype Reference Consortium (HRC) reference panels were able to achieve concordance rates of over 98% with stringent quality control (hard-call-threshold 0.8). However, this resulted in high levels of missingness (>12% with 1KGP and 5% with HRC). With recent GWAS arrays, concordance of 99% could be obtained with relatively lenient QC, resulting in no missingness.

11.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(10): 1016-1023, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hypermetabolism, relative to body composition, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its relationship with clinical features of disease and survival. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with clinically definite or probable ALS as defined by El Escorial criteria, and 58 age and sex-matched control participants underwent assessment of energy expenditure. Our primary outcome was the prevalence of hypermetabolism in cases and controls. Longitudinal changes in clinical parameters between hypermetabolic and normometabolic patients with ALS were determined for up to 12 months following metabolic assessment. Survival was monitored over a 30-month period following metabolic assessment. RESULTS: Hypermetabolism was more prevalent in patients with ALS than controls (41% vs 12%, adjusted OR=5.4; p<0.01). Change in body weight, body mass index and fat mass (%) was similar between normometabolic and hypermetabolic patients with ALS. Mean lower motor neuron score (SD) was greater in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (4 (0.3) vs 3 (0.7); p=0.04). In the 12 months following metabolic assessment, there was a greater change in Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale score in hypermetabolic patients when compared with normometabolic patients (-0.68 points/month vs -0.39 points/month; p=0.01). Hypermetabolism was inversely associated with survival. Overall, hypermetabolism increased the risk of death during follow-up to 220% (HR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.4, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Hypermetabolic patients with ALS have a greater level of lower motor neuron involvement, faster rate of functional decline and shorter survival. The metabolic index could be important for informing prognosis in ALS.

12.
Cancer Med ; 7(5): 1978-1987, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608257

RESUMO

Epidemiological, biological, and molecular data suggest links between endometriosis and endometrial cancer, with recent epidemiological studies providing evidence for an association between a previous diagnosis of endometriosis and risk of endometrial cancer. We used genetic data as an alternative approach to investigate shared biological etiology of these two diseases. Genetic correlation analysis of summary level statistics from genomewide association studies (GWAS) using LD Score regression revealed moderate but significant genetic correlation (rg  = 0.23, P = 9.3 × 10-3 ), and SNP effect concordance analysis provided evidence for significant SNP pleiotropy (P = 6.0 × 10-3 ) and concordance in effect direction (P = 2.0 × 10-3 ) between the two diseases. Cross-disease GWAS meta-analysis highlighted 13 distinct loci associated at P ≤ 10-5 with both endometriosis and endometrial cancer, with one locus (SNP rs2475335) located within PTPRD associated at a genomewide significant level (P = 4.9 × 10-8 , OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07-1.15). PTPRD acts in the STAT3 pathway, which has been implicated in both endometriosis and endometrial cancer. This study demonstrates the value of cross-disease genetic analysis to support epidemiological observations and to identify biological pathways of relevance to multiple diseases.

13.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of genetic effects on major depressive disorder (MDD) may be partly attributable to moderation of genetic effects by environment, such as exposure to childhood trauma (CT). Indeed, previous findings in two independent cohorts showed evidence for interaction between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and CT, albeit in opposing directions. This study aims to meta-analyze MDD-PRS × CT interaction results across these two and other cohorts, while applying more accurate PRSs based on a larger discovery sample. METHODS: Data were combined from 3024 MDD cases and 2741 control subjects from nine cohorts contributing to the MDD Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. MDD-PRS were based on a discovery sample of ∼110,000 independent individuals. CT was assessed as exposure to sexual or physical abuse during childhood. In a subset of 1957 cases and 2002 control subjects, a more detailed five-domain measure additionally included emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. RESULTS: MDD was associated with the MDD-PRS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, p = 3.6 × 10-5, R2 = 1.18%) and with CT (OR = 2.63, p = 3.5 × 10-18 and OR = 2.62, p = 1.4 ×10-5 for the two- and five-domain measures, respectively). No interaction was found between MDD-PRS and the two-domain and five-domain CT measure (OR = 1.00, p = .89 and OR = 1.05, p = .66). CONCLUSIONS: No meta-analytic evidence for interaction between MDD-PRS and CT was found. This suggests that the previously reported interaction effects, although both statistically significant, can best be interpreted as chance findings. Further research is required, but this study suggests that the genetic heterogeneity of MDD is not attributable to genome-wide moderation of genetic effects by CT.

14.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 97, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease characterised by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are responsible for voluntary movement. There remains limited understanding of disease aetiology, with median survival of ALS of three years and no effective treatment. Identifying genes that contribute to ALS susceptibility is an important step towards understanding aetiology. The vast majority of published human genetic studies, including for ALS, have used samples of European ancestry. The importance of trans-ethnic studies in human genetic studies is widely recognised, yet a dearth of studies of non-European ancestries remains. Here, we report analyses of novel whole-exome sequencing (WES) data from Chinese ALS and control individuals. METHODS: WES data were generated for 610 ALS cases and 460 controls drawn from Chinese populations. We assessed evidence for an excess of rare damaging mutations at the gene level and the gene set level, considering only singleton variants filtered to have allele frequency less than 5 × 10-5 in reference databases. To meta-analyse our results with a published study of European ancestry, we used a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to compare gene-level variant counts in cases vs controls. RESULTS: No gene passed the genome-wide significance threshold with ALS in Chinese samples alone. Combining rare variant counts in Chinese with those from the largest WES study of European ancestry resulted in three genes surpassing genome-wide significance: TBK1 (p = 8.3 × 10-12), SOD1 (p = 8.9 × 10-9) and NEK1 (p = 1.1 × 10-9). In the Chinese data alone, SOD1 and NEK1 were nominally significantly associated with ALS (p = 0.04 and p = 7 × 10-3, respectively) and the case/control frequencies of rare coding variants in these genes were similar in Chinese and Europeans (SOD1: 1.5%/0.2% vs 0.9%/0.1%, NEK1 1.8%/0.4% vs 1.9%/0.8%). This was also true for TBK1 (1.2%/0.2% vs 1.4%/0.4%), but the association with ALS in Chinese was not significant (p = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: While SOD1 is already recognised as an ALS-associated gene in Chinese, we provide novel evidence for association of NEK1 with ALS in Chinese, reporting variants in these genes not previously found in Europeans.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Quinase 1 Relacionada a NIMA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 611, 2017 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931804

RESUMO

Cross-ethnic genetic studies can leverage power from differences in disease epidemiology and population-specific genetic architecture. In particular, the differences in linkage disequilibrium and allele frequency patterns across ethnic groups may increase gene-mapping resolution. Here we use cross-ethnic genetic data in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset, rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease. We report analyses of novel genome-wide association study data of 1,234 ALS cases and 2,850 controls. We find a significant association of rs10463311 spanning GPX3-TNIP1 with ALS (p = 1.3 × 10-8), with replication support from two independent Australian samples (combined 576 cases and 683 controls, p = 1.7 × 10-3). Both GPX3 and TNIP1 interact with other known ALS genes (SOD1 and OPTN, respectively). In addition, GGNBP2 was identified using gene-based analysis and summary statistics-based Mendelian randomization analysis, although further replication is needed to confirm this result. Our results increase our understanding of genetic aetiology of ALS.Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease. Here, Wray and colleagues identify association of the GPX3-TNIP1 locus with ALS using cross-ethnic meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etnologia , Austrália , China , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 94: 148-155, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715705

RESUMO

Lower levels of circulating iron have been associated with depression. Our objective was to investigate the phenotypic and genetic relationship between measures of circulating levels of iron (serum iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, and ferritin) and depressive symptoms. Data were available from ongoing studies at QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMRB), including twin adolescents (mean age 15.1 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.2 years), and twin adults (mean age 23.2 years, SD 2.2 years). In the adolescent cohort, there were 3416 participants from 1688 families. In the adult cohort there were 9035 participants from 4533 families. We estimated heritabilities of, and phenotypic and genetic correlations between, traits. We conducted analyses that linked results from published large-scale genome-wide association studies (including iron and Major Depressive Disorder) with our study samples using single SNP and multi-SNP genetic risk score analyses, and LD score regression analyses. In both cohorts, measures of iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation, and log 10 of ferritin (L10Fer) were all highly heritable, while depressive measures were moderately heritable. In adolescents, depression measures were higher in those in the middle 10th versus top 10th percentile of transferrin saturation measures (p = 0.002). Genetic profile risk scores of the iron measures were not significantly associated with depression in study participants. LD score analyses showed no significant genetic relationship between iron and depression. Genetic factors strongly influence iron measures in adolescents and adults. Using several different strategies we find no evidence for a genetic contribution to the relationship between blood measures of iron and measures of depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Ferritinas/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Ferro/sangue , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferrina/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Queensland/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(4): 418-428, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene discovery has provided remarkable biological insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One challenge for clinical application of genetic testing is critical evaluation of the significance of reported variants. METHODS: We use whole exome sequencing (WES) to develop a clinically relevant approach to identify a subset of ALS patients harboring likely pathogenic mutations. In parallel, we assess if DNA methylation can be used to screen for pathogenicity of novel variants since a methylation signature has been shown to associate with the pathogenic C9orf72 expansion, but has not been explored for other ALS mutations. Australian patients identified with ALS-relevant variants were cross-checked with population databases and case reports to critically assess whether they were "likely causal," "uncertain significance," or "unlikely causal." RESULTS: Published ALS variants were identified in >10% of patients; however, in only 3% of patients (4/120) could these be confidently considered pathogenic (in SOD1 and TARDBP). We found no evidence for a differential DNA methylation signature in these mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS: The use of WES in a typical ALS clinic demonstrates a critical approach to variant assessment with the capability to combine cohorts to enhance the largely unknown genetic basis of ALS.

18.
J Invest Dermatol ; 137(9): 1887-1894, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502801

RESUMO

Loss of fine skin patterning is a sign of both aging and photoaging. Studies investigating the genetic contribution to skin patterning offer an opportunity to better understand a trait that influences both physical appearance and risk of keratinocyte skin cancer. We undertook a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of a measure of skin pattern (microtopography score) damage in 1,671 twin pairs and 1,745 singletons (N = 5,087) drawn from three independent cohorts. We identified that rs185146 near SLC45A2 is associated with a skin aging trait at genome-wide significance (P = 4.1 × 10-9); to our knowledge this is previously unreported. We also confirm previously identified loci, rs12203592 near IRF4 (P = 8.8 × 10-13) and rs4268748 near MC1R (P = 1.2 × 10-15). At all three loci we highlight putative functionally relevant SNPs. There are a number of red hair/low pigmentation alleles of MC1R; we found that together these MC1R alleles explained 4.1% of variance in skin pattern damage. We also show that skin aging and reported experience of sunburns was proportional to the degree of penetrance for red hair of alleles of MC1R. Our work has uncovered genetic contributions to skin aging and confirmed previous findings, showing that pigmentation is a critical determinant of skin aging.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Envelhecimento da Pele/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valores de Referência , Papel (figurativo) , Pigmentação da Pele/genética
19.
Hum Reprod ; 32(4): 893-904, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177073

RESUMO

Study question: Do genetic effects regulate gene expression in human endometrium? Summary answer: This study demonstrated strong genetic effects on endometrial gene expression and some evidence for genetic regulation of gene expression in a menstrual cycle stage-specific manner. What is known already: Genetic effects on expression levels for many genes are tissue specific. Endometrial gene expression varies across menstrual cycle stages and between individuals, but there are limited data on genetic control of expression in endometrium. Study design, size, duration: We analysed genome-wide genotype and gene expression data to map cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in endometrium. Participants/materials, setting, methods: We recruited 123 women of European ancestry. DNA samples from blood were genotyped on Illumina HumanCoreExome chips. Total RNA was extracted from endometrial tissues. Whole-transcriptome profiles were characterized using Illumina Human HT-12 v4.0 Expression Beadchips. We performed eQTL mapping with ~8 000 000 genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 12 329 genes. Main results and the role of chance: We identified a total of 18 595 cis SNP-probe associations at a study-wide level of significance (P < 1 × 10-7), which correspond to independent eQTLs for 198 unique genes. The eQTLs with the largest effect in endometrial tissue were rs4902335 for CHURC1 (P = 1.05 × 10-32) and rs147253019 for ZP3 (P = 8.22 × 10-30). We further performed a context-specific eQTL analysis to investigate if genetic effects on gene expression regulation act in a menstrual cycle-specific manner. Interestingly, five cis-eQTLs were identified with a significant stage-by-genotype interaction. The strongest stage interaction was the eQTL for C10ORF33 (PYROXD2) with SNP rs2296438 (P = 2.0 × 10-4), where we observe a 2-fold difference in the average expression levels of heterozygous samples depending on the stage of the menstrual cycle. Large scale data: The summary eQTL results are publicly available to browse or download. Limitations, reasons for caution: A limitation of the present study was the relatively modest sample size. It was not powered to identify trans-eQTLs and larger sample sizes will also be needed to provide better power to detect cis-eQTLs and cycle stage-specific effects, given the substantial changes in expression across the menstrual cycle for many genes. Wider implications of the findings: Identification of endometrial eQTLs provides a platform for better understanding genetic effects on endometriosis risk and other endometrial-related pathologies. Study funding/competing interest(s): Funding for this work was provided by NHMRC Project Grants GNT1026033, GNT1049472, GNT1046880, GNT1050208, GNT1105321 and APP1083405. There are no competing interests.


Assuntos
Endométrio/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ciclo Menstrual/genética , Transcriptoma , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
20.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(5): 911-928, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28226201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence (AD) shows evidence for genetic liability, but genes influencing risk remain largely unidentified. METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study in 706 related AD cases and 1,748 unscreened population controls from Ireland. We sought replication in 15,496 samples of European descent. We used model organisms (MOs) to assess the role of orthologous genes in ethanol (EtOH)-response behaviors. We tested 1 primate-specific gene for expression differences in case/control postmortem brain tissue. RESULTS: We detected significant association in COL6A3 and suggestive association in 2 previously implicated loci, KLF12 and RYR3. None of these signals are significant in replication. A suggestive signal in the long noncoding RNA LOC339975 is significant in case:control meta-analysis, but not in a population sample. Knockdown of a COL6A3 ortholog in Caenorhabditis elegans reduced EtOH sensitivity. Col6a3 expression correlated with handling-induced convulsions in mice. Loss of function of the KLF12 ortholog in C. elegans impaired development of acute functional tolerance (AFT). Klf12 expression correlated with locomotor activation following EtOH injection in mice. Loss of function of the RYR3 ortholog reduced EtOH sensitivity in C. elegans and rapid tolerance in Drosophila. The ryanodine receptor antagonist dantrolene reduced motivation to self-administer EtOH in rats. Expression of LOC339975 does not differ between cases and controls but is reduced in carriers of the associated rs11726136 allele in nucleus accumbens (NAc). CONCLUSIONS: We detect association between AD and COL6A3, KLF12, RYR3, and LOC339975. Despite nonreplication of COL6A3, KLF12, and RYR3 signals, orthologs of these genes influence behavioral response to EtOH in MOs, suggesting potential involvement in human EtOH response and AD liability. The associated LOC339975 allele may influence gene expression in human NAc. Although the functions of long noncoding RNAs are poorly understood, there is mounting evidence implicating these genes in multiple brain functions and disorders.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Modelos Animais , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA